WorldCat Identities

United States Office of Aerospace Medicine

Works: 357 works in 725 publications in 1 language and 51,430 library holdings
Genres: Classification 
Classifications: RC1054.U5, 363.12414
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Most widely held works about United States
Most widely held works by United States
Fatality and injury rates for two types of rotorcraft accidents by David Palmerton( )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 269 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study analyzes the frequency of rotorcraft accidents involving fatalities and injuries to determine if certain types of accidents are inherently more dangerous in relation to rapid evacuation capability. Four categories of accidents were analyzed: those involving a fire, those without a fire, those in which the rotorcraft rolled over, and those without a rollover. It was hypothesized that rollover accidents create evacuation delays that produce more fatalities, particularly in situations involving a rollover and post-crash fire, where evacuation delays may expose occupants to toxic fumes longer than they would be if the rotorcraft remained upright and the evacuation only required occupants to quickly step out of the rotorcraft
Reliability of the gas supply in the Air Force Emergency Passenger Oxygen System by Robert P Garner( )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 261 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To test for any potential leakage and therefore an inadequate quantity of oxygen, the protective breathing equipment (PBE) procured by the U.S. Air Force as Emergency Passenger Oxygen System (EPOS) units were collected from Air Force bases and submitted by the manufacturer for a series of tests. The primary indicator in the testing was the mass (weight) of oxygen in the cylinder. A total of 92 oxygen cylinders that were manufactured for assembly into EPOS or similar models of PBE were evaluated. Estimated dates of manufacture were between January 1989 and November of 2003. Four tests were conducted. Based on the results of the altitude testing, the loss did not appear to be related to diffusion out of the cylinder. Therefore, other explanations need to be examined as to why these two cylinder shortages existed
Comparison of amplification methods to produce Affymetrix GeneChipĀ® target material : final report( )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 259 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The experiments presented here were designed to test a globin-RNA reduction protocol in conjunction with three different amplification methods
An analysis of the U.S. pilot population from 1983-2005 : evaluating the effects of regulatory change( )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 257 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The size of the U.S. civil aviator community has been of interest to researchers, policy makers, and special interest groups. A strict definition for membership in the U.S. pilot population was used that was based on Scientific Information System principles. This approach provides methods for scientists to describe, quantify, and predict changes in this population over the 23-year study period. The Bioinformatics Research Team at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) analyzed and modeled the counts of the U.S. pilot population using a segmented linear regression model. A dataset was constructed, based upon the methods prescribed by Scientific Information System principles of data construction, from 1983 to 2005. This methodology was selected since the data represent the entire population of pilots, rather than just a sample. Thus, the statistical results are population parameters, rather than estimates, and are not subject to sampling error. The airmen population was constructed and examined for each year of the study period. The criterion for membership of the U.S. civil pilot population is based on the medical examination that each airman must pass to hold a pilot certificate. A segmented linear regression model was chosen because of its flexibility in accounting for any policy changes that occurred over the 23-year study period.--P. i
Screening air traffic control specialists for psychopathology using the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 by Raymond E King( )

3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 257 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper models and documents the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) as a psychological screening tool for conditionally selected Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCSs). A sample of 1,014 ATCSs in training voluntarily completed the MMPI-2 as part of a research program. The data is used to estimate the number of future candidates that will be referred for follow-up psychological evaluations, given varying MMPI-2 scale cut-scores.--P. i
Human error and general aviation accidents : a comprehensive, fine-grained analysis using HFACS by Douglas A Wiegmann( )

4 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 256 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research performed at both the University of Illinois and the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute has successfully shown that HFACS can be reliably used to analyze the underlying human causes of both commercial and general aviation (GA) accidents. These analyses have helped to identify general trends in the types of human factors issues and aircrew errors that have contributed to civil aviation accidents. The next step was to identify the exact nature of the human errors identified. The following questions of interest were addressed: (1) Which unsafe acts are associated with the largest percentage of accidents?; (2) Has the percentage of accidents associated with each unsafe act changed over the years?; (3) Does the pattern of unsafe acts differ across fatal and non-fatal accidents?; (4) Do the patterns of unsafe acts for fatal and non-fatal accidents differ across years?; (5) How often is each error type the "primary" cause of an accident?; (6) Do seminal unsafe acts differ across years or as a function of accident severity (fatal vs. non-fatal)?; and (7) What are the exact types of errors committed within each error category, and do these types of errors differ across accident severity or seminal events? The purpose of this research effort was to address these questions by performing a fine-grained HFACS analysis of the individual human causal factors associated with GA accidents, and to assist in the generation of intervention programs. The report details the findings and offers an approach for developing interventions to address them
Flight attendant fatigue, recommendation II : flight attendant work/rest patterns, alertness, and performance assessment by Peter G Roma( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 253 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Impaired performance induced by fatigue may compromise safety in commercial aviation. Given the direct role flight attendants play in passenger safety, the U.S. Congress ordered a comprehensive examination of fatigue in cabin crew, including a field study of actual flight operations. This report provides an overview of the field study results, focusing on objective measures of sleep patterns and neurocognitive performance (Psychomotor Vigilance Test, PVT) over a 3-4 week period in 202 U.S.-based flight attendants of all seniority levels working for network, low-cost, and regional carriers embarking on domestic and international flight operations. On average, flight attendants slept 6.3 hr on days off and 5.7 hr on work days, fell asleep 29 min after going to bed, awoke four times per sleep episode, and spent 77% of each episode actually sleeping. After controlling for reserve status, gender, and age, junior-level flight attendants had the shortest sleep latencies on their days off. Those working international operations slept significantly less (4.9 hr vs. 5.9 hr) and less efficiently (75% vs. 79%), compared with their colleagues in domestic operations. All flight attendants exhibited significant impairments during prework PVT tests when compared to their own optimum baseline performance. Across the workday, regional flight attendants committed fewer premature PVT responses, junior-level participants produced significantly higher post-work reaction times, and those working international flights produced better pre-work reaction times but had a greater increase in lapses. These objective data are consistent with other shift work research and echo subjective survey findings across the U.S. flight attendant community. Additional planned analyses of this dataset may identify the precise operational variables that contribute to fatigue in cabin crew."--Report documentation page
Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1,335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities( )

6 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 252 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

For aviation accident investigations at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose, and in those cases wherein glucose levels are elevated, blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is measured. These analyses are conducted to monitor diabetic pilots to ensure that their disease was in control at the time of accidents and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed and unreported diabetes.--P. i
Drug usage in pilots involved in aviation accidents compared with drug usage in the general population from 1990 to 2005 by Sabra R Botch( )

3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 251 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The purpose of this study was to compare usage of both illegal drugs and abused prescription medications in pilots involved in civil aviation accidents from 1990 to 2005 with that of the general population in the United States. Comparisons included abused drugs routinely screened for by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy, as well as prescription medications---barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and ketamine. The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory analyzes postmortem specimens collected from pilots involved in civil aviation accidents. [snip] Trends in illicit and prescription drug use in pilots of civil aviation accidents are comparable to those seen in emergency departments (ED) and community data from major metropolitan areas collected by DAWN and Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG)."--Page i
Understanding the human factors associated with Visual Flight Rules flight into Instrumental Meteorological Conditions( )

7 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 250 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Visual Flight Rules (VFR) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) accidents are a major concern in the aviation industry. More than 70% of the fatal weather-related accidents involved General Aviation (GA) pilots operating under visual flight rules (VFR) that continued into IMC. The purpose of this study was to pair GA accident causal factors that had been classified with the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) categories and traditional demographic data in an effort to present a more complete picture of VFR flight into IMC accidents."--Page i
U.S. airline transport pilot international flight language experiences( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 249 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by U.S. pilots from American, Continental, Delta, and United Airlines of their difficulties in international operations. In this report, the pilots' responses to questions 46-53 are presented as a compiled narrative. Their responses had eight major thrusts from which we derived the following five recommendations: (1) Adopt a standard dialect for use in ATC communications. (2) All trainees and current certified professional controllers successfully complete instruction and training in the principles of voice production and articulation as it relates to ATC communication. (3) Define an optimal rate of speech for use by certified professional controllers when communicating with pilots. Research is needed to provide guidance on the optimal rate of speech for different populations of speakers - U.S., Foreign. (4) Develop new standard phraseology for non-routine events. Generally, the controller needs to have the pilot answer one question, "What do you need from me?" The controller would coordinate the appropriate actions to provide the pilot with what is needed. (5) Controllers should be discouraged from using local jargon, slang, idiomatic expressions, and other forms of conversational communications when transmitting messages to pilots. Although colorful and fun, they have no place in air traffic control and diminish situational awareness, can lead to requests for repeat, and otherwise disrupt information transfer."--Report documentation page
Flight attendant fatigue by Joy O Banks( )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 247 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In 2008, Congress directed the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) to conduct follow-on studies of six recommendation areas noted in an integrated report by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and CAMI regarding flight attendant fatigue. The report concluded that some degree of fatigue-related performance affects were likely under current prescriptive rules. Internationally, fatigue risk is managed almost solely through prescriptive rules based on the maximum hours of work and minimum hours of rest. Traditional prescriptive rules, however, have limited applications to round-the-clock operations, often excluding fatigue-contributing factors such as time zone transitions, layover and recovery, time of day, and circadian rhythms (Cabon et al, 2009). Prescriptive rules directly affect crew scheduling and are critical to operator viability; however, due to economic recession, operators are routinely scheduling up to the regulation limits, which could result in an increased likelihood of fatigue and fatigue-related mishaps (Nesthus, Schroeder, Connors, et al., 2007). In the present study, we obtained regulations (n=38) and collective bargaining agreements (CBA) (n=13) regarding flight attendant duty time and rest from International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) member states using several resources: Civil Aviation Authority Web sites, an international cabin safety symposium, Web-based ICAO information exchange, and FAA international field offices and aviation safety inspectors. We analyzed each regulation and CBA to identify duty time and rest rules related to working hour limits, sleep and rest requirements, circadian rhythms, and other factors. When comparing the United States (U.S.) maximum hours of work and minimum hours of rest with other countries, we concluded that U.S. prescriptive rules are among the least restrictive, representing a greater than typical risk for fatigue related incidents. We recommend the U.S. establish a sanctioned fatigue workgroup of subject matter experts, aviation stakeholders, medical and research scientists, and aviation Safety Management System experts to evaluate current regulations and develop an adaptive fatigue mitigation safety system combining scientific principles and knowledge with operational support."--Report documentation page
Use of traffic displays for general aviation approach spacing : a human factors study by Eric D Nadler( )

3 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 247 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A flight experiment was conducted to assess human factors issues associated with pilot use of traffic displays for approach spacing. [snip] Pilots successfully used the displays to maintain the assigned spacing on visual and instrument approaches. The spacing deviations were significantly lower when using the displays during visual approaches than when attempting to maintain spacing without a traffic display. [snip] While the traffic display reduced visual reacquisition times, this effect was only found with pilots whose displays showed additional traffic (not only the traffic-to-follow). In general, however, the additional traffic was associated with less time between fixations on the display and higher workload. Subjects appeared to have had difficulty identifying an optimal display range that would simultaneously provide traffic awareness and spacing task performance. The traffic display necessarily requires visual attention and reduces the attention available for scanning the instrument panel and on visual approaches, the outside world. --P. iii
Flight attendant fatigue by Katrina E Bedell-Avers( )

3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 247 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Today's aviation industry is a 24/7 operation that produces a variety of challenges for cabin crew members, including extended duty periods, highly variable schedules, and frequent time zone changes. While these operational requirements may be necessary, they are far from ideal with respect to the human body's biological rhythms for managing sleep and alertness. In fact, acute sleep loss, sustained periods of wakefulness, and circadian factors resulting from this form of misalignment are all contributors to fatigue and fatigue-related mishaps (Caldwell, 2005; Rosekind et al., 1996). The strategic management of fatigue is necessary for safety improvement throughout the industry. Employee educational programs regarding the dangers of fatigue, the causes of sleepiness, and the importance of proper sleep hygiene to improve sleep quality may be critical for effective fatigue management (Caldwell, 2005). This report outlines specific recommendations regarding fatigue countermeasures training and its potential benefits to flight attendant operations."--Report documentation page
Performance criteria for development of extended use protective breathing equipment by Robert P Garner( )

2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 246 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) 121.337 that crew protective breathing equipment (PBE) for smoke and fume protection is installed aboard aircraft and that crewmembers be trained in the proper use of PBE (FAR 121.417). A variety of designs currently exist that meet the requirements of these regulations. However, the threat posed by atmospheric contamination in an environment that cannot be quickly escaped suggest that extending the protective capabilities of PBE devices beyond what is mandated by the FAA may be beneficial in aviation and other arenas. These experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of one style of PBE in terms of potential for long-term (>20 min) use and to identify issues critical to long-term use. A closed-circuit PBE device utilizing lithium hydroxide (LiOH) technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal was tested
Increased cannabinoids concentrations found in specimens from fatal aviation accidents between 1997 and 2006( )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 246 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's toxicology laboratory receives biological specimens from more than 90% of all fatal aviation accidents that occur in the United States and its territories. As a part of the routine analysis of pilot specimens, the laboratory tests all cases for the presence of marijuana (cannabis). The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) reported a 1.5-fold increase in the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of street cannabis seizures from1997-2001 to 2002-2006. This study was conducted to compare the changes, over those years, in blood and urine cannabinoid concentrations with the potency of THC reported in the cannabis plant. In our laboratory, cannabinoids are screened using radioimmunoassay (RIA) for blood and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for urine and confirmed using GC/MS. A total of 95 individuals were found to be using cannabis from a total number of 2769 (3.4%) individuals tested over the period 1997 through 2006. Blood was received for analysis from 1676 fatally injured individuals. Urine was received for analyses from 1650 fatalities. Cannabinoids were found in 88 of the 1676 (5.3%) blood specimens received for analysis, and 64 of the 88 were from pilots. Cannabinoids were found in 68 of the 1650 (4.1%) urine specimens received for analysis, and 57 of the 68 were from pilots. Other impairing drugs were found in 39% of the cannabinoids-positive individuals."--Page i
The effects of NEXRAD graphical data resolution and direct weather viewing on pilots' judgments of weather severity and their willingness to continue a flight by Dennis B Beringer( )

2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 246 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A study was conducted to determine how variations in displayed NEXRAD weather data resolution interact with the pilot's direct view of weather. Pilots (32) were assigned to on of four groups; 8km, 4km, or 2km resolution, and a baseline condition without NEXRAD imagery. Each flew the simulator from Santa Rosa, NM with the intent to land at Albuquerque. Heavy precipitation moved into the area during the flight, and pilots were required to decide, using both the NEXRAD data and their out-the-window view, whether to continue or to divert to an alternate airport. Pilots spent more time looking at higher-resolution images than at the lower-resolution ones. Baseline-and 2km-condition pilots deferred their decisions longer than did the other two groups
Infrared radiation transmittance and pilot vision through civilian aircraft windscreens by Van B Nakagawara( )

3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 243 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute measured the optical transmittance properties of aircraft windscreens. This paper focuses on windscreen transmittance in the infrared (IR) spectral region (780--4000 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Transmission measurements were performed on eight aircraft windscreens. Three windscreens were from large commercial jets (MD 88, Airbus A320, and Boeing 727/737); two from commercial, propeller-driven passenger planes (Fokker 27 and the ATR 42); one from a small private jet (Raytheon Aircraft Corporation Hawker Horizon); and two from small general aviation (GA), single-engine, propeller-driven planes (Beech Bonanza and Cessna 182).--P. i
Toxicological findings in 889 fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 240 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Obesity continues to be a public health concern and its impact on aviation community has not been fully evaluated. Toxicological findings in fatally injured aviation accident obese pilots were examined. Toxicological results and aeromedical histories of these aviators were retrieved from the CAMI toxicology and medical certification databases, and the cause/factors in the related accidents were retrieved from the National Transportation Safety Board's aviation accident database. In 311 of the 889 pilots, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs were found. Many of these drugs were for treating overweight, depression, hypertension, and cardiac conditions. Of the 889 pilots, 107 had an obesity-related medical history. The health and/or medical condition(s) of, and/or the use of ethanol and/or drugs by, pilots were the cause/factors in 55 (18%) of the 311 accidents. Findings emphasize monitoring of obesity and diabetes in pilots and understanding the potential implications of these health conditions in relation to flight safety
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Alternative Names

controlled identityUnited States. Office of Aviation Medicine

United States. Aerospace Medicine, Office of

United States. Federal Aviation Administration. Office of Aerospace Medicine

English (59)