WorldCat Identities

Kugler, Adriana D.

Works: 58 works in 274 publications in 2 languages and 994 library holdings
Roles: Creator
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Publications about  Adriana D Kugler Publications about Adriana D Kugler
Publications by  Adriana D Kugler Publications by Adriana D Kugler
Most widely held works by Adriana D Kugler
Protective or counter-productive? : European labor market institutions and the effect of immigrants on EU natives by Joshua David Angrist ( Book )
18 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Abstract: We estimate the effect of immigrant flows on native employment in Western Europe, and then ask whether the employment consequences of immigration vary with institutions that affect labor market flexibility. Reduced flexibility may protect natives from immigrant competition in the near term, but our theoretical framework suggests that reduced flexibility is likely to increase the negative impact of immigration on equilibrium employment. In models without interactions, OLS estimates for a panel of European countries in the 1980s and 1990s show small, mostly negative immigration effects. To reduce bias from the possible endogeneity of immigration flows, we use the fact that many immigrants arriving after 1991 were refugees from the Balkan wars. An IV strategy based on variation in the number of immigrants from former Yugoslavia generates larger though mostly insignificant negative estimates. We then estimate models allowing interactions between the employment response to immigration and institutional characteristics including business entry costs. These results, limited to the sample of native men, generally suggest that reduced flexibility increases the negative impact of immigration. Many of the estimated interaction terms are significant, and imply a significant negative effect on employment in countries with restrictive institutions
Rural windfall or a new resource curse? : coca, income, and civil conflict in Colombia by Joshua David Angrist ( Book )
15 editions published between 2005 and 2007 in English and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Natural and agricultural resources for which there is a substantial black market, such as coca, opium, and diamonds, appear especially likely to be exploited by the parties to a civil conflict. On the other hand, these resources may also provide one of the few reliable sources of income in the countryside. In this paper, we study the economic and social consequences of a major shift in the production of coca paste from Peru and Bolivia to Colombia, where most coca leaf is now harvested. This shift, which arose in response to the disruption of the "air bridge" that previously ferried coca paste into Colombia, provided an exogenous boost in the demand for Colombian coca leaf. Our analysis shows this shift generated economic gains in rural areas, primarily in the form of increased self-employment earnings and increased labor supply by teenage boys. There is little evidence of widespread economic spillovers, however. The results also suggest that the rural areas which saw accelerated coca production subsequently became much more violent. Taken together, these findings support the view that the Colombian civil conflict is fueled by the financial opportunities that coca provides. This is in line with a recent literature which attributes the extension of civil conflicts to economic rewards and an environment that favors insurgency more than to the persistence of economic or political grievances"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Effects of employment protection on worker and job flows : evidence from the 1990 Italian reform by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
14 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 79 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper uses the Italian Social Security employer-employee panel to study the effects of the Italian reform of 1990 on worker and job flows. We exploit the fact that this reform increased unjust dismissal costs for firms below 15 employees, while leaving dismissal costs unchanged for bigger firms, to set up a natural experiment research design. We find that the increase in dismissal costs decreased accessions and separations for workers in small relative to big firms, especially in sectors with higher employment volatility. Moreover, we find that the reform reduced firms' employment adjustments on the internal margin as well as entry rates while increasing exit rates
The effect of job security regulations on labor market flexibility : evidence from the Colombian labor market reform by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
8 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Job security provisions are widely believed to reduce dismissals and hiring. In addition, in developing countries job security is believed to reduce compliance with labor regulations and to increase informal activity. Reductions in dismissal costs are, thus, often advocated as a way to increase labor market flexibility and to increase compliance with labor regulations. This paper analyzes the impact of a substantial reduction in dismissal costs introduced by the Colombian Labor Market Reform of 1990. A theoretical model illustrates the effect of dismissal costs when there is a noncompliant sector. The model shows the direct effect of a reduction in dismissal costs on increased turnover as well as the second order effects on wages and on the composition of the compliant and noncompliant sectors. Using microdata from the Colombian National Household Surveys, I exploit the temporal variability in dismissal costs together with the variability in coverage between formal and informal workers (who are not covered and were, thus, not directly affected by the reform). The differences-in-differences results indicate increased separations and accessions for formal workers relative to informal workers after the reform. Moreover, the increase in worker turnover was greatest among younger workers, more educated workers, and workers employed in larger firms who are most likely to have been affected by the reform. The estimates, together with the steady-state conditions of the model, suggest the reform contributed to 10% of the reduction in unemployment during the period of study"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Do employment protections reduce productivity? evidence from U.S. states by David H Autor ( )
13 editions published between 2004 and 2007 in English and held by 54 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Theory predicts that mandated employment protections may reduce productivity by distorting production choices. Firms facing (non-Coasean) worker dismissal costs will curtail hiring below efficient levels and retain unproductive workers, both of which should affect productivity. These theoretical predictions have rarely been tested. We use the adoption of wrongful-discharge protections by U.S. state courts over the last three decades to evaluate the link between dismissal costs and productivity. Drawing on establishment-level data from the Annual Survey of Manufacturers and the Longitudinal Business Database, our estimates suggest that wrongful-discharge protections reduce employment flows and firm entry rates. Moreover, analysis of plant-level data provides evidence of capital deepening and a decline in total factor productivity following the introduction of wrongful-discharge protections. This last result is potentially quite important, suggesting that mandated employment protections reduce productive efficiency as theory would suggest. However, our analysis also presents some puzzles including, most significantly, evidence of strong employment growth following adoption of dismissal protections. In light of these puzzles, we read our findings as suggestive but tentative"--NBER website
Labor market effects of payroll taxes in developing countries evidence from Colombia by Adriana D Kugler ( )
9 editions published between 2008 and 2009 in English and held by 49 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We use a panel of manufacturing plants from Colombia to analyze how the rise in payroll tax rates over the 1980s and 1990s affected the labor market. Our estimates indicate that formal wages fall by between 1.4% and 2.3% as a result of a 10% rise in payroll taxes. This "less-than-full-shifting" is likely to be the result of weak linkages between benefits and taxes and the presence of downward wage rigidities in Colombia. Because the costs of taxation are only partly shifted from employers to employees, employment also falls. Our results indicate that a 10% increase in payroll taxes lowered formal employment by between 4% and 5%. In addition, we find some evidence of less shifting and larger disemployment effects for production than for non-production workers. These results suggest that policies aimed at boosting the relative demand of less-skill workers by reducing social security taxes may be effective in Latin American countries, where minimum wages bind and benefits are often not directly linked to contributions
Training disadvantaged youth in Latin America evidence from a randomized trial by Orazio P Attanasio ( )
7 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Youth unemployment in Latin America is exceptionally high, as much as 50% among the poor. Vocational training may be the best chance to help unemployed young people at the bottom of the income distribution. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized training program for disadvantaged youth introduced in Colombia in 2005 on the employment and earnings of trainees. This is one of a couple of randomized training trials conducted in developing countries and, thus, offers a unique opportunity to examine the causal impact of training in a developing country context. We use originally collected data on individuals randomly offered and not offered training. We find that the program raises earnings and employment for both men and women, with larger effects on women. Women offered training earn about 18% more than those not offered training, while men offered training earn about 8% more than men not offered training. Much of the earnings increases for both men and women are related to increased employment in formal sector jobs following training. The benefits of training are greater when individuals spend more time doing on-the-job training, while hours of training in the classroom have no impact on the returns to training. Cost-benefit analysis of these results suggests that the program generates a large net gain, especially for women
Katrina's children evidence on the structure of peer effects from hurricane evacuees by Scott A Imberman ( Book )
7 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In 2005, hurricanes Katrina and Rita forced many children to relocate across the Southeast. While schools quickly enrolled evacuees, receiving families worried about the impact of evacuees on non-evacuee students. Data from Houston and Louisiana show that, on average, the influx of evacuees moderately reduced elementary math test scores in Houston. We reject linear-in-means models of peer effects and find evidence of a highly non-linear but monotonic model - student achievement improves with high ability and worsens with low ability peers. Moreover, exposure to undisciplined evacuees increased native absenteeism and disciplinary problems, supporting a "bad apple" model in behavior
Effects of low-skilled immigration on U.S. natives evidence from Hurricane Mitch by Adriana D Kugler ( )
9 editions published in 2008 in English and German and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the 1980s the composition of immigrants to the U.S. shifted towards less-skilled workers. Around this time, real wages and employment of younger and less-educated U.S. workers fell. Some blame recent immigration shifts for the misfortunes of unskilled workers in the U.S. OLS estimates using Census data show instead that native wages are positively related to the recent influx of Latin Americans. However, these estimates are biased if demand shocks are positively related to immigration. An IV strategy, which deals with the endogeneity of immigration by exploiting a large influx of Central American immigrants towards U.S. Southern ports of entry after Hurricane Mitch, also generates positive wage effects but only for more educated native men. Yet, ignoring the flows of native and earlier immigrants in response to this exogeneous immigration is likely to generate upward biases in these estimates too. Native wage effects disappear and less-skilled employment of previous Latin American immigrants falls when controlling for out-migration. This highlights the importance of controlling for out-migration not only of natives but also of previous immigrants in regional studies of immigration
The effect of providing breakfast on student performance evidence from an in-class breakfast program by Scott A Imberman ( )
6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In response to low take-up, many public schools have experimented with moving breakfast from the cafeteria to the classroom. We examine whether such a program increases performance as measured by standardized test scores, grades and attendance rates. We exploit quasi-random timing of program implementation that allows for a difference-in-differences identification strategy. Our main identification assumption is that schools where the program was introduced earlier would have evolved similarly to those where the program was introduced later. We find that in-class breakfast increases both math and reading achievement by about one-tenth of a standard deviation relative to providing breakfast in the cafeteria. Moreover, we find that these effects are most pronounced for low performing, free-lunch eligible, Hispanic, and low BMI students. We also find some improvements in attendance for high achieving students but no impact on grades
Employment consequences of restrictive permanent contracts : evidence from Spanish labor market reforms by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
15 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Temporary employment contracts allowing unrestricted dismissals were introduced in Spain in 1984 and quickly came to account for most new jobs. As a result, temporary employment increased from around 10% in the mid-eighties to more than 30% in the early nineties. In 1997, however, the Spanish government attempted to reduce the incidence of temporary employment by reducing payroll taxes and dismissal costs for permanent contracts. In this paper, we use individual data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey to estimate the effects of reduced payroll taxes and dismissal costs on the distribution of employment and worker flows. We exploit the fact that recent reforms apply only to certain demographic groups to set up a natural experiment research design that can be used to study the effects of contract regulations. Our results show that the reduction of payroll taxes and dismissal costs increased the employment of young workers on permanent contracts. Results for older workers show insignificant effects. The results suggest a reasonably elastic response of permanent employment to nonwage labor costs for young workers. We also find positive effects on the transitions from unemployment and temporary employment into permanent employment for young and older workers, although the effects for older workers are not always significant. On the other hand, transitions from permanent employment to nonemployment increased only for older men, suggesting that the reform had little effect on dismissals. -- temporary employment ; dismissal costs ; payroll taxes ; European unemployment
The labour market effects of payroll taxes in a middle-income country : evidence from colombia by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
11 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
From severance pay to self-insurance : effects of severance payments savings accounts in Colombia by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
11 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In 1990 Colombia replaced its traditional system of severance payments with a new system of severance payments savings accounts (SPSAs). Although severance payments often are justified on the grounds that they provide insurance against earnings loss, they also increase costs for employers and distort employment decisions. The impact of severance payments depends largely on how much of the costs to employers can be shifted to workers. The theoretical analysis in this paper shows that, in contrast to a traditional system of severance payments, the system of SPSAs facilitates the shifting of severance payments costs to workers in the form of lower wages. Empirical results using the Colombian National Household Surveys indicate that the introduction of SPSAs shifted around 80% of the total severance payments contributions to wages and had a positive effect on weekly hours. Results using the 1997 Colombian Living Standards Measurement Survey suggest that, although SPSAs in part replaced employer insurance with self-insurance, SPSAs continue to play a consumption smoothing role for the non-employed. -- Distortions ; tax shifting ; unemployment insurance ; consumption smoothing ; crowding out
Hiring and firing costs, adverse selection and the persistence of unemployment by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
8 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Doctors without borders the returns to an occupational license for Soviet immigrant physicians in Israel by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
15 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Employee referrals and efficiency wages by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
11 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 28 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Effects of employment protection and product market regulations on the Italian labour market by Adriana D Kugler ( Book )
11 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Rural windfall or a new resource curse? Coca, income, and civil conflict in Colombia ( )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Subsidizing vocational training for disadvantaged youth in developing countries: evidence from a randomized trial by Orazio P Attanasio ( )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Trade reforms and market selection: evidence from manufacturing plants in Colombia ( )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
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Audience level: 0.78 (from 0.37 for Rural wind ... to 0.93 for The effect ...)
Alternative Names
Kugler, A. D.
Kugler, Adriana
English (190)
German (1)