WorldCat Identities

Mississippi State University Department of Geosciences

Overview
Works: 33 works in 33 publications in 1 language and 32 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Mississippi State University
Predicting flank margin cave collapse in the Bahamas by Lawrence Orry Patrick( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sinkhole collapse is a common karst land-use risk around the world. In the Bahamas cover-collapse sinkholes do not exist because soil cover is thin; almost all collapse is due to cave ceiling failure. The most common cave types in the Bahamas are flank margin caves and banana holes. Flank margin caves have three entrance types: dissolution pit, side breach, or ceiling collapse. Both side breach and ceiling collapse are the result of mass erosional forces; pits by focused dissolution. It was previously proposed that slope was a controlling factor in Bahamian cave collapse. This study demonstrated that 7.5 minute topographic maps cannot resolve slopes accurately enough to predict potential collapse locations. Field surveys with 1 m contours allowed for a more concise slope range in which each entrance type preferentially occurred; collapse breaches and pits were common on gentle slopes and side breaches on steep slopes
Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) : a proposed method to find geochemical predictors of sediment oxygen demand by Jonathon Michael Geroux( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD) is the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen between the sediment from the overlying water. The method to acquire SOD values is inefficient and troubled by unreliable equipment. Diffusion gradients in thin film (DGT) are proposed as a potential method to collect geochemical proxy measures that can be used as SOD predictors. Field deployment of the DGTs was conducted at two locations to compare recovery and accuracy against ex-situ centrifuge methods. The results indicated DGT can be used as a statistically significant geochemical method. A principle component analysis was used to determine if reduced iron and manganese collected using DGTs clustered with SOD. Results indicated reduced iron and manganese cannot be used to predict SOD. Sulfide measurement by microelectrode from the same matrix of geochemical methods however did cluster with SOD. A stepwise multiple linear regression concluded sulfide measurement by microelectrode is a statistically significant predictor of SOD
Speleothem strontium concentrations in eogenetic carbonates by Nicole Marie Ridlen( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Three questions were asked during this research. 1) Does the Sr content of Caribbean speleothems have a direct relationship with the age of the host rock at the time of speleothem precipitation?; 2) do older speleothems contain less Sr than younger speleothems in the same climatic setting?; and 3) will speleothems record the change in Sr concentration of eogenetic carbonates as a faster depletion in climates of higher precipitation as opposed to drier climates? The speleothems and cave rocks in this study were analyzed with various methods in an attempt to understand the rock processes that affect speleothem Sr concentrations. Evidence to support the hypothesis that younger host rock contributes higher concentrations of Sr to speleothems was found in the stalagmites of Curacao while Bahamian stalagmites indicated climatic variations. The results have implications for using stalagmites from relatively young, eogenetic limestone as a proxy for Sr-related paleoclimate data
A multi-decadal remote sensing study on glacial change in the North Patagonia Ice field Chile by Lucy Korlekwor Tetteh( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Glaciers in the North Patagonian Ice Fields are temperate glaciers and can be studied to understand the dynamics of climate change. However, the ice field has been neglected in mass balance studies. In this study, multi decadal study of glacial mass balance, glacier retreat and glacial lake expansion in the North Patagonia were studied. Landsat (TM, ETM+ and 8) and ASTER images were used. San Quintin glacier experienced the highest retreat. Demarcation of glacier lakes boundaries indicated an increase in glacial lake area from 13.49 km2 to 65.06 km2 between 1979 and 2013, with an addition of 4 new glacial lakes. Nef glacier recorded the highest mass gain of 9.91 plus or minus 1.96 m.w.e.a.-1 and HPN-4 glacier recorded the highest mass loss of -8.9 plus or minus 1.96 m.w.e.a.-1. However, there is a high uncertainty in the elevation values in the DEM due to the rugged nature of the terrain and presence of the heavy snow cover
Risk perceptions of hurricane track forecasts by Idamis Del Valle-Martínez( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Previous research has suggested that misinterpretations of hurricane track forecasts can lead to errors in estimation of perceived risk. One factor that can be used to understand these errors in judgment of risk perception is called optimistic bias, in which an individual perceives that compared to another person they are at less risk. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine how risk perceptions of hurricane track forecasts are influenced by the optimistic bias and changes in the forecasts. Students from three coastal universities took a survey regarding hurricane risk from two different track scenarios of a hypothetical hurricane approaching their university. Results indicated that optimism and perceptions of hurricane tracks were not correlated. Regardless of changes in forecast tracks, students perceived the same level of risk by the final forecast. This research has important social implications because hurricane track forecasts are part of the hurricane decision-making process
Assessment of reservoir quality and potential impact of sequestered carbon dioxide in diverse lithological reservoir units, south central, Mississippi, USA by Assonman D Degny( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study was designed to understand the possible impact of carbon dioxide on different reservoir rocks in south-central Mississippi. Eight samples, including six from the Heidelberg field (Mississippi), were exposed to carbon dioxide under simulated subsurface conditions of elevated temperature and pressure and then analyzed using thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and focused ion beam-SEM. Three of the eight samples showed dissolution in calcite and corrosion in smectite. SEM and EDS analysis of treated sample 5 (Se-5/shaly-sandtsone) and sample 8 (S-8/dolomitic-limestone) revealed newly precipitated lath- and fibrous-like crystals composed of sulfur (S), oxygen (O), and calcium (Ca), thus interpreted as gypsum. Three-dimensional analysis using FIB of dolomitic limestone samples (Smackover Formation) revealed that gypsum crystals fill fracture porosity. This study significantly contributes to the understanding of carbon dioxide impact on reservoir rock and promotes better management of natural gas resources
Bahamian Quaternary geology and the global carbon budget by Erik Bond Larson( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sea-level change during the Quaternary has had significant impacts on the geology of the Bahamas and the global carbon budget. During periods of low sea-level position conduit caves form in the Bahamas as a function of their respective water budgets. These conduit caves can then collapse and if this collapse reaches the surface a progradational collapse blue hole can be made. Upon subsequent sea-level rise these blue holes can become sediment in-filled. Tidal pumping through these sediment-filled blue holes can result in the formation of whitings. Whitings are formed when the tidally pushed water warms and degasses CO2, driving the precipitation of CaCO3. Whitings are also formed on the shallow banks by resuspension by fish. As sea-level fluctuates the amount of land in the Bahamas and other carbonate regions increases or decreases with sea-level fall or rise, respectively. As the amount of land increases in the Bahamas and other carbonate regions, there is a decrease of carbonate rock exposure at high latitudes due to glaciation. The loss of high latitude carbonates is made up for in the gain of low latitude carbonates in terms of rates of inorganic carbon drawdown associated with karst processes. Additionally, this inorganic carbon draw down from karst processes represents approximately 16% of the unknown carbon sink as reported by the IPCC. This study is significant in that it contributes to the understanding of sea-level fluctuations in relation to the geology of the Bahamas and the global carbon budget
Verification of post-glacial Speleogenesis and the origins of Epigene Maze Caves in New York by Max P Cooper( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dissolutional features called karst exist on the surface, and in the subsurface as caves. In glaciated regions caves were thought to be post-glacial in origin. Work in the 1970s demonstrated that pre-glacial caves existed, but did not answer if a cave could form post-glacially. A model proposed by Mylroie and Carew (1987) states that a post-glacial cave would be controlled entirely by glacial features and the deranged drainage of glaciated terrains. Caves known as maze caves form at maximum rates, and could form to navigable size in the time since deglaciation. Maze caves form in the shallow subsurface, allowing them to be removed in subsequent glaciations. GIS water flow analysis, and calculation of formation times using cross-section data demonstrates that maze caves in the glaciated region of New York are post-glacial in origin fitting in the deranged drainage and forming in the time since deglaciation
Investigation of the variability of extreme tornado climatology by Tory Farney( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Previous tornado climatology research has relied primarily upon means of tornadoes or tornado days. Understanding the variability of tornado days however, will result in a more comprehensive understanding of the climatological distribution of tornadoes. In a changing environment, the extremities of a distribution should change faster than the mean of that distribution. Two methods of analyzing tornado days for predefined areas across the continental United States using the Storm Prediction Center's publication Storm Data from 1950 to 2011 are conducted in this study. Statistical analysis of averages, return periods, and percentiles reveals the variability in the record while consecutive tornado days present an alternative way to assess the seasonal repeatability and to assess risk for historic, multi-day tornado outbreaks. The results of this research will help to better define the traditional “tornado alley” as well as highlight other high- risk locations, especially those with higher interannual variability
Geographic analysis of tornadogenesis from landfalling and nearby tropical cyclones in the state of Florida by Charles Eugene Roop( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Tropical cyclone (TC)-spawned tornadoes in Florida were analyzed to determine patterns of occurrence based on storm and geographic features. Tornadoes were determined to be associated with a landfalling or nearby TC if a tornado occurred within 800 km of the TC's center of circulation. TC-tornadoes were analyzed for patterns based on distance and angle from TC's center, topographic influences, population biases, and influence based on time of landfall. Most TC-Tornadoes tend to occur more often before landfall than after. It was discovered that tornadoes have occurred in different areas with respect to the bearing from the center depending on the landfall location and time of landfall. It was also discovered that land use type, and elevation had little to do with TC-Tornado occurrence. The results do suggest some population bias. The findings will be a guide for operational meteorologists to aid in forecasting likely tornadogenesis from TCs
Investigation of parent source material in Smith County, Mississippi by Kayla Jean Calhoun( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Calcium bentonite deposits of the Glendon and Bucatunna formations of the Oligocene Vicksburg Group located in Smith County, Mississippi were examined to determine the depositional environment, diagenetic history and origin of the bentonite. Traditionally, calcium bentonite was considered to be the product of the weathering of volcanic ash deposits. The hypothesis tested is that the bentonite deposits are not a result of weathered volcanic ash, but are a result of weathered marl. Core samples were drilled from the Chisholm bentonite mine in Smith County and were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and petrographic microscopy. Abundant bacteria along with nanometer-scale organic textures were found throughout and are consistently associated with bentonite, illite, and smectite. No evidence of volcanic ash was found. It appears that the calcium bentonite clays in the Glendon and Bucatunna formations of Smith County, Mississippi formed from weathering, including bacterial activity, of glauconite-bearing marl
Investigation of vegetation discontinuities and the enhancement of convection related to the April 27 2011 multiple EF4 and EF5 tornado scars by Barrett Frank Gutter( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

During the April 25 – 28, 2011 severe weather outbreak, 350 tornadoes were confirmed across 21 states, making the event the largest 3-day outbreak in U.S. History. Of the 350 tornadoes, 13 were of EF4 or EF5 strength. Due to complex terrain and vegetation in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, and eastern Tennessee, only four tornadoes were analyzed in this study. +Abrupt changes in vegetation and the related sensible and latent heat fluxes have been shown to enhance convective activity along and near the resulting land surface discontinuities. This study analyzed heightened convective activity (analyzed by looking at cloud-to-ground lightning data) along each tornado track on days of weak synoptic forcing. Post- tornado months showed no signs of enhanced convective activity along any of the tornado tracks analyzed in this study, which could be attributed to several factors including study period, duration of intensity, tornado track length and width, and land cover
Factors influencing gypsum crystal morphology within a flue gas desulfurization vessel by Kinsey M Byrd( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is utilized by the coal-powered generating industry to safely eliminate sulfur dioxide. A FGD vessel (scrubber) synthetically creates gypsum crystals by combining limestone (CaCO₃), SO₂ flue gas, water and oxygen resulting in crystalline gypsum (CaSO₄ ∙ 2H₂O), which can be sold for an economic return. Flat disk-like crystals, opposed to rod-like crystals, are hard to dewater, lowering economic return. The objectives were to investigate the cause of varying morphologies, understand the environment of precipitation, as well as identify correlations between operating conditions and resulting unfavorable gypsum crystal growth. Results show evidence supporting airborne impurities due to the onsite coal pile, the abundance and size of CaCO₃ and high Ca:SO₄ ratios within the scrubber as possible factors controlling gypsum crystal morphology. In conclusion, regularly purging the system and incorporating a filter on the air intake valve will provide an economic byproduct avoiding costly landfill deposits
Using teleconnection indices to predict tornado outbreak frequency in the US by Kent Harris Sparrow( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The goal of this study is to improve seasonal tornado outbreak forecasting by creating a statistical model that forecasts tornado outbreak frequency in the US using teleconnection indices as predictors. For this study, a tornado outbreak is defined as more than 6 tornado reports associated with a single synoptic system and an event N15 rating index of 0.5 or higher. The tornado outbreak season is confined to all months after February for a given calendar year. Monthly teleconnection indices are derived from a rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) of the geopotential height fields. Various regression techniques were trained with a sample of monthly teleconnection indices, tested on new data, and optimized to achieve the highest predictive skill. The outcome of this study could potentially allow forecasters the ability to predict tornado outbreak potential on a climatological scale with months of lead-time, allowing for better preparation strategies for tornado outbreak seasons
A basin-specific characterization of the subsurface geology of potential reservoir locations in George County, Mississippi by Adam D Lenz( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The preliminary assessment for reservoir sites in George County targeted three basins within the county as the initial focus of the research study: Big Creek, Big Cedar Creek, and Escatawpa River basins. As a portion of the reservoir study, this study was a basin-specific geological assessment of the three basins within George County through literature review, well log correlation, and a county wide spring inventory. The goal of this study was to obtain and interpret subsurface data in order to develop detailed geologic maps and stratigraphic cross sections which aided in the site assessment and characterization of the geologic and hydro-geologic suitability of potential reservoir sites. This study concluded that the hypothesis was proved and all three selected drainage basins were potentially geologically suitable to sustain a large reservoir, therefor other factors should be taken into account to determine specific reservoir location such as stream discharge and water quality
The importance of synoptic-scale processes in diagnosing tropical cyclone rapid intensification in the Atlantic basin by Alexandria Danielle Grimes( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This research identifies large-scale synoptic controls that are relevant for rapid intensification (RI) in the Atlantic basin. Spatial statistical analysis techniques were performed on NASA MERRA data from 1979--2009. Rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) was performed, looking for common patterns in the datasets. The RPC's were grouped using hierarchical clustering techniques, allowing for finding events similar in synoptic structure. The clustered events, representing the total RI and non-RI composites, were averaged yielding composite maps for different scenarios. To verify the results, a permutation test was done to show which variables are good distinguishers of RI and non-RI cases. These variables were used as input in two prediction schemes: logistic regression and support vector machine classification. The prediction scheme was a slight improvement in forecasting RI when using the synoptic variables mid-level vorticity, vertical velocity, low-level potential temperature and specific humidity, as the most significant in predicting RI
Slope stability analysis of spoil dragline bench in lignite coal mine, Choctaw County, Mississippi by Maria Laila Jover( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Spoil pile stability in an open pit coal mine is a common problem and the Red Hills Lignite Mine in Choctaw County is no exception. The mine has had spoil stability problems of their spoil dragline bench since the beginning of their activity in 2002. They have managed to stabilize the conditions by installing prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) to consolidate the layers below the spoil dragline bench, which tended to fail due to an increase in pore water pressure. In this study, the capability of analyzing and predicting future pore water pressure conditions is examined. With the use of the stability model Slope/w and local stress calculations, the predictability of the necessity of PVDs and their spatial distribution are analyzed. The outcomes prove to be circumstantial to local pore water pressure and geology changes, therefore, the spacing between drains could be adapted to the local conditions potentially saving costs
Abstracts of papers to be presented at the Meeting of the Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America and associated societies : Jackson, Mississippi, March 14-15, 1996 by Geological Society of America( Book )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

An investigation into the impacts of land-use/land-cover on cloud-to-ground lightning activity by Nathan Oneal Owen( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cloud-to-Ground (CG) lightning activity was analyzed across the lower Mississippi River valley. The goal was to determine whether certain land use/ land cover (LULC) types supported convective thunderstorms' generation of CG lightning more than other LULC types. Results indicate that forested regions receive more CG lightning than any other LULC type represented in the study area. However, results also indicate that CG lightning activity can be enhanced locally by very large and/or sprawling areas of urban LULC. When cities from previous research, including Atlanta, GA, and Birmingham, AL, are combined in the rankings with cities in this study, the urban size difference between Little Rock, Arkansas, and Birmingham, Alabama, appears to highlight the area of urban LULC needed to enhance convection. Future research should focus on more cities within this gap of urban LULC area in order to identify the minimum areal expanse needed to alter convective ability over cities
Identification of acid volatile sulfides as a predictor of sediment oxygen demand and comparison of the degree of pyritization between Weeks Bay, AL and Old Tampa Bay, FL by Erin Leigh Anderson( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Weeks Bay, AL is a governmentally protected reserve near Mobile Bay, AL, while Old Tampa Bay, FL is an urbanized estuary, located along the western coast of Florida. Estuary health is important to local economies and the health of local marine life, with an emphasis on low levels of eutrophication. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is usually measured to qualify the environmental health of estuaries, but SOD is timeconsuming and expensive. Average acid volatile monosulfides (AVS) concentrations were found to accurately predict SOD variances. The Degree of Pyritization (DOP) is a measure of long-term sediment oxidation conditions, which indicates normal estuary state. Despite the urban land use practices of these two bays, the DOP of each bay is similar
 
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