WorldCat Identities

Canfield, Dennis V. 1943-

Overview
Works: 55 works in 154 publications in 1 language and 4,760 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 615.1901
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Dennis V Canfield
Role of metabolites in aviation forensic toxicology : final report by Arvind K Chaturvedi( )

5 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 359 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In aviation accident investigations, specimens from fatal aircraft victims are analyzed for drugs. Their presence indicates exposure to drugs and suggests possible associated medical conditions for which they might have been taken. As drugs are mostly present in therapeutic to subtherapeutic levels in aviation forensic toxicology cases, determination of parent drugs and their metabolites in multi specimens is of significance. Although chemically reactive metabolites are difficult to detect, physiologically active and inactive metabolites can be analyzed. Selective and sensitive techniques are available, but unavailability of metabolite reference standards, endogenous substance interference, and low tissue metabolite levels limit the analyses. However, the majority of primary metabolites can be effectively characterized/quantitated. Demonstrating the presence of drug (e.g., terfenadine, cocaine, THC) metabolites provides a compelling evidence for exposure to the parent drug and facilitates interpretation of results, particularly when the metabolites are active. Such analyses are not as helpful if the metabolites are also available as drugs (e.g., diazepam, temazepam, oxazepam)
Increased cannabinoids concentrations found in specimens from fatal aviation accidents between 1997 and 2006( )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 246 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's toxicology laboratory receives biological specimens from more than 90% of all fatal aviation accidents that occur in the United States and its territories. As a part of the routine analysis of pilot specimens, the laboratory tests all cases for the presence of marijuana (cannabis). The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) reported a 1.5-fold increase in the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of street cannabis seizures from 1997-2001 to 2002-2006. This study was conducted to compare the changes, over those years, in blood and urine cannabinoid concentrations with the potency of THC reported in the cannabis plant. In our laboratory, cannabinoids are screened using radioimmunoassay (RIA) for blood and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for urine and confirmed using GC/MS. A total of 95 individuals were found to be using cannabis from a total number of 2769 (3.4%) individuals tested over the period 1997 through 2006. Blood was received for analysis from 1676 fatally injured individuals. Urine was received for analyses from 1650 fatalities. Cannabinoids were found in 88 of the 1676 (5.3%) blood specimens received for analysis, and 64 of the 88 were from pilots. Cannabinoids were found in 68 of the 1650 (4.1%) urine specimens received for analysis, and 57 of the 68 were from pilots. Other impairing drugs were found in 39% of the cannabinoids-positive individuals."--Page i
Postmortem ethanol testing procedures available to accident investigators( )

7 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 240 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"An ethanol positive fatal case reported as being from ingestion was ultimately determined to be from postmortem ethanol production using the ratio of two serotonin metabolites found in urine. This case involved a transportation accident that could have resulted in additional hardships for the victim's family through loss of compensation and reputation."--Page i
An accurate method for the determination of carbon monoxide in postmortem blood using GC/TCD by Russell J Lewis( )

4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 237 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem samples from accident victims are submitted to the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. To determine if the accident victim was exposed to an in-flight/post crash fire or faulry heating/exhaust system, the analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) is conducted. While our laboratory predominantly uses a spectrophotometric method for the determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), we consider it essential to confirm with a second technique based on a different analytical principle. Our laboratory encountered difficulties with many of our postmortem samples while employing a commonly used CC method. We believed these problems were due to elevated methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration in our specimens. MetHb does not bind CO, thus elevated MetHb levels will result in a loss of CO binding capacity. Since most commonly employed CC methods determine %COHb from a ratio of unsaturated blood to CO-saturated blood, a loss of CO binding capacity will result in an erroneously high %COHb value. Our laboratory has developed a new CC method for the determination of %COHb that incorporates sodium dithionite, which will reduce any MetHb present to Hb. Using numerous fresh human blood controls ranging from 1% to 67% COHb, we found no statistically significant differences between %COHb results from our new CC method and our spectrophotometric method. We then applied our new CC method to putrefied and non-putrefied postmortem samples. To validate the new CC method, postmortem samples were analyzed with our existing spectrophotometric method, a CC method commonly used without reducing agent, and our new CC method with the addition of sodium dithionite. As expected, we saw errors up to and exceeding 50% when comparing the unreduced CC results with our spectrophotometric method. With our new CC procedure, which incorporates a reducing agent, the error was virtually eliminated
Interpretation of carboxyhemoglobin and cyanide concentrations in relation to aviation accidents by Dennis V Canfield( )

6 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 236 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are combustion products of organic material, but their production depends on material constituents and environmental conditions. Non-nitrogenous organic materials generate CO, whereas nitrogenous organic materials also produce HCN. For fire-involved aviation accidents, it is important to determine if the fire occurred during flight or after the crash and to establish the source(s) of the toxic gases. Therefore, this study was pursued
Distribution of butalbital in biological fluids and tissues by Russell J Lewis( )

3 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 229 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Comparison of pilot medical history and medications found in postmortem specimens by Dennis V Canfield( )

7 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 224 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Following a fatal aviation accident, specimens from deceased pilots are collected by local pathologists and sent to the Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory for toxicological analysis, to identify all pilots found positive for medications used to treat cardiovascular, psychological, or neurological conditions
Selection criteria for alcohol detection methods by Garnet A McLean( Book )

6 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 223 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The potential need for testing workers in the aviation industry for job-related alcohol abuse requires the development of a testing strategy based, in part, on selection of alcohol test instruments appropriate to the specific goals of the Federal Aviation Administration. The extensive availability of test instruments with varying capabilities and limitations makes selection of alcohol test instruments difficult technologically, with a considerable potential for choosing test instruments of inappropriate character. The considerations outlined herein are intended to assist in the selection process
Prevalence of chlorpheniramine in aviation accident pilot fatalities, 1991-1996 : final report by John Soper( Book )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 162 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Chlorpheniramine, a popular nonprescription antihistaminic, is known to cause drowsiness. This side effect has a potential to impair performance and to be a factor in accidents. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the prevalence of this drug in pilot fatalities of aviation accidents. During fatal aircraft accident investigations, postmortem samples collected from the pilots at autopsy are submitted to the Civil Aeromedical Institute for toxicological evaluation, and the findings are maintained in a database. Those data were examined for the presence of chlorpheniramine in the fatalities, which occurred during a 6-year (1991-1996) period. It was determined that there were 47 (2.2%) accidents involving chlorpheniramine. In 16 of these cases, only chlorpheniramine was found, with the mean concentrations of 109 ngml (n = 4) in blood and 1412 ng/g (n = 12) in liver. Other drugs were also present in the remaining 31 cases, wherein the mean chlorpheniramine concentrations were 93 ng/ml (n = 18) in blood and 747 ng/g (n = 12) in liver. Ninety-five percent of all the quantitative blood values were at or above the therapeutic (10 ng/ml) level, giving a 100 ng/ml (n = 21) blood mean level. The drug's mean concentration in the liver of all the cases was 1080 ng/g (n = 24). The average chlorpheniramine blood value was approximately 10 times higher than its therapeutic value. The presence of other drugs did not appear to significantly alter the blood level of chlorpheniramine, but no such correlation could be established with the hepatic value. The approximate 10-fold increase in the liver concentration, as compared with the blood value, was consistent with the general trend of the distribution of drugs in the hepatic compartment. However, the contribution of postmortem redistribution of the drug to alter its concentration cannot be entirely ruled out
Prevalence of drugs and alcohol in fatal civil aviation accidents between 1994 and 1998 : final report( Book )

4 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 159 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The use of drugs and alcohol in aviation is closely monitored by the FAA Office of Aviation Medicine's (OAM's) Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) through the toxicological analysis of specimens from pilots who have died in aviation accidents. This information on the use of drugs in aviation is helpful to the FAA in developing programs to reduce the usage of dangerous drugs and identify potentially incapacitating medical conditions that may cause an accident. Data collected from this research can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAA drug testing program. The toxicology reports prepared by the CAMI Forensic Toxicology Research Section are used by the FAA and the National Transportation Safety Board to determine the cause of aviation accidents. Specimens (blood, urine, liver, kidney, vitreous fluid, and other bodily specimens) were collected by pathologists near the accident and placed in evidence containers provided by CAMI. These samples were refrigerated and shipped by overnight air. Upon receipt, the specimens were inventoried and accessioned for the analysis of drugs, alcohol, carbon monoxide, and cyanide. All data collected by the laboratory were entered into a computer database for future analysis. The database was searched using a Microsoft Access TM program developed by a local contractor. The database was sorted based on the class of drug, controlled dangerous substance schedules I and II, controlled dangerous substance schedules Ill-V, prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and alcohol. The Toxicology and Accident Research laboratory received specimens from 1683 pilots for postmortem toxicology analysis between 1994 to 1998. Controlled dangerous substances, CDS, (schedules I and II) were found in 89 of the pilots analysed. Controlled dangerous substances (schedules III - V) were found in 49 of the pilots tested. Prescription drugs were found in 240 of the pilots analyzed. Over-the-counter drugs were found in 301 of the pilots analysed. c
Selection of an internal standard for postmortem ethanol analysis( Book )

5 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 158 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

One mission of the Civil Aeromedical Institute is to determine the concentrations of alcohol in postmortem specimens related to aviation accidents. This requires the ability to identify and quantitate a wide range of alcohols that are produced in postmortem specimens. A headspace gas chromatographic procedure utilizing n-propanol as an internal standard had been used in the past. However, n-propanol has been found in postmortem specimens, making n-propanol an unsuitable specimen for an internal standard in the analysis of postmortem specimens. This study evaluated 3 potential replacement internal standards for postmortem ethanol analysis. Method: A mixture of alcohols commonly found in postmortem specimens was prepared and tested using headspace gas chromatography. Solutions were prepared using the test mix and the new internal standards. Data were collected on the resolution and reproducibility of the proposed new internal standards with the test mix. Postmortem cases collected over the past 8 years were reviewed for the presence of specific volatile compounds. Results: Baseline resolution from the test mix was not obtained with propionaldehyde, while propionic acid methyl ester exhibited degradation over time. T-butanol was found to give baseline resolution from all volatile compounds commonly found in antimortem and postmortem specimens. No t-butanol was found in 2880 fatal pilots analyzed over the past 8 years for the presence of volatiles. Conclusion: t-butanol is a better internal standard for the analysis of alcohols in postmortem specimens than propionaldehyde, n-propanol, and propionic acid methyl ester, and is not produced in postmortem specimens
Blood carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide concentration in the fatalities of fire and non-fire associated civil aviation accidents, 1991-1998 : final report by Arvind K Chaturvedi( Book )

4 editions published between 1998 and 2000 in English and held by 157 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abnormal glucose levels found in transportation accidents : final report( Book )

2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 156 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Quantitation and mass spectrometric data of drugs and isotopically labeled analogs by Ray H Liu( )

10 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 156 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The analysis of drugs and their metabolites in biological media are now expected to routinely achieve A 20% accuracy in the ng/mL concentration level. Therefore, the availability and the selection of quality ion-pairs designating the analytes and their isotopically labeled analogs (ILAs) are important considerations in achieving the accuracy of quantitation results. Assisting scientists with this process, Quantitation and Mass Spectrometric Data of Drugs and Isotopically Labeled Analogs provides an extremely valuable reference for labs involved in the analysis of therapeutic and abused drugs
Preparation of carboxyhemoglobin standards and calculation of spectrophotometric quantitation constants( Book )

4 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 155 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Drugs and alcohol found in fatal civil aviation accidents between 1989 and 1993( Book )

4 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 154 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The FAA Office of Aviation Medicine's Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAM!) is tasked under public law 100-591 (H.R. 4686); November 3, 1988, Aviation Safety Research Act of 1988 to conduct toxicology tests on aviation accidents and determine the effects of drugs on human performance. It is important for the FAA to identify the extent to which drugs and alcohol are being used by pilots involved in aviation accidents so that the FAA can take steps to prevent pilots from using drugs or alcohol, which could impair their ability to fly an aircraft. The toxicology reports prepared by the CAM! Forensic Toxicology Research Section are used by the FAA and the National Transportation Safety Board to determine the cause of aviation accidents and evaluate present FAA regulations. Methods: Specimens (blood, urine, liver, kidney, vitreous, and other bodily specimens) were collected by pathologists near the accident and placed in evidence containers provided by CAM!. These samples were refrigerated and shipped by overnight air. Upon receipt, the specimens were inventoried and accessioned for the analysis of drugs, alcohol, carbon monoxide, and cyanide. All data collected by the laboratory were electronically entered into a computer for future analysis. The data base was searched using a program developed by the Forensic Toxicology Research Section. The data base was sorted based on the class of drug, controlled dangerous substance schedules I and II, controlled dangerous substance schedules III-V, prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and alcohol. Results: The Toxicology and Accident Research Laboratory received specimens from 1845 pilots for postmortem toxicology analysis between 1989 to 1993
Postmortem alcohol production in fatal aircraft accidents by Dennis V Canfield( Book )

5 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 153 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During 1989 and 1990, the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) received specimens from 975 victims of fatal aircraft accidents. The maximum concentration of ethanol allowed under FAA regulations (0.04%, 40mg/dL) was exceeded in 79 of these cases (8%). It was determined based on the distribution of ethanol in urine, vitreous, blood, and tissue that 21 of the positive cases (27%) were from postmortem alcohol production. Twenty-two of the positive cases (28%) were found to be from the ingestion of ethanol. In 36 cases (45%) no determination could be made in regards to the origin of the ethanol. In two cases, postmortem alcohol production exceeded 0.15 percent (150mg/dL). The opinion held by some toxicologists that postmortem alcohol production can be inferred from the presence of acetaldehyde, acetone, butanol, and other volatiles was found to be incorrect. Several cases with postmortem ethanol had no other volatiles. Volatile compounds were found in several cases where no ethanol was present. In addition, a case was found where the relative ethanol concentrations in blood, bile, and vitreous humor were solely consistent with the ingestion of ethanol, but acetaldehyde, acetone, and 2-butanol were also found in blood. This clearly indicates that the presence or absence of other volatiles does not establish postmortem ethanol production. Ethanol, Postmortem
Urinary genotyping for DQA1 and PM Loci using PCR-based amplification : effects of volume, storage temperature, preservatives, and aging on DNA extraction and typing by Nicole T Vu( Book )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 153 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study investigates the influence of storage conditions, sample volumes, concentration modes, extraction procedures, and chemical preservations on the quality of DNA sampled
Elimination of quinine in two subjects after ingestion of tonic water : an exploratory study : final report by Vicky L White( Book )

6 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 151 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biological specimens from 8 fatal aviation accidents out of 775 fatal aviation accidents analyzed in 1991 and 1992 were found to contain quinine. In one case, the investigators sought to identify the source of quinine found in the pilot. It was suggested that the quinine might have come from the consumption of tonic water. Since no recent use of quinine or tonic water could be found, the investigators asked how long quinine could be detected in a urine specimen. A limited research project was undertaken to provide a preliminary range of the approximate length of time quinine could be detected in urine and blood. Each of 2 male subjects was given a 20 oz. bottle of tonic water, which contained 35 mg of quinine. Quinine was detected using standard laboratory TLC and HPLC methods. Quinine has such diverse applications as a treatment for muscle cramps and malaria, in addition to being an additive in tonic water. Since adverse effects have been identified at plasma concentrations between 10- 15 microg/mL, no performance effects would be expected from the maximum concentrations of quinine found (0.291 microg/mL) in this study after the ingestion of one 20 oz. bottle of tonic water. However, based on this study, the possibility of prolonged detection (over 8 days) of quinine should (a) serve as a warning against using this as a sign of recent use of quinine directly or in association with alcohol, and (b) alert the investigators to inquire about disorders or conditions that might impair performance, but for which quinine treatment was terminated days before the accident. Tonic water, Quinine
The analysis of benzodiazepines in forensic urice samples by Thomas C Kupiec( Book )

3 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 148 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The FAA Toxicology and Accident Research Laboratory reports the presence of any drug detected at therapeutic or subtherapeutic levels and the medical condition for which the drug may have been used. Specimens from the pilot of a fatal aviation accident in 1992 were suspected of containing fluoxetine and clonazepam. Initial screening tests using fluorescence polarization immunoassay of a urine specimen revealed 86 ng/ml of a benzodiazepine. Blood from this case was screened using radioimmunoassay and a benzodiazepine was detected at a level in excess of 200 ng/ml. No benzodiazepine was detected in the urine specimen when it was initially tested using HPLC with no hydrolysis of the specimen. Temazepam was eventually identified in urine by HPLC and Mass Spectroscopy, after enzyme hydrolysis of the urine using beta-glucuronidase. The blood was found to contain 44 ng/ml of temazepam, 83 ng/ml of fluoxetine, and 138 ng/ml of norfluoxetine. The liver was found to contain 145 ng/ml of temazepam. No tests were performed on the liver for fluoxetine. The identification of temazepam in urine would have been impossible without the enzyme hydrolysis of the specimen prior to extraction and identification. Benzodiazepines are among the most prescribed drugs and a procedure is needed to assure that these drugs will be detected and identified in urine
 
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Quantitation and mass spectrometric data of drugs and isotopically labeled analogs
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Alternative Names
Canfield, D. V. (Dennis V.), 1943-

Languages
English (95)