Kugler, Adriana D.
Most widely held works by Adriana D Kugler
Protective or counter-productive? : European labor market institutions and the effect of immigrants on EU natives by Joshua David Angrist ( Book )
6 editions published in 2001 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 71 libraries worldwide
Effects of employment protection on worker and job flows : evidence from the 1990 Italian reform by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
8 editions published in 2005 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 64 libraries worldwide
This paper uses the Italian Social Security employer-employee panel to study the effects of the Italian reform of 1990 on worker and job flows. We exploit the fact that this reform increased unjust dismissal costs for firms below 15 employees, while leaving dismissal costs unchanged for bigger firms, to set up a natural experiment research design. We find that the increase in dismissal costs decreased accessions and separations for workers in small relative to big firms, especially in sectors with higher employment volatility. Moreover, we find that the reform reduced firms' employment adjustments on the internal margin as well as entry rates while increasing exit rates.
The effect of job security regulations on labor market flexibility : evidence from the Colombian labor market reform by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
4 editions published in 2004 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 63 libraries worldwide
"Job security provisions are widely believed to reduce dismissals and hiring. In addition, in developing countries job security is believed to reduce compliance with labor regulations and to increase informal activity. Reductions in dismissal costs are, thus, often advocated as a way to increase labor market flexibility and to increase compliance with labor regulations. This paper analyzes the impact of a substantial reduction in dismissal costs introduced by the Colombian Labor Market Reform of 1990. A theoretical model illustrates the effect of dismissal costs when there is a noncompliant sector. The model shows the direct effect of a reduction in dismissal costs on increased turnover as well as the second order effects on wages and on the composition of the compliant and noncompliant sectors. Using microdata from the Colombian National Household Surveys, I exploit the temporal variability in dismissal costs together with the variability in coverage between formal and informal workers (who are not covered and were, thus, not directly affected by the reform). The differences-in-differences results indicate increased separations and accessions for formal workers relative to informal workers after the reform. Moreover, the increase in worker turnover was greatest among younger workers, more educated workers, and workers employed in larger firms who are most likely to have been affected by the reform. The estimates, together with the steady-state conditions of the model, suggest the reform contributed to 10% of the reduction in unemployment during the period of study"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site.
Rural windfall or a new resource curse? : coca, income, and civil conflict in Colombia by Joshua David Angrist ( Book )
7 editions published between 2005 and 2007 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 61 libraries worldwide
"Natural and agricultural resources for which there is a substantial black market, such as coca, opium, and diamonds, appear especially likely to be exploited by the parties to a civil conflict. On the other hand, these resources may also provide one of the few reliable sources of income in the countryside. In this paper, we study the economic and social consequences of a major shift in the production of coca paste from Peru and Bolivia to Colombia, where most coca leaf is now harvested. This shift, which arose in response to the disruption of the "air bridge" that previously ferried coca paste into Colombia, provided an exogenous boost in the demand for Colombian coca leaf. Our analysis shows this shift generated economic gains in rural areas, primarily in the form of increased self-employment earnings and increased labor supply by teenage boys. There is little evidence of widespread economic spillovers, however. The results also suggest that the rural areas which saw accelerated coca production subsequently became much more violent. Taken together, these findings support the view that the Colombian civil conflict is fueled by the financial opportunities that coca provides. This is in line with a recent literature which attributes the extension of civil conflicts to economic rewards and an environment that favors insurgency more than to the persistence of economic or political grievances"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site.
Do employment protections reduce productivity? evidence from U.S. states by David H Autor ( Book )
5 editions published between 2004 and 2007 in English and held by 47 libraries worldwide
Theory predicts that mandated employment protections may reduce productivity by distorting production choices. Firms facing (non-Coasean) worker dismissal costs will curtail hiring below efficient levels and retain unproductive workers, both of which should affect productivity. These theoretical predictions have rarely been tested. We use the adoption of wrongful-discharge protections by U.S. state courts over the last three decades to evaluate the link between dismissal costs and productivity. Drawing on establishment-level data from the Annual Survey of Manufacturers and the Longitudinal Business Database, our estimates suggest that wrongful- discharge protections reduce employment flows and firm entry rates. Moreover, analysis of plant-level data provides evidence of capital deepening and a decline in total factor productivity following the introduction of wrongful-discharge protections. This last result is potentially quite important, suggesting that mandated employment protections reduce productive efficiency as theory would suggest. However, our analysis also presents some puzzles including, most significantly, evidence of strong employment growth following adoption of dismissal protections. In light of these puzzles, we read our findings as suggestive but tentative.
Labor market effects of payroll taxes in developing countries : evidence from Colombia by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 34 libraries worldwide
We use a panel of manufacturing plants from Colombia to analyze how the rise in payroll tax rates over the 1980s and 1990s affected the labor market. Our estimates indicate that formal wages fall by between 1.4% and 2.3% as a result of a 10% rise in payroll taxes. This "less-than-full-shifting" is likely to be the result of weak linkages between benefits and taxes and the presence of downward wage rigidities in Colombia. Because the costs of taxation are only partly shifted from employers to employees, employment also falls. Our results indicate that a 10% increase in payroll taxes lowered formal employment by between 4% and 5%. In addition, we find some evidence of less shifting and larger disemployment effects for production than for non-production workers. These results suggest that policies aimed at boosting the relative demand of less-skill workers by reducing social security taxes may be effective in Latin American countries, where minimum wages bind and benefits are often not directly linked to contributions.
Training disadvantaged youth in Latin America : evidence from a randomized trial by Orazio P Attanasio ( Book )
4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 33 libraries worldwide
Youth unemployment in Latin America is exceptionally high, as much as 50% among the poor. Vocational training may be the best chance to help unemployed young people at the bottom of the income distribution. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized training program for disadvantaged youth introduced in Colombia in 2005 on the employment and earnings of trainees. This is one of a couple of randomized training trials conducted in developing countries and, thus, offers a unique opportunity to examine the causal impact of training in a developing country context. We use originally collected data on individuals randomly offered and not offered training. We find that the program raises earnings and employment for both men and women, with larger effects on women. Women offered training earn about 18% more than those not offered training, while men offered training earn about 8% more than men not offered training. Much of the earnings increases for both men and women are related to increased employment in formal sector jobs following training. The benefits of training are greater when individuals spend more time doing on-the-job training, while hours of training in the classroom have no impact on the returns to training. Cost-benefit analysis of these results suggests that the program generates a large net gain, especially for women.
Effects of low-skilled immigration on U.S. natives evidence from Hurricane Mitch by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 27 libraries worldwide
In the 1980s the composition of immigrants to the U.S. shifted towards less-skilled workers. Around this time, real wages and employment of younger and less-educated U.S. workers fell. Some blame recent immigration shifts for the misfortunes of unskilled workers in the U.S. OLS estimates using Census data show instead that native wages are positively related to the recent influx of Latin Americans. However, these estimates are biased if demand shocks are positively related to immigration. An IV strategy, which deals with the endogeneity of immigration by exploiting a large influx of Central American immigrants towards U.S. Southern ports of entry after Hurricane Mitch, also generates positive wage effects but only for more educated native men. Yet, ignoring the flows of native and earlier immigrants in response to this exogeneous immigration is likely to generate upward biases in these estimates too. Native wage effects disappear and less-skilled employment of previous Latin American immigrants falls when controlling for out-migration. This highlights the importance of controlling for out-migration not only of natives but also of previous immigrants in regional studies of immigration.
Katrina's children evidence on the structure of peer effects from hurricane evacuees by Scott A Imberman ( Book )
5 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 27 libraries worldwide
In 2005, hurricanes Katrina and Rita forced many children to relocate across the Southeast. While schools quickly enrolled evacuees, receiving families worried about the impact of evacuees on non-evacuee students. Data from Houston and Louisiana show that, on average, the influx of evacuees moderately reduced elementary math test scores in Houston. We reject linear-in-means models of peer effects and find evidence of a highly non-linear but monotonic model - student achievement improves with high ability and worsens with low ability peers. Moreover, exposure to undisciplined evacuees increased native absenteeism and disciplinary problems, supporting a "bad apple" model in behavior.
Hiring and firing costs, adverse selection and the persistence of unemployment by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
5 editions published in 2000 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 25 libraries worldwide
Employee referrals and efficiency wages by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
8 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 19 libraries worldwide
From severance pay to self-insurance : effects of severance payments savings accounts in Colombia by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
7 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 19 libraries worldwide
Doctors without borders : the returns to an occupational license for Soviet immigrant physicians in Israel by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
9 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 18 libraries worldwide
Employment consequences of restrictive permanent contracts : evidence from Spanish labor market reforms by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
9 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 18 libraries worldwide
Trade reforms and market selection: evidence from manufacturing plants in Colombia ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 18 libraries worldwide
We use plant output and input prices to decompose the profit margin into four parts: productivity, demand shocks, mark-ups and input costs. We find that each of these market fundamentals are important in explaining plant exit. We then use variation across sectors in tariff changes after the Colombian trade reform to assess whether the impact of market fundamentals on plant exit changed with increased international competition. We find that greater international competition magnifies the impact of productivity, and other market fundamentals, on plant exit. A dynamic simulation that compares the distribution of productivity with and without the trade reform shows that improvements in market selection from trade reform help to weed out the least productive plants and increase average productivity. In addition, we find that trade liberalization increases productivity of incumbent plants and improves the allocation of activity within industries.
Subsidizing vocational training for disadvantaged youth in developing countries: evidence from a randomized trial by Orazio P Attanasio ( )
3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 17 libraries worldwide
This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized training program for disadvantaged youth introduced in Colombia in 2005. This randomized trial offers a unique opportunity to examine the impact of training in developing countries. We use originally collected data on individuals randomly offered and not offered training. The program raises earnings and employment, especially for women. Women offered training earn 18% more and have a 0.05 higher probability of employment than those not offered training, mainly in formal sector jobs. Cost-benefit analysis of these results suggests that the program generates much larger net gains than those found in developed countries.
The labour market effects of payroll taxes in a middle-income country : evidence from colombia by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
4 editions published in 2003 in English and No Linguistic content and held by 16 libraries worldwide
Rural windfall or a new resource curse? Coca, income, and civil conflict in Colombia ( )
2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
Doctors without Borders : effects of professional licensing on Soviet immigrants physicians in Israel by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 16 libraries worldwide
Effects of low skilled immigration on U.S. natives: evidence from hurricane Mitch ( )
2 editions published in 2008 in German and held by 15 libraries worldwide
Academic achievement--Social aspects Coca--Economic aspects Coca--Social aspects Colombia Developing countries Economics Emigration and immigration Emigration and immigration--Economic aspects Employees--Dismissal of--Law and legislation Europe--European Union countries Finance Foreign workers Free trade Frictional unemployment Hurricane Katrina (2005) Hurricane Mitch (1998) Industrial productivity--Econometric models Israel Italy Job creation--Law and legislation Job hunting Job security Job security--Law and legislation Job security--Mathematical models Labor Labor laws and legislation Labor laws and legislation--Economic aspects Labor market Labor mobility Labor productivity--Mathematical models Labor supply Labor turnover Labor turnover--Costs Latin America Occupational training--Economic aspects Payroll tax Physicians, Foreign--Licenses Physicians--Licenses Refugee children--Education Severance pay Social aspects Soviet Union Spain Taxation Texas--Houston Unemployment Unemployment insurance United States Vocational education--Economic aspects Youth--Employment
Kugler, A. D. fl.1991
Kugler, Adriana fl.1991