WorldCat Identities
Fri Mar 21 17:14:13 2014 UTClccn-no20061175230.23Privacy in peril0.240.25Rising health costs71155906no20061175237097447lccn-n79029195Congressional Quarterly, inclccn-n2001086642CQ Presslccn-n2006047932MySpace (Firm)lccn-no94021883Head Start Program (U.S.)lccn-n81068704Imus, Donlccn-no2006117524Katel, Peterlccn-n90685825Weeks, Jennifernp-bristol, nellieBristol, Nellielccn-no2006117521Mantel, Barbaralccn-n98066852Jost, KennethClemmitt, MarciaUnited StatesHealth insurancePrivacy, Right ofRight to healthAcademic achievementBirth control--Moral and ethical aspectsAdvanced placement programs (Education)Birth controlCollege preparation programsContraception--Moral and ethical aspectsBirth control--Religious aspectsEducation, Secondary--Aims and objectivesEducational changeInternational baccalaureateContraception--Religious aspectsInternet--Social aspectsLife--Origin--Study and teachingStem cells--Research--Moral and ethical aspectsMySpace (Firm)Evolution (Biology)--Study and teachingMarine resources conservationCyberspace--Social aspectsMarine pollutionHuman embryo--Research--Moral and ethical aspectsMedical care, Cost ofPoor children--Education (Preschool)Medical care--Cost controlAdult services in public libraries--EvaluationExpenditures, PublicMedical policyInternetHead Start programsMedical carePolitical scienceInternet--CensorshipInternet--Access controlInternet--Economic aspectsEducation, PreschoolWaste in government spendingPolitical corruptionHead Start Program (U.S.)Urban schoolsEducational accountabilityEducation and statePublic schoolsMinorities--Education--Government policyNo Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (United States)Hate speechFreedom of speechImus, Don19911997200520062007200820092010201120122013188092153231.7652BS652522ocn065468892file20060.24Clemmitt, MarciaAP and IB programsMore than 25 percent of first-year college students need remedial courses. Concern about the ability of American high-school graduates to handle college-level work has led some schools to offer Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs. Engaging students in more challenging coursework appears to boost learning and achievement, although there is little research on the effects of AP and IB programs. Higher-income students are much more likely to be offered AP and IB classes or other challenging learning experiences than students from disadvantaged educational or socioeconomic backgrounds. Over the past decade, most school reform has focused on the elementary grades, but a growing number of states are now concentrating on improving the college readiness of their high-school students. But critics say the effort is wasted if younger students aren't given adequate preparation for high school522ocn062255339file20050.24Clemmitt, MarciaBirth-control debateMost sexually active American women use birth control, but a vocal minority -- mostly conservative Christians -- has long argued that easy access to contraception increases the rates of abortion, teen pregnancy and divorce. Debates over access to birth control have heated up recently as a handful of pharmacists have begun refusing to fill prescriptions for birth control on ethical grounds, and the Bush administration has blocked easing access to emergency contraceptives -- pills that prevent pregnancy when taken after intercourse. Meanwhile, in state legislatures, women's groups are pushing for laws requiring health insurance plans to cover birth control and hospitals to dispense emergency contraception to sexual assault victims. However, pharmacists and Catholic hospitals that morally object to birth control are also pressing state lawmakers to expand "conscience clause" exemptions that allow health providers to refuse to provide some legally required services if they have moral or religious objections512ocn074325535com20060.24Clemmitt, MarciaStem cell researchPresident George W. Bush used his veto power for the first time on July 19, stopping a bill that would have increased federal funding for research on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The cells might provide cures for diseases ranging from Alzheimer's to diabetes. ESCs are thought to have more disease-treating potential than similar cells found in adults, but they are controversial because harvesting them destroys a human embryo. The federal government supports research on several ESC cultures derived prior to 2001 from embryos created during in vitro fertilization (IVF) but not used. But the government won't pay to expand the research to other cell lines, which many scientists urge. Bush and other conservatives say morality forbids destroying additional embryos, regardless of the cells' treatment-producing potential. But ESC-research supporters argue the cells' life-saving potential outweighs qualms over destruction of IVF embryos, most of which eventually will be discarded512ocn062254718file20050.24Clemmitt, MarciaIntelligent designThe Kansas Board of Education is likely to vote in September to replace the state's newly updated science-teaching standards with a revised version that plays down evolution and rejects the idea that science is a search for "natural" explanations only. The change would open the doors of biology classrooms to supernatural explanations of human life and origins, including the increasingly popular concept of "intelligent design"--The idea that life is so complex it could only have been created by an intelligent being. School boards and lawmakers in nearly half the states, including Georgia, Pennsylvania and New York, are examining similar proposals. Most scientists say intelligent design is just a new, more acceptable name for biblical creationism. But intelligent-design supporters argue that they only want an equal hearing for alternate theories of life's origins and a chance for students to examine what they say are serious gaps in evolutionary science512ocn071144796file20060.24Clemmitt, MarciaCyber socializingInternet socializing has become hugely popular, and Web sites that help people meet potential dates, find new friends and keep track of old ones are big business. Hundreds of sites attract tens of millions of users, and more sites come online daily. Born along with the Internet in the early 1970s, online socializing has helped people worldwide link to others with common interests for conversation and support. Nevertheless, new social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace raise more troubling privacy issues than traditional Internet chat rooms. Visitors to such sites can access not only individuals' posted profiles but also profiles of their friends. Parents and law-enforcement agencies worry that predators can use the information to contact vulnerable teens. Some states are considering requiring tighter security and confidentiality, and a bill introduced in the House of Representatives would require schools and libraries to block teenagers from the sites512ocn062253386file20050.24Clemmitt, MarciaSaving the oceansThe world's oceans are under extreme pressure from overfishing, pollution and coastal development, two major commissions have warned. Global fish catches have declined in recent years, despite the use of increasingly sophisticated equipment -- including satellite tracking. Moreover, some scientists say 90 percent of the world's large predator fish -- such as swordfish and tuna -- have disappeared. Scores of proposals on oceans have been introduced in Congress this year, but none has passed. While 3,600 Americans a day move to coastal communities -- bringing new development that eats up fish-breeding wetlands and increases runoff pollution from motor oil, fertilizer and lawn chemicals -- no single public agency is responsible for coordinating onshore development with ocean health. Meanwhile, new fisheries-management techniques are offering hope in North America and Europe that overfished species like cod can recover. And the White House has created a new Cabinet-level committee to coordinate oceans policy502ocn070057918file20060.25Clemmitt, MarciaControlling the internetGovernments and corporations are increasingly concerned about political and economic threats posed by a freewheeling, global Internet. Many experts warn the "Net" may fragment into "walled gardens" that block users' freedom to communicate and innovate. In the U.S., telephone and cable companies already have won the right to block competing Internet service providers like Earthlink from using their high-speed broadband lines. Now advocates for an open Internet worry that broadband providers will use their market power to slow or block access to controversial Web sites or competing businesses like Internet telephone. The activists want Congress to require the companies to treat all Internet content the same. Abroad, more nations are expanding broadband access for economic reasons, even as they crack down on citizens who access controversial material or express dissenting opinions via the Net. In the face of such turmoil, civic groups worldwide are seeking new forms of governance to keep the Internet secure and uncensored502ocn062254330file20050.24Clemmitt, MarciaEvaluating Head StartSince its founding in 1965, the federal preschool program has offered poor children and their parents comprehensive services ranging from health care to parenting education. Preliminary data from the first nationwide appraisal of the program show that Head Start youngsters do better on some intellectual, behavioral and health measures than similar children not enrolled in Head Start. But some critics say the program should dispense with health care and parental education in order to focus on pre-academic skills. To improve Head Start's performance, the Bush administration proposed turning it over to the states, but Congress refused; instead it wants to require half of all Head Start teachers to obtain B.A. degrees or higher by 2011. Meanwhile, states are launching their own preschool programs, raising new questions about whether Head Start -- now serving some 900,000 youngsters -- should be under federal or state control502ocn070057035file20060.25Clemmitt, MarciaRising health costsMedical costs have more than doubled over the last decade, and health insurance premiums have risen nearly five times faster than wages. Americans are spending far more on health care than residents of any other industrialized country while receiving lower-quality care overall. Meanwhile, big U.S. businesses that provide health coverage to workers complain that the high costs are crippling their ability to compete with companies abroad whose workers get government-subsidized care. The Bush administration is encouraging consumers to switch to consumer-directed health plans, whose high copayments would force them to shop for more cost-effective care. But critics argue that individuals can do little to control costs. Instead, they argue, the plans would primarily benefit the wealthy and that society must make hard choices about which care should be paid for by public and private dollars502ocn070235562file20060.25Clemmitt, MarciaPork barrel politicsEver since the country was founded, congressional lawmakers have curried favor with hometown voters by providing funds -- known as earmarks -- for local projects and favored firms. Recently, however, the number of earmarks has skyrocketed from 2,000 projects worth $10.6 billion in 1998 to 15,584 items totaling $32.7 billion in 2004. Defenders of such spending argue it aids valuable local projects like parks and after-school programs that might otherwise go unfunded. But critics warn that such pork barrel politics also fuels corruption. Former Rep. Randy "Duke" Cunningham, R-Calif., recently pleaded guilty to accepting $2.4 million in bribes to direct earmarked funds to defense contractors. Opponents of uncontrolled earmarking also complain that local "pork" projects take funds away from national needs. A current defense spending bill, for example, would divert money from troop support and other Pentagon priorities to local defense contractors for lower-priority projects462ocn145748877file20070.25Clemmitt, MarciaFixing urban schoolsAfrican-American and Hispanic students -- largely in urban schools -- lag far behind white students, who mostly attend middle-class suburban schools. Critics argue that when Congress reauthorizes the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), it must retarget the legislation to help urban schools tackle tough problems, such as encouraging the best teachers to enter and remain in high-poverty schools, rather than focusing on tests and sanctions. Some advocates propose busing students across district lines to create more socioeconomically diverse student bodies. But conservative analysts argue that busing wastes students' time and that permitting charter schools to compete with public schools will drive improvement. Meanwhile, liberal analysts point out that successful charter programs are too costly for most schools to emulate, and that no one has yet figured out how to spread success beyond a handful of schools, public or private452ocn146183953com20070.24Clemmitt, MarciaShock jocksWhen Don Imus labeled the Rutgers University women's basketball team "nappy-headed hos" in April, it first looked to be just one more insult hurled in his long career. Imus was penalized initially with a two-week suspension. But when the incident appeared on the Internet site, organizations ranging from the National Association of Black Journalists to the liberal media watchdog group Media Matters for America urged a tougher stance against racial stereotyping on public airwaves. Advertisers began pulling their sponsorship from Imus' show, and both networks that carried it -- CBS Radio and MSNBC TV -- fired him. The outcome was hailed by some as a long-needed response to an increasingly uncivil culture in which shock jocks, comedians, rappers and other media figures traffic in name-calling, racism and misogyny. However, other analysts say silencing Imus was unfair and could begin a purge of outspoken conservative radio hosts, including political commentators like Rush Limbaugh452ocn095355908file20070.24Clemmitt, MarciaCombating addictionMany scientists now agree that genetics and environment play about equal roles in addiction. And researchers recently identified brain differences in addicts that may eventually lead to treatments that eliminate drug cravings. But with U.S. addiction rates remaining steady at about 9 percent of the population, the secret to who stays hooked and who breaks free -- either through treatment or by their own efforts -- remains a mystery. As a result, debate still rages over whether health insurance should cover more addiction treatment. Advocates for addicts also argue that states should reduce tough penalties for drug offenders, such as depriving ex-felons of the right to vote. Recovered addicts are banding together to lobby for better insurance and an end to laws that stigmatize substance abusers. But opponents argue that treating addiction as a disease, not a choice, merely encourages some people to continue abusive behavior452ocn084544100file20070.24Clemmitt, MarciaPrison health careA high percentage of the more than 2 million inmates in U.S. jails and prisons suffer from mental illness, addiction or infectious and chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and diabetes. About a quarter suffer from major depression and a fifth from psychosis. Many had little or no health care before being incarcerated. Providing treatment and preventive care for prisoners who eventually return to society can help stem the spread of infectious disease in communities and keep those with mental illness and addiction from landing back in jail, say public-health officials. While prisoners are, ironically, the only Americans who have a constitutionally guaranteed right to health care, most prison health systems are underfunded and understaffed, making the care they provide spotty at best. Meanwhile, strict sentencing guidelines and three-strikes-and-you're-out laws have created a burgeoning -- and aging -- prisoner population, which is driving skyrocketing health-care costs even higher431ocn064180311com20060.24Clemmitt, MarciaClimate changeScientists generally agree that the globe has warmed over the past 40 years, due largely to human activities that raise carbon-dioxide levels in the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol mandating limits on carbon emissions took effect in 2005, eight years after it was written. But the United States -- the world's biggest carbon emitter -- has not ratified the treaty. Debate over global warming has shifted from whether human activities are causing climate change to whether the possible changes will be severe enough to justify the hefty expense of developing cleaner-energy technologies. Economists and even some energy companies have recently proposed taxing carbon as an incentive to consumers and industry to shift to low-carbon fuels. Some multi-state coalitions also hope to issue tradable emissions permits to industry. Congress has begun to show some interest, but the Bush administration still argues strongly against any mandates to cut carbon-fuel use431ocn064180259com20050.24Clemmitt, MarciaBudget deficitOver the past four years, Congress and the White House have handed out billions of dollars in tax cuts aimed at "giving back" surplus revenues to taxpayers. Congress has also enacted an expensive, new Medicare prescription-drug benefit as well as hefty spending increases for the military and homeland security. Now Congress wants to make permanent most of the tax cuts it first passed as temporary measures. Republicans say the cuts will spark economic growth. But many economists say the cuts will ensure substantial deficits for decades to come and trigger a budget crunch requiring cuts in social programs such as student loans, child-support enforcement and subsidized school lunches. Moreover, economists generally agree that running up new debt just before the baby-boom generation begins collecting expensive Medicare and Social Security benefits in 2011 will require tax increases and service cuts at unprecedented levels in the coming decade431ocn062253409file20050.24Clemmitt, MarciaAcademic FreedomBolstered by studies that show college instructors are overwhelmingly left-leaning Democrats, conservative groups are raising alarms about what they call political indoctrination on campus. Students who complain that professors ridicule their conservative religious and political views have turned for protection to campus speech codes instituted in the 1980s to protect women and minority students. Other groups are pushing hard to get the codes eliminated, arguing that they enforce left-wing ideological conformity. A growing number of Web sites collect and publicize reports of politically biased professors, courses and departments, as conservatives accuse academics of voicing opinions that could weaken public resolve in a time of war. In response, Congress and 18 states are considering legislation that would require publicly funded universities to ensure there is a diversity of opinion on campus and that students don't feel put upon by professors' views372ocn077519560file20060.24Clemmitt, MarciaCaring for the elderlyNearly 70 percent of those turning 65 this year will need long-term care (LTC) in their lifetimes; 20 percent will need it for five years or longer. But -- unlike most other industrialized nations -- the United States has no public or private insurance infrastructure to pay for LTC. Those needing years of care will have to impoverish themselves before Medicaid will pay for it. But state officials say Medicaid -- intended as a health-care safety net for poor children -- could be bankrupted by rising LTC costs as the baby-boom generation ages, and the number of people over age 85 soars from around 5 million to 21 million by 2050. Meanwhile, understaffing, low pay and poor working conditions at nursing homes put residents at risk of life-threatening malnutrition and bed sores. As an alternative, states and nonprofits are offering more home- and community-delivered care, but LTC experts say the alternatives may not be any safer371ocn104872898file20070.25Clemmitt, MarciaUniversal coverageSome 45 million Americans lacked health insurance in 2005 -- a number that has been climbing for two decades. Every month, about 2 million Americans become uninsured, at least temporarily, as lower-paying service jobs with minimal benefits replace union-dominated manufacturing jobs with health benefits -- undercutting the nation's employer-based coverage system. Health costs -- rising faster than wages or inflation -- also push employers to drop coverage. Past legislative proposals for universal coverage relied heavily on government management, drawing fatal opposition from physicians and insurance companies. But now consensus may be forming around proposals requiring most Americans to buy private insurance with public assistance. Republican governors in California and Massachusetts back such plans, as does former Sen. John Edwards, the first presidential hopeful to announce what's expected to be a slew of universal-coverage proposals in the coming 2008 election362ocn077520181file20060.23Clemmitt, MarciaPrivacy in perilThe proliferation of massive Internet-accessible databases is making corporate and government electronic snooping possible on a scale unprecedented in U.S. history. In the past year Americans have been buffeted by revelations that the government is conducting warrantless spying on citizens' phone calls, that corporate directors are hiring detectives who use false identities to access private phone records, and that thousands of credit-card numbers held in commercial databases have been lost or stolen. Privacy advocates warn that growing access to huge amounts of personal data -- from Social Security numbers to health information -- are virtually eliminating the concept of personal privacy. If the current Congress does not act this year on President Bush's request for expanded authority to wiretap citizens, the incoming Democrat-led Congress is not expected to approve it. The new Congress, however, is expected to consider requiring businesses and government to take stronger action to protect personal dataFri Mar 21 15:28:13 EDT 2014batch29793