WorldCat Identities

Mississippi State University Department of Geosciences

Overview
Works: 77 works in 77 publications in 1 language and 77 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Mississippi State University
A petrographic analysis of the microbial thrombolite buildup in the Oxfordian Smackover Formation, Little Cedar Creek Field, Alabama by Natalie Samai-Odegaarden( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation in Little Cedar Creek Field, Alabama is composed of microbial thrombolitic buildups. Core description, petrography, SEM, and isotopic analysis were used to identify the succession of organisms, microbial carbonate deposition, and diagenesis that contributed to formation of these thrombolitic buildups. The microbial thrombolite reef facies in this study accounts for 38.5% of the total Smackover Formation. This facies was deposited 0.5 to 6.75 miles from the paleocoastline. Today it is located 10,225 to 11,750 feet in the subsurface and contains buildups 26 to 50 feet thick. Four microfacies were defined: A- Black Renalcis-like layers, B- Digitate, C- Chaotic and D- Brown laminated centimeter-scale cycles. In most of the buildup, distinct layers of microbially precipitated micrite forms in succession. Microfacies A (Black Renalcis-like Layer) is the relatively least porous and permeable, acting as a potential barrier to flow in contrast to the other more porous microfacies
Nocturnal tornado outbreak climatology by Alexander M Elmore( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Research investigating tornado outbreaks has primarily focused on events that have occurred during daylight hours. While nocturnal outbreaks tend to be less significant in terms of spatial extent and severity than daytime outbreaks, they still pose a serious threat to the general public, owing to the increased difficulty of conveying risk information during nighttime hours. Additionally, the meteorological conditions driving these events are less well established, increasing forecast difficulty. The goal of this research is to establish a climatology of purely nocturnal tornado outbreaks. Events that met the criteria set in this study for nocturnal outbreaks were analyzed spatially and temporally. A diagnostic mesoscale analysis was also performed on the environments present at the onset of the outbreaks. These analyses yielded new information regarding nocturnal tornado outbreaks, as well as results similar to findings of other research focused on nocturnal tornadoes
Investigating the relationship between stream gauge stage and nearby soil moisture in a longleaf pine biome by Cheryl S McLaurin( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

With over 10,000 acres burned in wildland fires in 2014 in Mississippi, accurate fire hazard prediction is of great importance. Soil moisture, fuel moisture, and fire hazard are inextricably linked. Remote estimation of soil moisture in the Southeastern United States for fire hazard modeling is hampered by the use of models engineered for other physiographic regions and the prevalence of deep, fast-draining sands underneath heavy vegetation. United States Geologic Service hydrographs were investigated and compared to nearby soil moisture and precipitation readings in an attempt to identify the links between stream gauge readings and watershed soil moisture. Stream gauge peaks corresponded within a three day window of soil moisture peaks 73.3% of the time, with 43.8% of peaks occurring simultaneously, thus verifying the indicative nature of local hydrographs. With further study, this easily accessed proxy variable could enhance currently used soil moisture models and drought indices
Exploration of the relationship between microbial dendritic shrub structures and formation of aragonitic botryoidal cement by Maurice Philip Testa( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The objective of this project was to test the hypothesis that micritic, microbial, dendritic shrub structures transition into aragonite botryoids by serving as an organic substrate that promotes the initiation of aragonite crystal precipitation. Samples for this study were taken from three sources: 1) a stalactite found in the Lighthouse Reef Blue Hole, Belize; 2) aragonite botryoids in the reef framework of the Permian Capitan Formation and 3) the Lower Permian Laborcita Formation found in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico. Samples studied in thin section and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed dendritic micrite within botryoids and spheroidal shapes associated with aragonite. Precipitation experiments were conducted to grow calcite crystals with organic molecules in solution. The textures formed were very similar to those found at the three sample sites. Despite the similarity, all evidence of an organic substrate promoting precipitation remains circumstantial and therefore inconclusive
Factors influencing gypsum crystal morphology within a flue gas desulfurization vessel by Kinsey M Byrd( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is utilized by the coal-powered generating industry to safely eliminate sulfur dioxide. A FGD vessel (scrubber) synthetically creates gypsum crystals by combining limestone (CaCO₃), SO₂ flue gas, water and oxygen resulting in crystalline gypsum (CaSO₄ ∙ 2H₂O), which can be sold for an economic return. Flat disk-like crystals, opposed to rod-like crystals, are hard to dewater, lowering economic return. The objectives were to investigate the cause of varying morphologies, understand the environment of precipitation, as well as identify correlations between operating conditions and resulting unfavorable gypsum crystal growth. Results show evidence supporting airborne impurities due to the onsite coal pile, the abundance and size of CaCO₃ and high Ca:SO₄ ratios within the scrubber as possible factors controlling gypsum crystal morphology. In conclusion, regularly purging the system and incorporating a filter on the air intake valve will provide an economic byproduct avoiding costly landfill deposits
Investigations of macro and micro scale void spaces : preservation, modeling and biofilm interactions by Athena Marie Owen Nagel( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dissolutional voids in the subsurface were examined from three different viewpoints. First, analysis of pseudokarst features on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, uncovered the involvement of organics in the cementation and porosity generation process. This organic material was analyzed using SEM, TEM, and in thin section. While the actual role of organics in the cementation process could not be determined using these tools, the abundance of the material was documented. Holocene samples appear to have more organics than Pleistocene samples. The abundance of this material should have an effect on isotope analyses and needs to be considered in future work on meteoric cements and the environments where they form. Second, work on Mallorca Island, Spain, demonstrated how the placement and abundance of exposed caves could predict subsurface cave distributions. This work measured caves along exposed coastlines and in protected areas known as calas. Results found that caves within the calas have larger volumes and aerial footprints than caves on the exposed cliffs. The cave distributions showed that calas had to form prior to cave formation. Several paleo-slump features were observed and are believed to be the result of collapsed Tortonian flank margin caves, which were later in-filled with Messinian sediments, using the caves as limited accommodation space, resulting in these sediment layers unaffected by the collapse further up section. Third, the current method of cave data manipulation to produce cave areal footprints and volume was found to be incorrect and in need of a calibration mechanism. This calibration was determined by reviewing how Compass cave mapping software generates volume estimates, using shapes of known volumes. Cave surveying techniques were also reviewed to determine if survey protocol affected volume outputs. Surveying in straight lines, down the center of a passage, avoiding splay shots, and taking left, right, up and down measurements (LRUDs) were found to generate the most accurate volumes estimates using Compass. These protocols were used to remap caves from paper maps to generate correction factors. Propriety software was used that could "shrink wrap" a 3D cave map rendering to produced values for cave volume and porosity and rock porosity
An examination of the hydrological environment in Choctaw County Mississippi since 1995, with a focus on an area surrounding an industrial complex established in 1998 by Jeremy Keith Foote( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The population and industrial complexes of Choctaw County obtains much of its water from an aquifer system in the Tertiary age Wilcox unit of the Mississippi Embayment. Utilizing 20 years of physical chemistry (P-Chem) analysis, potentiometric groundwater records of Choctaw County public water wells as well as industrial P-Chem analysis and surface and ground water level records from an industrial complex, this study examined the changes to the hydrosphere that has taken place since 1995. Analysis of the hydrosphere shows that over the last 20 years, there has been a drop in the potentiometric surface of the Wilcox aquifer system. The analysis also shows changes in the P-Chem of the hydrosphere, changes such as a decrease in the concentration of free CO₂ and chloride, and fluctuations of Alkalinity. Comparisons between groundwater records taken from the industrial complex and other locations around Choctaw County, show little variation in the physical chemistry
Hydrogeological assessment for a suitable location of a reservoir lake in George County, Mississippi / by Corey Tanner Ladner by Corey T Ladner( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The construction of a reservoir lake was proposed in 2010 for George County, Mississippi, USA. The proposed reservoir would be designed to serve primarily for industrial water storage. As the preliminary portion of the reservoir project, a baseline watershed assessment was performed for the purpose of identifying a reservoir site with potential to fill a lake volume capable of providing a sufficient water supply to prevent the Pascagoula River near Graham Ferry, Mississippi from dropping below a measured 7Q10 base flow when 100 million gallons of water per day are withdrawn from the river for industrial use. The initial focus of the assessment was on three watersheds Big Creek, Big and Little Cedar Creek, and Escatawpa River. Evaluations of surface water quantity and quality measurements along with reservoir daily water storage models suggested two reservoirs were suitable for continuation of the reservoir project
The legacy of cotton : a geographical perspective on the influence of traditionalist politics in Mississippi by William Edward Stephen Cottrell( Book )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

It was hypothesized that the socialspatial dialectic (location, education, politics and race) contributes to Mississippi's low livability ranking. Regression models were employed using race, student funding rates, high school graduation rates, property tax, and voter turnout in the 82 counties as variables. The research found evidence that Blacks have lower graduation rates than Whites and property tax has a significant effect on voter participation at the gamma = .001 level. Social capital disadvantage seems to reside within both races with voter participation, property tax rates, and school funding being more pronounced with Whites. Results suggest that political capital should not be diminished in researching Mississippi's livability ranking
Investigation of the variability of extreme tornado climatology by Tory Farney( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Previous tornado climatology research has relied primarily upon means of tornadoes or tornado days. Understanding the variability of tornado days however, will result in a more comprehensive understanding of the climatological distribution of tornadoes. In a changing environment, the extremities of a distribution should change faster than the mean of that distribution. Two methods of analyzing tornado days for predefined areas across the continental United States using the Storm Prediction Center's publication Storm Data from 1950 to 2011 are conducted in this study. Statistical analysis of averages, return periods, and percentiles reveals the variability in the record while consecutive tornado days present an alternative way to assess the seasonal repeatability and to assess risk for historic, multi-day tornado outbreaks. The results of this research will help to better define the traditional “tornado alley” as well as highlight other high- risk locations, especially those with higher interannual variability
Slope stability analysis of spoil dragline bench in lignite coal mine, Choctaw County, Mississippi by Maria Laila Jover( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Spoil pile stability in an open pit coal mine is a common problem and the Red Hills Lignite Mine in Choctaw County is no exception. The mine has had spoil stability problems of their spoil dragline bench since the beginning of their activity in 2002. They have managed to stabilize the conditions by installing prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) to consolidate the layers below the spoil dragline bench, which tended to fail due to an increase in pore water pressure. In this study, the capability of analyzing and predicting future pore water pressure conditions is examined. With the use of the stability model Slope/w and local stress calculations, the predictability of the necessity of PVDs and their spatial distribution are analyzed. The outcomes prove to be circumstantial to local pore water pressure and geology changes, therefore, the spacing between drains could be adapted to the local conditions potentially saving costs
Verification of post-glacial Speleogenesis and the origins of Epigene Maze Caves in New York by Max P Cooper( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dissolutional features called karst exist on the surface, and in the subsurface as caves. In glaciated regions caves were thought to be post-glacial in origin. Work in the 1970s demonstrated that pre-glacial caves existed, but did not answer if a cave could form post-glacially. A model proposed by Mylroie and Carew (1987) states that a post-glacial cave would be controlled entirely by glacial features and the deranged drainage of glaciated terrains. Caves known as maze caves form at maximum rates, and could form to navigable size in the time since deglaciation. Maze caves form in the shallow subsurface, allowing them to be removed in subsequent glaciations. GIS water flow analysis, and calculation of formation times using cross-section data demonstrates that maze caves in the glaciated region of New York are post-glacial in origin fitting in the deranged drainage and forming in the time since deglaciation
Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) : a proposed method to find geochemical predictors of sediment oxygen demand by Jonathon Michael Geroux( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD) is the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen between the sediment from the overlying water. The method to acquire SOD values is inefficient and troubled by unreliable equipment. Diffusion gradients in thin film (DGT) are proposed as a potential method to collect geochemical proxy measures that can be used as SOD predictors. Field deployment of the DGTs was conducted at two locations to compare recovery and accuracy against ex-situ centrifuge methods. The results indicated DGT can be used as a statistically significant geochemical method. A principle component analysis was used to determine if reduced iron and manganese collected using DGTs clustered with SOD. Results indicated reduced iron and manganese cannot be used to predict SOD. Sulfide measurement by microelectrode from the same matrix of geochemical methods however did cluster with SOD. A stepwise multiple linear regression concluded sulfide measurement by microelectrode is a statistically significant predictor of SOD
Addressing questions of prehistoric occupation seasonality at freshwater mussel shell ring sites in the Mississippi Delta : applications in carbonate geochemistry and zooarchaeology by Joseph Alan Mitchell( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Seasonality estimates based on archaeological shellfish remains have been an important component of settlement pattern reconstruction. Investigations of this nature allow researchers to place prehistoric people on the landscape at points in space at different times of the year. Many of the previous seasonality studies, however, have focused on marine species from coastal sites, with little attention given to freshwater locales, especially ones in the Mississippi Delta. To address that disparity, this study examines freshwater mussel “season of capture” via analysis of stable oxygen isotope ratios in specimens recovered from two Late Woodland sites located along the Yazoo River, Mississippi. As freshwater mussel shells are composed of aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), they can suffer greatly from the impact of meteoric diagenesis. Because of this, samples must be evaluated for diagenesis prior to any geochemical analysis taking place. Archaeological shell samples were examined via thin-section petrography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Visual analysis indicated pristine aragonite microstructure and crystallography in all archaeological shell samples, and confirmed their suitability for isotope analysis. Vetted shells were then micromilled across accretionary growth bands, and analyzed for their oxygen isotope signatures. Isotope profiles were then interpreted for their individual “season of capture”, and oscillation patterns for 22 shell specimens indicated mussels were being collected in all four seasons. These data support the view that at least some portion of the human population at both sites engaged in shellfishing activities year-round, indicating sedentary populations at both locales. The shell assemblages were also investigated for the purpose of informing modern conservation efforts (i.e., “applied zooarchaeology”). Nearly 24,000 valves were analyzed taxonomically, yielding the presence of 37 species, of which 24 represented new river records for the Yazoo River. These data provide a valuable historical perspective, cataloging communities as they existed prior to extensive modern impacts, thus representing an ecological baseline to be compared with modern populations. Though modern data are extremely limited for the river, the study revealed it once supported a diverse mussel community containing numerous species currently considered rare, endangered, or extinct in Mississippi
Using teleconnection indices to predict tornado outbreak frequency in the US by Kent Harris Sparrow( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The goal of this study is to improve seasonal tornado outbreak forecasting by creating a statistical model that forecasts tornado outbreak frequency in the US using teleconnection indices as predictors. For this study, a tornado outbreak is defined as more than 6 tornado reports associated with a single synoptic system and an event N15 rating index of 0.5 or higher. The tornado outbreak season is confined to all months after February for a given calendar year. Monthly teleconnection indices are derived from a rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) of the geopotential height fields. Various regression techniques were trained with a sample of monthly teleconnection indices, tested on new data, and optimized to achieve the highest predictive skill. The outcome of this study could potentially allow forecasters the ability to predict tornado outbreak potential on a climatological scale with months of lead-time, allowing for better preparation strategies for tornado outbreak seasons
Investigation of vegetation discontinuities and the enhancement of convection related to the April 27 2011 multiple EF4 and EF5 tornado scars by Barrett Frank Gutter( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

During the April 25 – 28, 2011 severe weather outbreak, 350 tornadoes were confirmed across 21 states, making the event the largest 3-day outbreak in U.S. History. Of the 350 tornadoes, 13 were of EF4 or EF5 strength. Due to complex terrain and vegetation in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, and eastern Tennessee, only four tornadoes were analyzed in this study. +Abrupt changes in vegetation and the related sensible and latent heat fluxes have been shown to enhance convective activity along and near the resulting land surface discontinuities. This study analyzed heightened convective activity (analyzed by looking at cloud-to-ground lightning data) along each tornado track on days of weak synoptic forcing. Post- tornado months showed no signs of enhanced convective activity along any of the tornado tracks analyzed in this study, which could be attributed to several factors including study period, duration of intensity, tornado track length and width, and land cover
Environmental and growth rate effects on trace element incorporation to calcite and aragonite : an experimental study by Jeremy M Weremeichik( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The subsumed work of this dissertation is comprised of three independent but interrelated studies which seek to further the understanding of processes which govern the coprecipitation of trace elements with calcite and aragonite minerals. These studies investigate the effects of: 1) pressure on crystal morphology and trace element incorporation to aragonite; 2) growth rate on uranium partitioning between calcite and fluid; 3) aqueous Mg/Ca on the magnesium partitioning to low-magnesium calcite. The importance of this work is to determine how the environment of formation and growth rate influences the geochemistry of CaCO₃ in order to improve existing paleoproxies and develop new ones. In the first study a series of experiments were conducted at 1, 25, 75, 100, and 345 bars of nitrogen – this range covers pressures at the oceanic floor. Aragonite precipitation was induced by the one-time addition of a Na₂CO₃ solution to an artificial seawater. Results suggest that oceanic floor pressures could affect the crystallization of CaCO₃ by altering mineralogical composition and aragonite crystal size. In the second study calcite crystallized from NH₄Cl-CaCl₂-U solution by diffusion of CO₂. The calcite growth rate was monitored by sequential spiking of the calciteprecipitating fluids with REE dopants. The resulting crystals were analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Results showed that the partitioning of uranium increases with increasing growth rate. Growth entrapment model (GEM) and unified uptake kinetics model (UUKM) explain the obtained data. In the third study CaCO₃ precipitated in NaCl solution by continuous addition of CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and either Na₂CO₃ or NaHCO₃. The Mg/Ca of the fluid was adjusted in an attempt to produce calcite where Mg/Ca would match Mg/Ca in foraminifera shells. It was observed that multiple CaCO₃ polymorphs precipitated from fluids at high pH (Na₂CO₃ doping experiments). This result underscores the potential control of pH and/or supersaturation state on CaCO₃ polymorph precipitated from low Mg/Ca solutions. Calcite was the only mineral crystallized at low pH (NaHCO₃ doping experiments). It was determined that Mg partition coefficient between calcite and fluid (KMg) negatively correlates with Mg/Ca(Fluid) when it exceeds 0.5 mol/mol; no systematic correlation was observed when 0.05< Mg/Ca(Fluid)<0.5 mol/mol
Maximizing the informal education of Death Valley National Park ichnofossils by Curt Burbach( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Certain sites within Death Valley National Park contain ample ichnofossils, specifically vertebrate animal tracks, dating back to the Pliocene. Since the majority of these track locations are closed to the general public, their scientific significance and educational value toward improving the geoliteracy of the general public remain unexplored. Based on the impressive amount of ichnofossils present at the park, this research investigates how to improve general public geoliteracy through these tracks, using basic principles and supporting concepts of the National Science Foundation's Earth Science Literacy Initiative, while respecting the security measures of the park and adhering to National Park Service interpretation guidelines
The effects of land use and contaminant transport at a proposed reservoir site in Smith County, Mississippi by William Earl Cherry( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study investigates nutrient and contaminant transport within the Oakohay Creek watershed in order to (1) demonstrate the effects of land use on water quality, (2) model and predict the trophic state of the proposed reservoir given current nutrient loads, and (3) understand potential groundwater flow paths within the reservoir footprint. This study demonstrates that the current, large-scale poultry industry, though not statistically significant with a confidence of 95%, does have a negative impact on the surface water quality. The study also shows evidence for a eutrophic reservoir (TSI-P of 59.4 area-weighted mean) with an increased potential for nuisance algal growth in the northeast segment (TSI-P of 66.0). Dye tracing studies suggest the potential for groundwater flow out of the reservoir as a result of potential paleo-channels within the Glendon Limestone. This study concludes that the location on the Oakohay Creek is not suitable for the construction of a reservoir
Analytical analysis of groundwater availability in Oktibbeha County, Mississippi by Brandon Crabtree( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Oktibbeha County, Mississippi depends on the Gordo Formation for fresh water. This formation has never been analyzed as to its limits as the exclusive groundwater source for Oktibbeha County. The last extensive groundwater study in this area was done in 1965 and included the surrounding counties while focusing on the larger cities in that area. This project studied the aquifer systems within the county and determined the groundwater resources for the county with its growing population. Groundwater was analyzed for future usability as a public supply. Potentiometric surface maps were also updated in the area to reflect current groundwater levels and projected groundwater levels. Updated cross sections were also created for a more detailed understanding of the geologic units and hydraulic properties of the aquifer systems in the area
 
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