WorldCat Identities

Mississippi State University Department of Geosciences

Overview
Works: 46 works in 46 publications in 1 language and 45 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by Mississippi State University
Salt marsh sediment biogeochemical response to the BP Deepwater Horizon blowout (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point and Saltpan Island, MS) by Calista Lee Guthrie( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The impact of the Deepwater Horizon blowout on coastal wetlands can be understood through investigating carbon loading and microbial activity in salt marsh sediments. Carbon influx causes pore water sulfide to increase in wetland sediment, making it toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation. High sulfide levels due to increased microbial activity can lead to plant browning and mortality. Preliminary analyses at Marsh Point, Mississippi indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are more active in contaminated marsh, producing sulfide concentrations 100x higher than in noncontaminated marsh. Sediment electrode profiles, hydrocarbon contamination, and microbial community profiles were measured at three additional locations to capture the spatial sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback. Findings indicate that response to contamination is variable due to physical and biogeochemical processes specific to each marsh. Temporal evaluation indicates that there is a lag in maximum response to contamination due to seasonal effects on microbial activity
Geologic controls of sand boil formation at Buck Chute, Mississippi by Seth M Martin( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sand boil formation due to underseepage is a potential failure mechanism for levees in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. Sand boils were identified in the Buck Chute study area in the 1990s during high water events and during the 2009 Flood. The site is unique due to the presence of point bar and abandoned channel deposits. To understand the role of these alluvial deposits on sand boil formation at the site, a geologic investigation of the subsurface was conducted. Using shallow geophysics, cone penetrometer tests (CPT), borings, and a geographic information system (GIS), it was concluded that the thin blanket associated with point bar deposits, abandoned channel deposits causing a blocked seepage path, and head differential changes caused by the Muddy Bayou Control Structure were the controls of sand boil formation at Buck Chute
Abstracts of papers to be presented at the Meeting of the Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America and associated societies : Jackson, Mississippi, March 14-15, 1996 by Geological Society of America( Book )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Slope stability analysis of spoil dragline bench in lignite coal mine, Choctaw County, Mississippi by Maria Laila Jover( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Spoil pile stability in an open pit coal mine is a common problem and the Red Hills Lignite Mine in Choctaw County is no exception. The mine has had spoil stability problems of their spoil dragline bench since the beginning of their activity in 2002. They have managed to stabilize the conditions by installing prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) to consolidate the layers below the spoil dragline bench, which tended to fail due to an increase in pore water pressure. In this study, the capability of analyzing and predicting future pore water pressure conditions is examined. With the use of the stability model Slope/w and local stress calculations, the predictability of the necessity of PVDs and their spatial distribution are analyzed. The outcomes prove to be circumstantial to local pore water pressure and geology changes, therefore, the spacing between drains could be adapted to the local conditions potentially saving costs
Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) : a proposed method to find geochemical predictors of sediment oxygen demand by Jonathon Michael Geroux( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD) is the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen between the sediment from the overlying water. The method to acquire SOD values is inefficient and troubled by unreliable equipment. Diffusion gradients in thin film (DGT) are proposed as a potential method to collect geochemical proxy measures that can be used as SOD predictors. Field deployment of the DGTs was conducted at two locations to compare recovery and accuracy against ex-situ centrifuge methods. The results indicated DGT can be used as a statistically significant geochemical method. A principle component analysis was used to determine if reduced iron and manganese collected using DGTs clustered with SOD. Results indicated reduced iron and manganese cannot be used to predict SOD. Sulfide measurement by microelectrode from the same matrix of geochemical methods however did cluster with SOD. A stepwise multiple linear regression concluded sulfide measurement by microelectrode is a statistically significant predictor of SOD
Bahamian Quaternary geology and the global carbon budget by Erik Bond Larson( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sea-level change during the Quaternary has had significant impacts on the geology of the Bahamas and the global carbon budget. During periods of low sea-level position conduit caves form in the Bahamas as a function of their respective water budgets. These conduit caves can then collapse and if this collapse reaches the surface a progradational collapse blue hole can be made. Upon subsequent sea-level rise these blue holes can become sediment in-filled. Tidal pumping through these sediment-filled blue holes can result in the formation of whitings. Whitings are formed when the tidally pushed water warms and degasses CO2, driving the precipitation of CaCO3. Whitings are also formed on the shallow banks by resuspension by fish. As sea-level fluctuates the amount of land in the Bahamas and other carbonate regions increases or decreases with sea-level fall or rise, respectively. As the amount of land increases in the Bahamas and other carbonate regions, there is a decrease of carbonate rock exposure at high latitudes due to glaciation. The loss of high latitude carbonates is made up for in the gain of low latitude carbonates in terms of rates of inorganic carbon drawdown associated with karst processes. Additionally, this inorganic carbon draw down from karst processes represents approximately 16% of the unknown carbon sink as reported by the IPCC. This study is significant in that it contributes to the understanding of sea-level fluctuations in relation to the geology of the Bahamas and the global carbon budget
An investigation into the impacts of land-use/land-cover on cloud-to-ground lightning activity by Nathan Oneal Owen( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cloud-to-Ground (CG) lightning activity was analyzed across the lower Mississippi River valley. The goal was to determine whether certain land use/ land cover (LULC) types supported convective thunderstorms' generation of CG lightning more than other LULC types. Results indicate that forested regions receive more CG lightning than any other LULC type represented in the study area. However, results also indicate that CG lightning activity can be enhanced locally by very large and/or sprawling areas of urban LULC. When cities from previous research, including Atlanta, GA, and Birmingham, AL, are combined in the rankings with cities in this study, the urban size difference between Little Rock, Arkansas, and Birmingham, Alabama, appears to highlight the area of urban LULC needed to enhance convection. Future research should focus on more cities within this gap of urban LULC area in order to identify the minimum areal expanse needed to alter convective ability over cities
A climatology of prescribed burn day criteria for the Southeastern US by Brandon Harold Sylvester( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The United States has arbitrary weather criteria for a prescribed burn day to happen. This arbitrary criteria gives prescribed-burn managers a limited amount of days they can burn. To solve this, I established a 30-year climatology based on daily mixing height (m). I then calculated burn-day thresholds based on different mixing heights. I found seasonal and spatial patterns of the amount of days that are prescribed burns. Southeastern United States was my study area. A small decrease in threshold values will lead to large increases in prescribed burn days. Digital maps were created to show the spatial variability of prescribed burn days and the effects of lowering thresholds for prescribed burn days. This research will aid policy makers in lessening the criteria for burn days
Investigation of vegetation discontinuities and the enhancement of convection related to the April 27 2011 multiple EF4 and EF5 tornado scars by Barrett Frank Gutter( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

During the April 25 – 28, 2011 severe weather outbreak, 350 tornadoes were confirmed across 21 states, making the event the largest 3-day outbreak in U.S. History. Of the 350 tornadoes, 13 were of EF4 or EF5 strength. Due to complex terrain and vegetation in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, and eastern Tennessee, only four tornadoes were analyzed in this study. +Abrupt changes in vegetation and the related sensible and latent heat fluxes have been shown to enhance convective activity along and near the resulting land surface discontinuities. This study analyzed heightened convective activity (analyzed by looking at cloud-to-ground lightning data) along each tornado track on days of weak synoptic forcing. Post- tornado months showed no signs of enhanced convective activity along any of the tornado tracks analyzed in this study, which could be attributed to several factors including study period, duration of intensity, tornado track length and width, and land cover
Geographic analysis of tornadogenesis from landfalling and nearby tropical cyclones in the state of Florida by Charles Eugene Roop( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Tropical cyclone (TC)-spawned tornadoes in Florida were analyzed to determine patterns of occurrence based on storm and geographic features. Tornadoes were determined to be associated with a landfalling or nearby TC if a tornado occurred within 800 km of the TC's center of circulation. TC-tornadoes were analyzed for patterns based on distance and angle from TC's center, topographic influences, population biases, and influence based on time of landfall. Most TC-Tornadoes tend to occur more often before landfall than after. It was discovered that tornadoes have occurred in different areas with respect to the bearing from the center depending on the landfall location and time of landfall. It was also discovered that land use type, and elevation had little to do with TC-Tornado occurrence. The results do suggest some population bias. The findings will be a guide for operational meteorologists to aid in forecasting likely tornadogenesis from TCs
Investigation of the variability of extreme tornado climatology by Tory Farney( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Previous tornado climatology research has relied primarily upon means of tornadoes or tornado days. Understanding the variability of tornado days however, will result in a more comprehensive understanding of the climatological distribution of tornadoes. In a changing environment, the extremities of a distribution should change faster than the mean of that distribution. Two methods of analyzing tornado days for predefined areas across the continental United States using the Storm Prediction Center's publication Storm Data from 1950 to 2011 are conducted in this study. Statistical analysis of averages, return periods, and percentiles reveals the variability in the record while consecutive tornado days present an alternative way to assess the seasonal repeatability and to assess risk for historic, multi-day tornado outbreaks. The results of this research will help to better define the traditional “tornado alley” as well as highlight other high- risk locations, especially those with higher interannual variability
The importance of synoptic-scale processes in diagnosing tropical cyclone rapid intensification in the Atlantic basin by Alexandria Danielle Grimes( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This research identifies large-scale synoptic controls that are relevant for rapid intensification (RI) in the Atlantic basin. Spatial statistical analysis techniques were performed on NASA MERRA data from 1979--2009. Rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) was performed, looking for common patterns in the datasets. The RPC's were grouped using hierarchical clustering techniques, allowing for finding events similar in synoptic structure. The clustered events, representing the total RI and non-RI composites, were averaged yielding composite maps for different scenarios. To verify the results, a permutation test was done to show which variables are good distinguishers of RI and non-RI cases. These variables were used as input in two prediction schemes: logistic regression and support vector machine classification. The prediction scheme was a slight improvement in forecasting RI when using the synoptic variables mid-level vorticity, vertical velocity, low-level potential temperature and specific humidity, as the most significant in predicting RI
Water supply potential of the Wilcox aquifers in Lafayette County, Mississippi by John Vernon Banks( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer in Lafayette County, Mississippi, is the primary source of water for the public and industrial supply in the county. A comprehensive study of the subsurface hydrogeology of the county was undertaken to predict if the aquifer had the potential to supply sufficient water to prospective industry in Lafayette County. After completing a series of cross sections, the aquifer dimensions were better characterized. Potentiometric mapping provided necessary water level information, and these data were input into analytical models used to project drawdown from pumping in the aquifer. Results suggest the Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer in western Lafayette County would support an increased groundwater demand of 50% for a thirty year period for a new industrial complex
Using teleconnection indices to predict tornado outbreak frequency in the US by Kent Harris Sparrow( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The goal of this study is to improve seasonal tornado outbreak forecasting by creating a statistical model that forecasts tornado outbreak frequency in the US using teleconnection indices as predictors. For this study, a tornado outbreak is defined as more than 6 tornado reports associated with a single synoptic system and an event N15 rating index of 0.5 or higher. The tornado outbreak season is confined to all months after February for a given calendar year. Monthly teleconnection indices are derived from a rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) of the geopotential height fields. Various regression techniques were trained with a sample of monthly teleconnection indices, tested on new data, and optimized to achieve the highest predictive skill. The outcome of this study could potentially allow forecasters the ability to predict tornado outbreak potential on a climatological scale with months of lead-time, allowing for better preparation strategies for tornado outbreak seasons
An investigation of geochemical evidence for three paleo-environments by John Paul Jones( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Three paleo-environments were studied. The first project concerned the Manson Impact and the effect of the Black Hills on the resulting fall-out from this asteroid strike. Samples of the Crow Creek Member were taken east of the Black Hills in Nebraska and South Dakota and samples from the Red Bird Member were taken from the west, in Wyoming. These samples were examined for chemical weathering, soot, shocked quartz, and fossils. The Crow Creek samples had shocked quartz (indicative of an impact), severe chemical weathering, soot, and evidence of tsunamis. There were few calcareous fossils. The Red Bird showed no signs of chemical weathering, a distinct absence of soot and shocked quartz and an abundance of fossils. These results indicate that the Black Hills were large enough to pose an atmospheric and oceanic barrier to the effects of the Manson Impact. The second project dealt with dinosaur eggs which were found in Montana. The eggs were examined and subjected to Computed Tomography Scans. The egg-shell, matrix, and volcanic ash were studied. The egg-shell was found to be from an undescribed oolithic species, and revealed that a transgressive event transpired after the eggs had fossilized. The matrix revealed that the eggs were laid in a flood-plain. The ash revealed a high amount of tungsten and yielded a high percentage of potassium for future dating. The eggs themselves revealed that intact embryos were within. This project has provided information on dinosaur nesting behavior. In the third project corals were examined to determine the usefulness of sampling different architectural structures for evaluating environmental proxies. Coral was collected at the Verde Reef. The different architectural structures were sampled using SIMS, and LA-ICP-MS to selectively sample the small architectural structures. Oxygen isotope ratios and elemental: calcium ratios were compared among the different structures. It was found that dissepiments intake isotopic oxygen and elements at different rates than other structures. This has an impact in sampling corals for environmental proxies, but, because of the very small amount of mass contained in the dissepiments that bulk analyses would not be significantly affected
Verification of post-glacial Speleogenesis and the origins of Epigene Maze Caves in New York by Max P Cooper( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dissolutional features called karst exist on the surface, and in the subsurface as caves. In glaciated regions caves were thought to be post-glacial in origin. Work in the 1970s demonstrated that pre-glacial caves existed, but did not answer if a cave could form post-glacially. A model proposed by Mylroie and Carew (1987) states that a post-glacial cave would be controlled entirely by glacial features and the deranged drainage of glaciated terrains. Caves known as maze caves form at maximum rates, and could form to navigable size in the time since deglaciation. Maze caves form in the shallow subsurface, allowing them to be removed in subsequent glaciations. GIS water flow analysis, and calculation of formation times using cross-section data demonstrates that maze caves in the glaciated region of New York are post-glacial in origin fitting in the deranged drainage and forming in the time since deglaciation
A basin-specific characterization of the subsurface geology of potential reservoir locations in George County, Mississippi by Adam D Lenz( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The preliminary assessment for reservoir sites in George County targeted three basins within the county as the initial focus of the research study: Big Creek, Big Cedar Creek, and Escatawpa River basins. As a portion of the reservoir study, this study was a basin-specific geological assessment of the three basins within George County through literature review, well log correlation, and a county wide spring inventory. The goal of this study was to obtain and interpret subsurface data in order to develop detailed geologic maps and stratigraphic cross sections which aided in the site assessment and characterization of the geologic and hydro-geologic suitability of potential reservoir sites. This study concluded that the hypothesis was proved and all three selected drainage basins were potentially geologically suitable to sustain a large reservoir, therefor other factors should be taken into account to determine specific reservoir location such as stream discharge and water quality
Assessment of reservoir quality and potential impact of sequestered carbon dioxide in diverse lithological reservoir units, south central, Mississippi, USA by Assonman D Degny( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study was designed to understand the possible impact of carbon dioxide on different reservoir rocks in south-central Mississippi. Eight samples, including six from the Heidelberg field (Mississippi), were exposed to carbon dioxide under simulated subsurface conditions of elevated temperature and pressure and then analyzed using thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and focused ion beam-SEM. Three of the eight samples showed dissolution in calcite and corrosion in smectite. SEM and EDS analysis of treated sample 5 (Se-5/shaly-sandtsone) and sample 8 (S-8/dolomitic-limestone) revealed newly precipitated lath- and fibrous-like crystals composed of sulfur (S), oxygen (O), and calcium (Ca), thus interpreted as gypsum. Three-dimensional analysis using FIB of dolomitic limestone samples (Smackover Formation) revealed that gypsum crystals fill fracture porosity. This study significantly contributes to the understanding of carbon dioxide impact on reservoir rock and promotes better management of natural gas resources
Investigations of macro and micro scale void spaces : preservation, modeling and biofilm interactions by Athena Marie Owen Nagel( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dissolutional voids in the subsurface were examined from three different viewpoints. First, analysis of pseudokarst features on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, uncovered the involvement of organics in the cementation and porosity generation process. This organic material was analyzed using SEM, TEM, and in thin section. While the actual role of organics in the cementation process could not be determined using these tools, the abundance of the material was documented. Holocene samples appear to have more organics than Pleistocene samples. The abundance of this material should have an effect on isotope analyses and needs to be considered in future work on meteoric cements and the environments where they form. Second, work on Mallorca Island, Spain, demonstrated how the placement and abundance of exposed caves could predict subsurface cave distributions. This work measured caves along exposed coastlines and in protected areas known as calas. Results found that caves within the calas have larger volumes and aerial footprints than caves on the exposed cliffs. The cave distributions showed that calas had to form prior to cave formation. Several paleo-slump features were observed and are believed to be the result of collapsed Tortonian flank margin caves, which were later in-filled with Messinian sediments, using the caves as limited accommodation space, resulting in these sediment layers unaffected by the collapse further up section. Third, the current method of cave data manipulation to produce cave areal footprints and volume was found to be incorrect and in need of a calibration mechanism. This calibration was determined by reviewing how Compass cave mapping software generates volume estimates, using shapes of known volumes. Cave surveying techniques were also reviewed to determine if survey protocol affected volume outputs. Surveying in straight lines, down the center of a passage, avoiding splay shots, and taking left, right, up and down measurements (LRUDs) were found to generate the most accurate volumes estimates using Compass. These protocols were used to remap caves from paper maps to generate correction factors. Propriety software was used that could "shrink wrap" a 3D cave map rendering to produced values for cave volume and porosity and rock porosity
Investigation of parent source material in Smith County, Mississippi by Kayla Jean Calhoun( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Calcium bentonite deposits of the Glendon and Bucatunna formations of the Oligocene Vicksburg Group located in Smith County, Mississippi were examined to determine the depositional environment, diagenetic history and origin of the bentonite. Traditionally, calcium bentonite was considered to be the product of the weathering of volcanic ash deposits. The hypothesis tested is that the bentonite deposits are not a result of weathered volcanic ash, but are a result of weathered marl. Core samples were drilled from the Chisholm bentonite mine in Smith County and were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and petrographic microscopy. Abundant bacteria along with nanometer-scale organic textures were found throughout and are consistently associated with bentonite, illite, and smectite. No evidence of volcanic ash was found. It appears that the calcium bentonite clays in the Glendon and Bucatunna formations of Smith County, Mississippi formed from weathering, including bacterial activity, of glauconite-bearing marl
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.53 (from 0.51 for Salt marsh ... to 0.89 for Abstracts ...)

Alternative Names
Languages
English (20)