WorldCat Identities

United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations

Overview
Works: 1,921 works in 2,213 publications in 1 language and 8,651 library holdings
Roles: Researcher
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by United States
SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The overall goal of this project is to improve the effectiveness of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to image and quantify radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. During the past year, we have made significant progress toward this goal, and this report summarizes that work. Our efforts have been mainly directed along three fronts. First, we have developed and tested new reconstruction methods including three-dimensional iterative algorithms that model non-uniform attenuation and distance-dependent detector response. Both fan beam and parallel beam collimator geometries have been modeled and novel ways of improving the efficiency of the computationally intensive methods have been introduced. Second, an ultra-high resolution, small field-of-view pinhole collimator has been constructed and evaluated. Reconstructed spatial resolution of 1 to 3 mm (FWHM) has been achieved in phantom scans with a useful field-of-view of 9 to 10 cm. Finally, we have investigated the ability of SPECT to image and quantify astatine-211 distributions. Reconstructed images of phantom data demonstrated quantitative accuracy to within 10% with proper attenuation and scatter compensation
Theoretical atomic physics for fusion. Annual report, 1993( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The understanding of electron-ion collision processes in plasmas remains a key factor in the ultimate development of nuclear fusion as a viable energy source for the nation. Our 1993--1995 research proposal delineated several areas of research in electron-ion scattering theory. In this paper we summarize our efforts in 1993
Domain wall formation in late-time phase transitions( )

4 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate domain wall formation in late-time phase transitions. We find that as in the invisible-axion-domain-wall phenomenon, thermal effects alone are insufficient to drive different regions of the Universe to different parts of the disconnected vacuum manifold. This suggests that domain walls do not form unless either there is some supplemental (but perhaps not unreasonable) dynamics to localize the scalar field responsible for the phase transition to the low-temperature maximum (to an extraordinary precision) before the onset of the phase transition, or there is some non-thermal mechanism to produce large fluctuations in the scalar field. The fact the domain wall production is not a robust prediction of late-time transitions may suggest future directions in model building
Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993( )

4 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H⁻ collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H⁻ is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion - atom collisions. In addition secondary negative particle emission yields for H° on Cu in the 3 to 50 keV range are shown
Mechanical properties and modeling of seal-forming lithologies( )

4 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Specific goals and accomplishments of this research include: (1) The evaluation of models of salt diaper ascent that involve either power law, dislocation creep as determined experimentally by Horseman et al. (1993) or linear, fluid-assisted creep as reported by Spiers et al. (1988, 1990, 1992). We have compared models assuming these two, experimentally evaluated flow laws and examined the predictions they make regarding diaper incubation periods, ascent velocities, deviatoric stresses and strain rates. (2) The evaluation of the effects of differential loading on the initiation an of salt structures. (3) Examination of the role of basement faults on the initiation and morphologic evolution of salt structures. (4) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of shale as a function of pressure and determination of the nature of its brittle-ductile transition. (5) Evaluation of the mechanical anisotropies of shales with varying concentrations, distributions and preferred orientations of clay. (6) The determination of temperature and ratedependencies of strength for a shale constitutive model that can be used in numerical models that depend on viscous formulations. (7) Determination of the mechanisms of deformation for argillaceous rocks over awide range of conditions. (8) Evaluation of the effects of H[sub 2]O within clay interlayers, as adsorbed surface layers
Nonlinear dynamics and plasma transport. Progress report, September 15, 1992--September 14, 1993( )

3 editions published between 1993 and 1995 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This progress report reports work done on a program in nonlinear dynamical aspects of plasma turbulence and transport funded by DOE from 1992-1995. The purpose of this program has been to promote the utilization of recent pathbreaking developments in nonlinear science in plasma turbulence and transport and to fully utilize the scientific expertise of Russian fusion and plasma community in collaboration with our group to address outstanding fusion theory problems. In the work reported in our progress report, we have studied simple models which are motivated by observation on actual fusion devices. The models focus on the important physical processes without incorporating the complexity of the geometry of real devices. We have also studied linear stability problems which incorporated important physics issues related to geometry involving closed field lines and open field lines. This allows for a deeper analysis and understanding of the system both analytically and numerically. The strong collaboration between the Russian visitors and the US participants has led to a fruitful and strong research program that taps the complementary analytic and numerical capabilities of the two groups. Over the years several distinguished Russian visitors have interacted with various members of the group and set up collaborative work which forms a significant part of proposed research. Dr. Galeev, Director of the Space Research Institute of Moscow and Dr. Novakovskii from the Kurchatov Institute are two such ongoing collaborations. 21 refs
Boron in nuclear medicine : New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1994 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This annual progress report describes new methods of incorporation of radioiodine into physiologically active compounds (amphetamines), and the use of organoboranes to labeled radiopharmaceuticals with Oxygen- 15, Nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18. Preclinical studies are also reported on evaluation of butyothiophenones as agents acting at dopaminergic or serotonic synapses
Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, May 1, 1994--February 28, 1995( )

6 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This progress report studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions discusses the following topics: quantal effects on growth of instabilities in nuclear matter; collisional damping of giant resonances in a non-Markovian approach; and medium-modified interaction induced by fluctuations
Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS). Technical progress report and continuation proposal, February 1, 1992--January 31, 1993( )

5 editions published between 1992 and 1997 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Committee on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) of the National Research Council (NRC) is charged with monitoring the health of the field of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science in the United States. Accordingly, the Committee identifies and examines both broad and specific issues affecting the field. Regular meetings, teleconferences, briefings from agencies and the scientific community, the formation of study panels to prepare reports, and special symposia are among the mechanisms used by the CAMOS to meet its charge. This progress report presents a review of CAMOS activities from February 1, 1992 to January 31, 1993. This report also includes the status of activities associated with the CAMOS study on the field that is being conducted by the Panel on the Future of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (FAMOS)
Radiation Effects Research Foundation : a cooperative Japan-US research organization. Annual report 1 April 1995-31 March 1996( )

4 editions published between 1993 and 1998 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The production and destruction of negative ions( )

3 editions published between 1993 and 1997 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li[sup [minus]] was completed, and attention has turned to the photodetachment of the stable ion B[sup [minus]] and the metastable ion Be[sup [minus]]
Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes. Final report( )

3 editions published between 1991 and 1995 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The goals of the research program evolved into six areas: Molecular simulation of phase equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent electrolyte solutions. Molecular simulation of solvation and structure in supercritical aqueous systems. Extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes. Analysis of the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions and mixed electrolyte solutions using fluctuation solution theory. Development of analytic expressions for thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solved integral equation approximations. Fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories
Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations
Synthesis and analysis of novel polymers with high permselectivity and permeability in gas separation applications. Progress report, December 1990--November 1991( )

4 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We have synthesized and completed characterization of permeability and selectivity properties of a group of polysulfones and polyether ketones with the potential for higher use temperatures, as well as members of a series of polyesters derived from spirobiindane bisphenol monomer in conjunction with meta and para substituted diacid chlorides. We have also synthesized and characterized the gas transport and thermal properties of diphenyl substituted polyphenylene oxide. The diphenyl substituted material has a potential for higher temperature applications than the standard dimethyl substituted polymer. The temperature dependence of the gas transport properties for the oxygen/nitrogen system was characterized over the range from 35 to 65°C for both of these analog materials
Studies in Medium Energy Physics. Progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993( )

4 editions published between 1991 and 1992 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report discusses the following research: p + A precision elastic forward angle cross sections; polarized nuclear target project; and search for very rare K{sup L} decays. (LSP)
Progress report by University of Southern California( )

6 editions published between 1992 and 1998 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sergei Ananyan has completed one nice piece of nuclear physics on ''Electroweak Processes Involving (00) Excitations in Nuclei'' and has written this work up for publication. He is well into his main thesis problem on weak axial vector exchange currents and already has some very interesting new results. Bryan Barmore is now finishing numerical calculations on the problem of radiating meson fields in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Gary Prezeau has just started on the problem of chiral QHD with vector mesons. Gary should finish his Ph. D. in 1998. A PC has been purchased for the group through CEBAF and they are now tied into the CEBAF computer system., They have organized a Nuclear Theory Study Group in the Department and last year they worked through the books on ''Computational Nuclear Physics.'' Next year they will run a series on effective field theories and chiral perturbation theory. Tod Bachman just completed a senior thesis on relativistic Hartree calculations of the newly-found doubly magic nuclei ¹°°Sn and ¹³²Sn. The book on ''Theoretical Nuclear and Subnuclear Physics'' has now been published by Oxford Press. Also included here is the proposal for renewal of the contract
Particle simulation algorithms with short-range forces in MHD and fluid flow( )

3 editions published between 1992 and 1993 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Attempts are made to develop numerical algorithms for handling fluid flows involving liquids and liquid-gas mixtures. In these types of systems, the short-range intermolecular interactions are important enough to significantly alter behavior predicted on the basis of standard fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics alone. We have constructed a particle-in-cell (PIC) code for the purpose of studying the effects of these interactions. Of the algorithms considered, the one which has been successfully implemented is based on a MHD particle code developed by Brunel et al. In the version presented here, short range forces are included in particle motion by, first, calculating the forces between individual particles and then, to prevent aliasing, interpolating these forces to the computational grid points, then interpolating the forces back to the particles. The code has been used to model a simple two-fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Limitations to the accuracy of the code exist at short wavelengths, where the effects of the short-range forces would be expected to be most pronounced
Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. [Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) ; micellar electrokinetic capillary kchromatography (MECC)]( )

3 editions published between 1990 and 1992 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The DOE-supported research performed during the past year has mainly focused on investigating and minimizing three problems that limit the practical utility of these capillary electrokinetic separation techniques in chemical analysis. (1) Analyses are hindered by poor reproducibility. This is largely a result of complicated and irreproducible capillary wall-solute interactions that often result in adsorption and mobility changes. (2) While the (micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography) (MECC) technique permits the separations of neutral solutes, hydrophobic compounds are difficult to separate and manipulation of capacity factors (k's) is critically important. (3) The very small solute band volumes require that on-column detection be performed (usually optical detection) and this seriously limits detectability. In addition to these projects, the electrokinetic equivalent of affinity chromatography and development of remote fiber-optic sensors to measure chemical carcinogens and other compounds have been investigated. 5 refs., 2 figs
Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program. Quarterly report, 9th year, January--March 1992( )

4 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast
Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--May 31, 1996( )

3 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Objective of the ATS program is the development of ultra-highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive gas turbine systems, using thermal barrier coatings. These coatings should be stable in the thermal and corrosive environments of the industrial engine for up to 2500 hours. Phase II (development) is current
 
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English (78)