WorldCat Identities

Botch, Sabra R.

Works: 8 works in 29 publications in 1 language and 1,172 library holdings
Classifications: RC1054.U5,
Publication Timeline
Publications about  Sabra R Botch Publications about Sabra R Botch
Publications by  Sabra R Botch Publications by Sabra R Botch
Most widely held works by Sabra R Botch
Toxicological findings in 889 fatally injured obese pilots involved in aviation accidents ( )
2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 179 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Obesity continues to be a public health concern and its impact on aviation community has not been fully evaluated. Toxicological findings in fatally injured aviation accident obese pilots were examined. Toxicological results and aeromedical histories of these aviators were retrieved from the CAMI toxicology and medical certification databases, and the cause/factors in the related accidents were retrieved from the National Transportation Safety Board's aviation accident database. In 311 of the 889 pilots, carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs were found. Many of these drugs were for treating overweight, depression, hypertension, and cardiac conditions. Of the 889 pilots, 107 had an obesity-related medical history. The health and/or medical condition(s) of, and/or the use of ethanol and/or drugs by, pilots were the cause/factors in 55 (18%) of the 311 accidents. Findings emphasize monitoring of obesity and diabetes in pilots and understanding the potential implications of these health conditions in relation to flight safety
Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1,335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities ( )
6 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 171 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
For aviation accident investigations at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose, and in those cases wherein glucose levels are elevated, blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is measured. These analyses are conducted to monitor diabetic pilots to ensure that their disease was in control at the time of accidents and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed and unreported diabetes. In this study, the prevalence of elevated glucose concentrations in fatally injured civilian pilots is evaluated. Glucose and HbA1c are measured by hexokinase and latex immunoagglutination inhibition methodologies, respectively. The former was adopted at the beginning of 1998, while the latter in the middle of 2001. The analytical results are electronically stored in the CAMI Toxicology Database. This database was searched for pilots from whom samples were received during 1998-2005 and whose vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations were measured. HbA1c levels and information on diabetic pilots were also retrieved. The probable cause and contributing factors of the associated accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB's) Aviation Accident Database. Out of 1,335 pilots involving 363 vitreous fluid, 365 urine, and 607 vitreous fluid and urine analyses, 43 pilots had elevated glucose in vitreous fluid (> 125 mg/dL) and/or in urine (> 100 mg/dL). Of the 20 pilots whose blood samples were analyzed, 9 had> 6% HbA1c-4 were known diabetics (HbA1c: 7.1; 8.3; 10.8; and 12.4%), and 5 were not known diabetics (HbA1c: 6.2; 8.2; 8.3; 8.6; and 13.0%). Urinary glucose levels were elevated in all 13 known hyperglycemic pilots. One pilot had a history of renal glycosuria (low renal threshold). The disease of the 13 diabetic pilots was not in control at the time of accidents
Drug usage in pilots involved in aviation accidents compared with drug usage in the general population from 1990 to 2005 by Sabra R Botch ( )
5 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 168 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Civil aviation pilots represent a small subsection of the general population. Therefore, one might expect to see the same types of drugs used by pilots that are found in the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare usage of both illegal drugs and abused prescription medications in pilots involved in civil aviation accidents from 1990 to 2005 with that of the general population in the United States. Comparisons included abused drugs routinely screened for by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy, as well as prescription medications--barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and ketamine
Toxicological findings of pilots involved in aviation accidents operated under Title 14 CFR Part 135 by Sabra R Botch ( )
4 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 165 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Under the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), aircraft flown under Title 14 (Aeronautics and Space) Part 135 are operated as either commuter or on-demand flights. The rules governing the operation of and the crewmembers on board such aircraft are detailed within these regulations. Aircraft operated under 14 CFR Part 135 include medical flights, on-demand cargo flights, on-demand air-taxis, and scheduled/non-scheduled domestic passenger flights with or without air cargo. Pilots operating under these regulations carry with them the added responsibility of passenger safety or, for those involved in emergency medical flights, the importance of their role for the survivability of patients in critical condition. The purpose of this study was to examine the toxicological findings of pilots involved in aircraft accidents operated under 14 CFR Part 135
Distribution of oxycodone in postmortem fluids and tissues by Sabra R Botch ( )
3 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 165 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Oxycodone is a heavily used and abused analgesic agent. Its pharmacological effects, including euphoria, respiratory depression, nausea, and drowsiness, have the potential to adversely affect performance. The postmortem distribution of oxycodone has not been well characterized, particularly at sub-lethal levels. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the distribution of oxycodone in postmortem specimens collected from aviation accidents. Methods: A search of our database identified 4 oxycodone-positive fatalities from separate civil aviation accidents that occurred during a period of 6 years that had numerous biological tissues and fluids available (blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, lung, spleen, heart muscle, and brain). These specimens were extracted using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed for oxycodone by GC/MS. Results: Oxycodone concentration ranges ( g/mL, g/g) found in the different tissues and fluids were: blood 0.027-0.742, urine 2.20 - 12.5, vitreous humor 0.048 - 0.118, liver 0.103-3.35, lung 0.047-1.35, kidney 0.045-3.12, spleen 0.115-2.43, muscle 0.017-0.400, brain 0.032-1.36, and heart 0.038-3.19. Conclusion: The blood concentrations found indicate that the oxycodone in these cases ranged from therapeutic to above therapeutic, but all were below lethal levels. Tissue/fluid to blood distribution coefficients were found to have large coefficients of variation (ranging from 26-128%), thereby rendering them unreliable for estimating a blood oxycodone concentration from a tissue value when no blood is available for analysis
Alcohol-related aviation accidents involving pilots with previous alcohol offenses by Sabra R Botch ( )
2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 162 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires airmen to report legal actions involving ethanol and/or other drugs, including driving while impaired by or while under the influence of alcohol. Pilots are also required to report any administrative action resulting in denial, suspension, cancellation, or revocation of driving privileges or mandatory attendance at an educational or rehabilitation program. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fatal civil aviation accidents between the years 2000 and 2007 in which ethanol was present in the pilot, and the pilot had previously documented drug and/or alcohol offenses and/or dependence. Toxicological and aeromedical findings from pilots were collected for an 8 year period, 2000 - 2007. Case histories, accident information, and the probable cause of the accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board. Toxicological information was obtained from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory. During the examined time period, 215 pilots (9%) of the 2,391 received for analysis had documented alcohol or drug-related offenses. Of the 215 pilots, 23 (11%) had consumed ethanol prior to the fatal incident. Of these 23 pilots, 16 (70%) had ethanol concentrations above the FAA's legal limit of 40 mg/dL and 7 (30%) between 20 and 40 mg/dL. Providing more detailed documentation to aviation medical examiners would aid in the determination of eligibility for medical certification and could potentially save pilots as well as their passengers' lives. Identifying pilots with substance abuse problems is paramount for providing a safe environment to fly but also benefits the pilots who may not have addressed these issues."-- P. i
Antiemetics with concomitant sedative use in civil aviation pilot fatalities 2000 to 2006 : final report by Sabra R Botch ( )
6 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 161 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Antiemetics and sedatives are two drug classes that contain compounds that may have harmful side effects when mixed. A drug such as chlorpheniramine with antiemetic properties can dramatically increase the negative side effects of numerous drugs in the sedative class. This phenomenon is especially dangerous for pilots. [snip] Our laboratory was interested in evaluating the circumstances surrounding accidents in which the pilot was found positive for drugs from each of these two classes. Epidemiological, toxicological, and aeromedical findings from pilots involved in such accidents were collected for a 7-year period, 2000 - 2006. Case histories, accident information, and the probable cause of the aviation accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). Toxicology information was obtained from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory. There were 2184 fatal aviation accidents over this time period. Of these accidents, 26 were found positive for compounds from both the antiemetic and the sedative drug classes. All 26 aircraft were operated under 14 CFR Part 91 as general aviation. All pilots involved in these accidents were male; 21 tested positive for a disqualifying substance that may have affected their ability to control the aircraft."--P. i
Benzodiazepine use in pilots of civil aviation accidents : 1990-2008 toxicology and autopsy findings by Sabra R Botch ( Book )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
"Benzodiazepine medications have a long history of abuse. They are categorized as central nervous system depressants, and there are currently 15 different benzodiazepines prescribed in the United States and an additional 20 in other countries. The side effects of these medications include drowsiness, dizziness, decreased alertness, and/or memory loss, which can lead to impairment and a decreased ability to properly control an aircraft. The presence of these medications in postmortem specimens of aviation accident victims can help determine the cause of the accident and, potentially, result in serious legal consequences. Our laboratory is in a unique position because a medical history is available to investigators for most certified pilots. With this in mind, we compared benzodiazepine compounds found following postmortem analysis with the available medical history for each victim. This evaluation was conducted to determine if these records supported the use of such medications or if the aviators were taking the compounds without the approval of their aviation medical examiners or possibly abusing the substances. In addition, a medical review of the autopsy records was also conducted. Method: Toxicological information from analyses was retrieved from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory database. Case histories and accident information were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board. Medical histories were obtained from the FAA's medical certification database and CAMI's autopsy team database. Results and Discussion: Over the examined time period (1990-2008), there were 6,062 fatal aviation accident cases received at CAMI, and 96 (~1.6%) pilots were found positive for a benzodiazepine. In ~74% of pilots found positive for benzodiazepine(s), it was determined that another compound was detected and more than one additional compound was often present. Fatal aviation accidents involving pilots who had taken a benzodiazepine compound prior to the flight are an infrequent event; however, concomitant use of more than one compound with benzodiazepines is common. This study highlights the use of benzodiazepine over the examined time period in the pilot community and presents a variety of demographic information about the pilots involved in such accidents."--Report documentation
Audience Level
Audience Level
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.85 (from 0.47 for Benzodiaze ... to 0.90 for Antiemetic ...)
English (29)