WorldCat Identities

Centre for the Future State

Overview
Works: 19 works in 34 publications in 1 language and 456 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  History 
Classifications: RJ240, 614.47096652
Publication Timeline
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Publications about Centre for the Future State Publications about Centre for the Future State
Publications by Centre for the Future State Publications by Centre for the Future State
Most widely held works by Centre for the Future State
The social dynamics of infant immunisation in Africa : perspectives from the Republic of Guinea by Dominique Millimouno ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Infant immunisation is currently a focus of national and global policy attention in relation to Africa as a key means to address ill-health and contribute to the Millennium Development Goals. Yet vaccination coverage is stagnant or falling in many African countries. Redressing such declines, and ensuring the effectiveness and sustainability of proposed expansion of immunisation programmes, requires a sound understanding of the factors shaping vaccine delivery and acceptance in contemporary African health systems. This paper explores these issues through an anthropological approach. It considers how vaccine delivery is influenced by the wider context of the health care system; how vaccination demand is shaped by socially-differentiated knowledges and political identities, and how interactions with delivery institutions and their frontline health workers unfold. It focuses on urban and rural sites in the Republic of Guinea, where dominant policy perspectives often see increasing immunisation coverage as a matter of (a) improving demand through educational approaches that enhance peoples biomedical understandings of the reasons for vaccination, and quell misguided anti-vaccination rumours, and (b) redressing supply difficulties through improvements to vaccine delivery system infrastructure, financing and management. In contrast, our ethnographic findings suggest that high demand already exists, although underlain by socially- embedded forms of knowledge and reasoning that fail to match, and often contradict, biomedical views. Yet people frequently cannot realise effective access to vaccines, less because of inherent problems in vaccine delivery systems, but because of the ways these are embedded in the multiple, pluralised processes through which health services are now provided in the Guinean context. As health workers struggle to cope with provision dilemmas, interactions arise which mothers often experience as negative, and which can deter their future demand. Such an analysis, and its implications for policy, emerge only through detailed ethnography of what vaccination practices actually mean to Guinean parents in the context of everyday child care and social relations
Infrastructures of consent : interrogating citizen participation mandates in Indian urban governance by Karen Coelho ( Book )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 37 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
New democratic trends in China? : reforming the all-China federation of trade unions by Jude Howell ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 37 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Over the last two decades multi-candidate direct elections for village committees have spread across China, attracting considerable attention both within China and from external observers. Though the Communist Party has resisted the spread of direct elections upwards to township and provincial levels, village committee elections form part of a broader scenario of internal Party reform that aims at enhancing the accountability, probity and representativeness of Party and government leaders. It is against this background that the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) has also joined the fray and initiated direct elections for grassroots trade unionists. This Working Paper examines the rise of direct elections in the ACFTU, their significance for the reform of Chinas sole trade union federation and for improving workers conditions, and their broader implications for processes of governance in China. The first section outlines the diverse pressures on the ACFTU to reform and the various initiatives taken to this end. It then traces the emergence of direct trade union elections at grassroots level in China, sketching the arguments used to promote, constrain and resist their implementation. In the third section the paper focuses on the case of grassroots direct trade union elections in Guangdong province, highlighting both the variations in practice and the political complexities of the process. Finally, it reflects on the implications of these findings for the future development of the ACFTU, workers rights and broader processes of governance. The paper draws upon documentary research and fieldwork carried out in China between 2003 and 2004
Get what you want, give what you can : embedded public finance in Porto Alegre by Aaron Schneider ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 37 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The problem of public finance in Latin America is a structural contradiction. The historical pattern of insertion in the international economy creates a large number of poor who have very real material needs for public services, but they cannot individually or collectively contribute the funds to pay for them. Rich people hold wealth, but they are unwilling to contribute to public services that go to other groups while they turn to private schools, education and transportation. They are especially unwilling to hand over their wealth to governments perceived as corrupt, inefficient, and illegitimate. This raises a basic puzzle: how do governments provide for those in need while securing the compliance of those with wealth? In this context, the innovation of participatory budgeting is a striking example of embedded public finance in which taxes and expenditures are rooted in government legitimacy. Three elements comprise embedded public finance: Democratic participation in which an increasing number of citizens participate in public decisions, and different groups, especially the poor, have been incorporated; Progressive public spending in which investment in poor neighbourhoods has increased both in absolute terms and in relation to rich neighbourhoods; Competent governance in which perceptions of corruption have decreased, and administrative structures riddled with clientelism and patronage have been reformed. These three elements rest atop a political coalition that joins middle sector and poor voters. Because these citizen groups have different needs, the state had to tailor the benefits it extended to the demands of each group. This strategy allowed the state to mobilise distinct contributions from each group, votes from the poor and tax compliance from those with wealth
State-business relations and investment in Egypt by Abla Abdel-Latif ( Book )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Who participates? : civil society and the new democratic politics in São Paulo, Brazil by Peter P Houtzager ( Book )
2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper explores the participation of collective civil society actors in institutional spaces for direct citizen participation in the city of Sô Paulo, Brazil. The data was produced by a unique survey of civil society actors who work for, or with, sectors of the lower-middle class, the working class, and the urban poor. The paper identifies factors that influence the propensity of civil society actors to participate in three types of institutions: the participatory budget, the constitutionally mandated policy councils, and other local participatory councils and programmes. Many political leaders, policy-makers and researchers believe that such forms of direct citizen participation can help democratise and rationalise the state, as well as provide politically marginalised populations with a say in policy. Whether these hopes materialise depends in part on the answer(s) to a question the literatures on civil society, citizen participation and empowered participation have not addressed - Who Participates? Contrary to the focus on autonomy in much of the work on civil society, the statistical findings support the claim that collective actors with relations to institutional actors, and the Workers' Party and State actors in particular, have the highest propensity to participate. The findings also support the idea that the institutional design of participatory policy-making spaces has a significant impact on who participates, and that this impact varies by type of civil society actor. Unlike what has been found in research on individual citizen participation, there is no evidence that the 'wealth' of collective actors influences participation
The political economy of the resource curse : a literature review by Andrew Rosser ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper presents a critical survey of the literature on the 'resource curse', focusing on three main questions: (i) are natural resources bad for development?; (ii) what causes the resource curse?; and, (iii) how can the resource curse be overcome? In respect of these questions, three observations are made. First, while the literature provides considerable evidence that natural resource abundance is associated with various negative development outcomes, this evidence is by no means conclusive. Second, existing explanations for the resource curse do not adequately account for the role of social forces or external political and economic environments in shaping development outcomes in resource abundant countries, nor for the fact that, while most resource abundant countries have performed poorly in developmental terms, a few have done quite well. Finally, recommendations for overcoming the resource curse have not generally taken into account the issue of political feasibility. More generally, it is argued that the basic problem with the literature is that researchers have been too reductionist - they have tended to explain development performance solely in terms of the size and nature of countries natural resource endowments. A consensus is emerging that various political and social variables mediate the relationship between natural resource wealth and development outcomes. But rather than acknowledge that these variables are shaped by a range of historical and other factors in each case, scholars have tended to see them as determined by the natural resource base. Put differently, scholars have been asking the wrong question: rather than asking why natural resource wealth has fostered various political pathologies and in turn promoted poor development performance, they should have been asking what political and social factors enable some resource abundant countries to utilise their natural resources to promote development and prevent other resource abundant countries from doing the same
Governance, taxes, and tax reform in Latin America by Victor Lledó ( Book )
3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the 1980s, Latin American countries began to implement a set of tax reforms inspired in large part by the international financial institutions and ideas associated with the Washington Consensus. These reforms involved above all the simplification of tax structures and the removal of exemptions and special privileges; the replacement of trade taxes by value-added taxes; and an emphasis on improved tax administration. Although not fully implemented, these reforms have generally been useful. However, they have come at a price: other issues have been driven and kept off the tax policy agenda. The excluded issues include considerations of equity and redistribution; and a serious concern for governance questions - the interactions between tax policy and the legitimacy of governments and the policies they pursue. In a rather quieter way, many Latin American governments recently have initiated a series of 'indigenous' tax reforms. These owe little to the support or urging of international financial institutions, are designed to deal with particular local problems, begin to address some of the more important political dimensions of tax reform, and have been modestly successful. These indigenous reforms provide a basis on which Latin American countries could build a more wide-ranging programme of tax reform tailored to regional and national circumstances. Such a programme could and should focus more on the political and governance dimensions of taxation and attempt to build something resembling national 'social contracts' around issues of public revenue and expenditure
Why did Indonesia overcome the resource curse? by Andrew Rosser ( Book )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Over the past few decades, developing countries that are rich in natural resources have performed significantly less well in economic terms than those that are resource poor. Indonesia is an exception in this respect. Despite its natural resource wealth, Indonesia performed extremely well in the three decades prior to the onset of the Asian crisis in 1997. In 1965, Indonesia was widely regarded as an economic 'basket case' but by the early 1990s, it had been labelled by the World Bank as an East Asian 'miracle' economy. How can Indonesia's economic success compared to other resource-rich countries during this period be explained? This paper suggests that Indonesia's success stemmed from two factors: the victory of counter-revolutionary forces over communist and radical nationalist forces in Indonesia during the 1960s and the nature of Indonesia's geo-political and geo-economic environment. The former, it is argued, established the preconditions for a reorientation of economic policy during the late 1960s and, through this, the country's reintegration into the global capitalist economy. The latter meant that this reintegration occurred on terms favourable to the country. The two combined meant that when international oil prices rose sharply during the 1970s, Indonesia's 'New Order' government had a strong incentive to manage the country's newfound oil wealth well rather than allow it to be completely squandered through corruption or poor economic management
Associations and the exercise of citizenship in new democracies : evidence from São Paulo and Mexico City by Peter P Houtzager ( Book )
3 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
A well-established body of democratic theory suggests that associations are the schools of democracy and, because they produce civic and active citizens, are vital to the quality of democracy. In this paper we find that this may not be the case in newer democracies with authoritarian legacies. Survey research in the large urban centers of Sô Paulo and Mexico City reveals that citizens who participate in associations are more likely to actively pursue a range of rights and entitlements, but this participation does not improve the quality of their relations with government. Participation in associations does not make it more likely that an individual has the type of direct relations to government that approximate the democratic ideal, and that suggests that public officials treat citizens as legal equals and carriers of rights and entitlements. Instead, associations are as likely to reinforce the detached, brokered, or contentious relations to government that are common in newer democracies and vary in their distance from the democratic ideal. Rather than focus on voting behaviour or partisan activities, we explore the civil component of active citizenship that operates when citizens seek access to the public goods necessary for enjoyment of the rights and entitlements constitutive of contemporary citizenship
Polio vaccines : difficult to swallow : the story of controversy in Northern Nigeria by Maryam Yahya ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 24 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Global health and poverty reduction discourses have recognised immunisation as one of the most affordable and effective means of reducing child mortality and in a broader sense, as an essential contribution to poverty reduction efforts. While immunisation comes with countless benefits, it is potentially a complex and difficult health strategy to enforce. Decisions on broader health as well as immunisation goals are often made at a global level to be incorporated and adapted in to national health plans and budgets. Evidently for immunisation campaigns, the journey from the global to the local is a vulnerable and unpredictable one. Indeed 'anti-vaccination rumours' have been defined as a major threat to achieving vaccine coverage goals. This is demonstrated in this paper through a case study of responses to the Global Polio Eradication Campaign (GPEI) in northern Nigeria where Muslim leaders ordered the boycott of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). A 16-month controversy resulted from their allegations that the vaccines were contaminated with anti-fertility substances and the HIV virus was a plot by Western governments to reduce Muslim populations worldwide. Through desk and field research, this paper explores the political and cultural angles of this controversy revealing deeper dimensions and complex factors that have contributed to the rejection of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) in northern Nigeria. Through the lens of the local northern Nigerian communities, this paper examines and brings to question the roles, responsibilities and actions of global and national actors in implementing effective immunisation campaigns with a view to curbing and managing anti-vaccination rumours and informing better practices for international health partnerships. I will argue that while the polio vaccine boycott has proved costly in both economic and human terms, it has opened up important lines of communication at both global and national levels, deepening dialogue, participation and sensitivity
Aid, rents and the politics of the budget process by Andrés Mejía Acosta ( Book )
2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper analyses the impact of political institutions and budgetary procedures on budget governance in aid- and resource-dependent countries
Microfinance impact and the MDGs : the challenge of scaling-up by Martin Greeley ( Book )
2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper concerns the potential for microfinance to make a difference in achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It recognises that microfinance can contribute to several MDGs but that to do so in ways that make a real difference would involve a significant scaling-up of microfinance service provision. Herein lies the challenge. The expansion of developing country microfinance services is increasingly driven by commercial investors who do not usually assess Microfinance Institution (MFI) performance according to MDG criteria. At best, they will use some fairly loose 'social' criteria often borrowed from the corporate social responsibility literature; or they may refer, usually without precision, to a double bottom line of financial and social performance. These have little or nothing to do with achievement of the MDGs. As the empirical material presented makes clear, MFIs that do not deliberately and rigorously target poor households are unlikely to make any difference to MDG attainment. MFIs with a social mission focused on poverty reduction (MDG1) face a genuine difficulty. To expand coverage of poor households, they generally need to seek financial support, usually in the form of loans or equity. Their difficulty is that they face a serious risk of mission drift, concentrating on achieving an outstanding financial performance, which is necessary anyway and especially if they wish to access commercial funds, and neglecting their social mission. In other words, commercial funding may mean less attention to poor households in microfinance service delivery. The challenge for the industry is to manage scaling-up without losing sight of its social purposes. The paper argues for client-level assessment by MFIs that can both ensure that poor households are targeted and that microfinance impact on their poverty status can be monitored. Developing a social performance monitoring system based on client assessment is the principal way in which MFI impact on the MDGs can be established and maintained
Rivalry or synergy? : formal and informal local governance in rural India by Kripa Ananthpur ( Book )
2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Informal local governance institutions (ILGIs) are complex organisations, which continue to be prevalent at village level in rural India. Although generally perceived by educated Indians to be 'oppressive', ILGIs also have progressive features and often perform a range of useful, collective functions at the village level. Rather than shrinking in the face of modernity ILGIs have found ways to interact, often in a positive manner, with the newer formal, elected local government institutions - Grama Panchayats. On the basis of field research in Karnataka state, this paper tries to present a more holistic picture of ILGIs, including their role in village governance and service delivery; the ways in which they interact with Grama Panchayats, and the implications of their existence and role for local democracy. Finally, I present a tentative theoretical framework that might help explain why in Karnataka - and in India generally - ILGIs seem to be less repressive, more functional, and more likely to survive than in some other countries of the South
Where are 'pockets' of effective agencies likely in weak governance states and why? : a propositional inventory by David K Leonard ( Book )
1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The politics of taxation and implications for accountability in Ghana 1981-2008 by Wilson Prichard ( Book )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In many ways the raising of tax revenues is the most central activity of any state, but it is only recently that the development field has begun to take questions about taxation and its relationship to the performance of government seriously. This research seeks to investigate the particular hypothesis that a government that relies primarily on tax revenues, as opposed to natural resource rents or foreign aid, is more likely to be accountable to its citizens. This research seeks to capture the evolution of the Ghanaian central government tax system since 1982. The first goal is to understand the politics behind this evolution, in order to pinpoint the factors influencing the willingness and ability of governments to raise domestic revenue. The research then proceeds to ask whether the evolution of the tax system provides evidence that government efforts to raise taxes have given rise to successful demands for greater accountability. The research finds that there is significant evidence that taxation has often been a catalyst for demands for greater accountability, but also finds that the nature of this relationship has varied dramatically across time, context and tax types. While generalisations demand further research, initial evidence points to several factors that shape the nature of state-society bargaining over taxation, among them: the broader state of politics, the role of elites, the mobilising capacity of civil society, the motives for the tax increase and the type of tax in question
A tale of two cities : the political economy of local investment climate in Solo and Manado, Indonesia by Arianto A Patunru ( Book )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Signposts to more effective states : responding to governance challenges in developing countries by Mick Moore ( Book )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
An upside down view of governance by Sue Unsworth ( Book )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
 
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Alternative Names
Center for the Future State
Institute of Development Studies (Brighton, England). Centre for the Future State
Languages
English (34)