WorldCat Identities

Blanchard, Christopher M.

Overview
Works: 55 works in 208 publications in 1 language and 2,570 library holdings
Genres: Chronologies  History 
Roles: Author
Classifications: JK1108, 363.4509581
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Christopher M Blanchard
Afghanistan : narcotics and U.S. policy by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

34 editions published between 2004 and 2009 in English and Undetermined and held by 161 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Opium poppy cultivation and drug trafficking have become significant negative factors in Afghanistan's fragile political and economic order over the last 25 years. Afghan, U.S., and coalition efforts to provide viable economic alternatives to poppy cultivation and to disrupt corruption and narco-terrorist linkages succeeded in reducing opium poppy cultivation in some areas during 2004 and 2005. However, escalating violence in southern provinces, particularly in Helmand, and widespread corruption fueled a surge in cultivation in 2006, pushing opium output to an all-time high of 6,100 metric tons. In spite of ongoing efforts by the Afghan government, the United States, and their international partners, Afghanistan is now the source of 92% of the world's illicit opium. Preliminary surveys suggest opium output may increase again in 2007 based on increased production in unstable southern provinces
Libya : background and U.S. relations by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

21 editions published between 2005 and 2010 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The relationship between the United States and Libya has been strained and hostile for much of the last 35 years, but has recently shown signs of improvement. Following the Libyan government's December 2003 decision to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction and long range missile programs, a number of bilateral diplomatic exchanges have taken place, and the termination of U.S. economic sanctions on Libya has paved the way for a renewal of investment by U.S. oil, gas, and energy service firms in Libya's under-capitalized energy sector. Several visits to Libya by Bush Administration officials and Members of Congress since 2004 have raised expectations of a formal reestablishment of normal relations between the U.S. and Libya in the near future, including the removal of the last remaining sanctions associated with Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism
Islamic religious schools, Madrasas : background by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

14 editions published between 2004 and 2008 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the Islamic religious schools known as madrasas (or madrassahs) in the Middle East, Central, and Southeast Asia have been of increasing interest to U.S. policy makers. Some allege ties between madrasas and terrorist organizations, such as Al Qaeda, and assert that these religious schools promote Islamic extremism and militancy. Others maintain that most madrasas have been blamed unfairly for fostering anti-Americanism and for producing terrorists. This report1 provides an overview of madrasas, their role in the Muslim world, and issues related to their alleged links to terrorism. The report also addresses the findings of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission) and issues relevant to the first session of the 110th Congress. Related products include CRS Report RS22009, CRS Report RL33533, CRS Report RL32499, CRS Report RS21695, CRS Report RS21457, CRS Report RL32259, and CRS Report RS21432. This report will be updated periodically
Post-war Iraq foreign contributions to training, peacekeeping, and reconstruction by Jeremy Maxwell Sharp( Book )

12 editions published between 2005 and 2007 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Securing and maintaining foreign contributions to the reconstruction and stabilization of Iraq has been a major priority for U.S. policy makers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N. Headquarters in Baghdad and major events since the fall of Baghdad on April 9, 2003. Currently, there are 25 countries with military forces participating in the coalition's stabilization effort. An additional 15 countries have withdrawn their troops from Iraq due to either the successful completion of their missions, domestic political pressure to withdraw their troops, or, in the case of the Philippines, the demands of terrorist kidnappers who threatened to kill foreign hostages unless their respective countries removed their troops from Iraq. Most foreign pledges for reconstructing Iraq were made at a donors' conference in Madrid, Spain, in October 2003. Foreign donors pledged an estimated $13 billion in grants and loans for Iraq reconstruction but have only disbursed about $3 billion to the United Nations and World Bank trust funds for Iraq. The largest non-American pledges of grants have come from Japan, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Korea, and the United Arab Emirates. The World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Japan, and Saudi Arabia have pledged the most loans and export credits. This report also discusses international efforts to train and equip the new Iraqi security forces. Since the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in April 2003, several coalition, non-coalition, and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries have contributed personnel, equipment, and facilities to the training of Iraqi security and police forces. Some have expressed their willingness to contribute to future training operations within or outside of Iraq. Others have declined to participate in ongoing or planned training operations
Saudi Arabia : terrorist financing issues by Alfred B Prados( Book )

8 editions published between 2004 and 2007 in English and held by 41 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The September 11, 2001 attacks fueled criticisms within the United States of alleged Saudi involvement in terrorism or of Saudi laxity in acting against terrorist groups. Of particular concern have been reports that funds may be flowing from Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries to terrorist groups, largely under the guise of charitable contributions. Critics of Saudi policies have cited a number of reports that the Saudi government has permitted or encouraged fund raising in Saudi Arabia by charitable Islamic groups and foundations linked to Osama bin Laden s Al Qaeda organization or like-minded entities. The final report released by the bipartisan National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission) indicates that the Commission found no evidence that the Saudi government as an institution or senior Saudi officials individually funded [Al Qaeda]. The report also states, however, that Saudi Arabia was a place where Al Qaeda raised money directly from individuals and through charities, and indicates that charities with significant Saudi government sponsorship may have diverted funding to Al Qaeda
Iraq : regional perspectives and U.S. policy( Book )

11 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Iraq's neighbors have influenced events in Iraq since the fall of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003, and developments in Iraq have had political, economic, and security implications for Iraq's neighbors and the broader Middle East. Declining levels of violence in Iraq and discussion of options for modifying U.S. policy toward Iraq are fueling consideration of Iraq's future and the current and potential policies by Iraq's neighbors. Policymakers and observers are now considering several potential "Iraq scenarios," ranging from the resolution of outstanding Iraqi political disputes and the successful consolidation of Iraq's government and security forces, to a competition among Iraq's neighbors for influence in Iraq or the return to widespread civil violence
Iraq : oil and gas legislation, revenue sharing, and U.S. policy by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

10 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Iraqi leaders continue to debate a package of hydrocarbon sector and revenue sharing legislation that will define the terms for the future management and development of the country's significant oil and natural gas resources. The package includes an oil and gas sector framework law and three supporting laws that would outline revenue sharing mechanisms, restructure Iraq's Ministry of Oil, and create an Iraqi National Oil Company. Both the Bush Administration and Congress consider the passage of oil and gas sector framework and revenue sharing legislation as important benchmarks that will indicate the current Iraqi government's commitment to promoting political reconciliation and long term economic development in Iraq. Section 1314 of the FY2007 Supplemental Appropriations Act [P.L. 110-28] specifically identifies the enactment and implementation of legislation "to ensure the equitable distribution of hydrocarbon resources of the people of Iraq without regard to the sect or ethnicity of recipients" and "to ensure that the energy resources of Iraq benefit Sunni Arabs, Shia Arabs, Kurds, and other Iraqi citizens in an equitable manner" as benchmarks on which the President must report to Congress in July and September 2007. The draft framework legislation approved by Iraq's Council of Ministers (cabinet) in February 2007 does not include revenue sharing arrangements. The companion revenue sharing law defines terms for revenue distribution. The Council of Representatives (parliament) has not yet considered either bill. The central importance of oil and gas revenue for the Iraqi economy is widely recognized by Iraqis, and most groups accept the need to create new legal and policy guidelines for the development of the country's oil and natural gas. However, Iraqi critics and supporters of the proposed legislation differ strongly on a number of key issues, including the proper role and powers of the federal and regional authorities in regulating oil and gas development; the terms and extent of potential foreign participation in the oil and gas sectors; and proposed formulas and mechanisms for equitably sharing oil and gas revenue. Concurrent, related discussions about proposed amendments to articles of Iraq's constitution that outline federal and regional oil and gas rights also are highly contentious
Al Qaeda : statements and evolving ideology by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

13 editions published between 2004 and 2007 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The release of a new videotape by Osama Bin Laden in late October 2004 rekindled public debate surrounding Al Qaeda's ideology, motives, and future plans to attack the United States. The highly political tone and content of the two most recent statements released by Bin Laden [April and October 2004] have led some terrorism analysts to speculate that the messages may signal a new attempt by him to create a lasting political leadership role for himself and Al Qaeda as the vanguard of an international Islamist ideological movement. Others have argued that Al Qaeda's presently limited capabilities have inspired a temporary rhetorical shift and that the group's primary goal remains carrying out terrorist attacks against the United States and its allies around the world, with particular emphasis on targeting economic infrastructure and fomenting unrest in Iraq and Afghanistan. This report reviews Osama Bin Laden's use of public statements from the mid-1990s to the present, and analyzes the evolving ideological and political content of those statements. The report will be updated periodically. For background on the Al Qaeda terrorist network, see CRS Report RS21529, "Al Qaeda after the Iraq Conflict."
Lebanon by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

3 editions published between 2008 and 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Lebanon's small geographic size and population belie the important role it has long played in the security, stability, and economy of the Levant and the broader Middle East. Congress and the executive branch have recognized Lebanon's status as a venue for regional strategic competition and have engaged diplomatically, financially, and at times, militarily to influence events there. For most of its independent existence, Lebanon has been torn by periodic civil conflict and political battles between rival religious sects and ideological groups. External military intervention, occupation, and interference have exacerbated Lebanon's political struggles in recent decades. Lebanon is an important factor in U.S. calculations regarding regional security, particularly vis-a-vis Israel and Iran. Congressional concerns have focused on the prominent role that Hezbollah, an Iran-backed Shiite militia, political party, and U.S.-designated terrorist organization, continues to play in Lebanese politics and regional security. This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key legislative debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action
Iraq oil-for-food program, illicit trade, and investigations by Kenneth Katzman( Book )

3 editions published between 2005 and 2007 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The "oil-for-food" program (OFFP) was the centerpiece of a long-standing U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining key elements of the 1991 Gulf war-related sanctions regime. In order to ensure that Iraq remained contained and that only humanitarian needs were served by the program, the program imposed controls on Iraqi oil exports and humanitarian imports. All Iraqi oil revenues legally earned under the program were held in a U.N.-controlled escrow account and were not accessible to the regime of Saddam Hussein. The program was in operation from December 1996 until March 2003. Observers generally agree that the program substantially eased, but did not eliminate, human suffering in Iraq. Concerns about the program's early difficulties prompted criticism of the United States; critics asserted that the U.S. strategy was to maintain sanctions on Iraq indefinitely as a means of weakening Saddam Hussein's grip on power. At the same time, growing regional and international sympathy for the Iraqi people resulted in a pronounced relaxation of regional enforcement -- or even open defiance -- of the Iraq sanctions. The United States and other members of the United Nations Security Council were aware of billions of dollars in oil sales by Iraq to its neighbors in violation of the U.N. sanctions regime and outside of the OFFP, but did not take action to punish states engaged in illicit oil trading with Saddam Hussein's regime. Successive Administrations issued annual waivers to Congress exempting Turkey and Jordan from unilateral U.S. sanctions for their violations of U.N. oil embargo on Iraq. Until 2002, the United States argued that continued U.N. sanctions were critical to preventing Iraq from acquiring equipment that could be used to reconstitute banned weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs. In 2002, the Bush Administration asserted that sanctions were not sufficient to contain a mounting threat from Saddam Hussein's regime and the Administration decided that the military overthrow of that regime had become necessary
Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

7 editions published between 2008 and 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant political and economic influence as the birthplace of the Islamic faith and by virtue of its large energy reserves. Since 2005, King Abdullah bin Abd al Aziz Al Saud has sought to strengthen Saudi relations with European and Asian counterparts and has worked to build and lead an Arab consensus on regional security issues such as Lebanon and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Recent domestic reforms have codified royal succession rules, begun restructuring the justice system, and updated some educational curricula and practices. An Al Qaeda-inspired terrorist campaign inside the kingdom appears to be ebbing as security improvements and anti-extremism campaigns are implemented. However, the threat of domestic terrorism remains. Robust energy export revenues and investment-friendly reforms continue to strengthen the kingdom's regional and global economic position. A close Cold War-era relationship between the U.S. Government and the ruling Al Saud family was built on shared interests in securing Saudi oil production and in combating global Communism. In the post-Cold War period, the emergence of the Al Qaeda terrorist threat and volatile regional security conditions in the Middle East have tested U.S.-Saudi relations. The direct participation of 15 Saudi nationals in the terrorist attacks of 9/11 2001, and the identification of several Saudi nationals as alleged supporters of terrorism have called into question Saudi Arabia's reliability as an ally. Increased official counterterrorism cooperation and shared concerns about Iranian foreign policy have provided a new strategic logic for U.S.-Saudi security relations since 2003. Long-standing defense ties remain intact, and U.S. arms sales to Saudi Arabia have continued, with over $14 billion in potential Foreign Military Sales to Saudi Arabia approved by the Bush Administration and Congress since January 2005
Islam: Sunnis and Shiites by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

4 editions published between 2005 and 2009 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The majority of the world's Muslim population follows the Sunni branch of Islam, and approximately 10-15% of all Muslims follow the Shiite (Shi'ite, Shi'a, Shia) branch. Shiite populations constitute a majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan. There are also significant Shiite populations in Afghanistan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen. Sunnis and Shiites share most basic religious tenets. However, their differences sometimes have been the basis for religious intolerance, political infighting, and sectarian violence. This report includes a historical background of the Sunni-Shiite split and discusses the differences in religious beliefs and practices between and within each Islamic sect as well as their similarities. The report also relates Sunni and Shiite religious beliefs to discussions of terrorism and Iraq that may be of interest during the first session of the 110th Congress. This report will be updated as necessary. Related papers include CRS Report RS21432 and CRS Report RS21695
Qatar : background and U.S. relations by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

3 editions published between 2008 and 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Qatar, a small peninsular country in the Persian Gulf, has emerged as an important ally of the United States since the late 1990s and currently serves as host to major U.S. military facilities for command, basing, and equipment pre-positioning. Qatar holds the third largest proven natural gas reserves in the world, and its small population enjoys the highest per capita income of any Middle Eastern country. The Emir of Qatar, Shaikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, has embarked upon a limited course of political liberalization since replacing his father in a bloodless palace coup in 1995. The Emir also has undertaken several projects to diversify Qatar's economy and improve educational opportunities for Qatari citizens. As part of Qatar's liberalization experiment, the Qatari monarchy founded Al Jazeera, the Arab world's first all-news satellite television network, in 1995. In an April 2003 referendum, Qatari voters approved a new constitution that officially granted women the right to vote and run for national office. The latest elections for Qatar's Central Municipal Council were held in April 2007. Preparations for national elections for the new Advisory Council established by the constitution are underway
The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation( Book )

3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has embarked on a program to build civilian nuclear power plants and is seeking cooperation and technical assistance from the United States and others. During 2008 and early 2009, the Bush Administration and the UAE government negotiated and signed a memorandum of understanding and a proposed bilateral agreement on peaceful nuclear cooperation pursuant to Section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) of 1954. Then-U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed the proposed agreement on peaceful nuclear cooperation with the UAE on January 15, 2009. The Obama Administration has not submitted the proposed agreement to Congress for the required review period. Under the AEA, Congress has the opportunity to review such a proposed agreement for 90 days of continuous session, after which the agreement becomes effective unless, during that time, Congress adopts a joint resolution disapproving the agreement and the resolution becomes law. The agreement text states the intent of both governments to cooperate in a number of areas including, but not limited to, the development of the UAE's "civilian nuclear energy use in a manner that contributes to global efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation" and, "the establishment of reliable sources of nuclear fuel for future civilian light water reactors deployed" in the UAE. The agreement also states that future cooperation may encompass training, scientific exchanges, and technical assistance, including in the areas of nuclear security, infrastructure protection, and nuclear fuel and waste management
Proposed train and equip authorities for Syria : in brief by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

"The President's requests for authority and funding for the Department of Defense to provide overt assistance, including possible military training and weapons, to vetted members of the Syrian opposition and other vetted Syrians for select purposes are the subject of close congressional consideration. This report introduces these proposals and the analysis and table below explore similarities and differences among some of these proposals"--Page 1
Libya : transition and U.S. policy by Christopher M Blanchard( Book )

2 editions published between 2012 and 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Libya's post-conflict transition is underway, as Libyans work to consolidate change from the 40-year authoritarian dictatorship of Muammar al Qadhafi to a planned representative government based on democratic and Islamic principles. At present, government functions are in the hands of the 76-member Transitional National Council (TNC), which carries out interim legislative and oversight responsibilities at the national level. Its 27-member executive cabinet oversees ministerial portfolios and includes figures responsible for foreign affairs, defense, interior security, oil, economy, militia demobilization, and other issues. TNC Chairman Mustafa Abdeljalil and cabinet leader Interim Prime Minister Abdurrahim El Keib direct the TNC's efforts. They and their colleagues are indirectly answerable to a wide range of locally and regionally organized activists, local committees, prominent personalities, tribes, militias, and civil society groups seeking to shape the transition and safeguard the revolution's achievements. The transition period may prove to be as complex and challenging for Libyans and their international counterparts as the 2011 conflict. Overcoming the legacy of Qadhafi's rule and the effects of the fighting are now the principal challenges for the Libyan people, the TNC, and the international community. As the transition unfolds, Libyans are facing key questions about basic terms for transitional justice, a new constitutional order, political participation, and Libyan foreign policy. Security challenges, significant investment needs, and vigorous political debates are now emerging. As Libyans work to shape their future, Congress and the Administration have the first opportunity to fully redefine U.S.-Libyan relations since the 1960s
The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya by Christopher M Blanchard( )

3 editions published between 2003 and 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and subsequent discussions of religious extremism have called attention to Islamic puritanical movements known as Wahhabism and Salafiyya. Al Qaeda leaders and their ideological supporters have advocated a violent message that some suggest is an extremist interpretation of this line of puritanical Islam. Other observers have accused Saudi Arabia, the center of Wahhabism, of having disseminated a religion that promotes hatred and violence, targeting the United States and its allies. Saudi officials strenuously deny these allegations. This report1 provides a background on Wahhabism and its relationship to active terrorist groups; it also summarizes recent charges against Wahhabism and responses, including the findings of the final report of the 9/11 Commission and relevant legislation in the 110th Congress. The report will be updated to reflect major developments. Related CRS products include CRS Report RL33533, CRS Report RL32499, CRS Report RS21432, CRS Report RS21529, CRS Report RS21654, and CRS Report RL31718
Change in the Middle East : implications for U.S. policy( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The political change and unrest that have swept through the Middle East and North Africa since early 2011 are likely to have profound consequences for the pursuit of long-standing U.S. policy goals in the region with regard to regional security, global energy supplies, U.S. military access, bilateral trade and investment, counter-proliferation, counterterrorism, and the promotion of human rights. The profound changes in the region may alter the framework in which these goals are pursued and challenge the basic assumptions that have long guided U.S. policy. This report assesses some of the policy implications of recent and ongoing events in the region, provides an overview of U.S. responses to date, and explores select case studies to illustrate some key questions and dilemmas that Congress and the executive branch may face with regard to these issues and others in the future
The Gulf Security Dialogue and Related Arms Sale Proposals by Christopher M Blanchard( )

4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In May 2006, the Administration launched an effort to revive U.S.-Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) security cooperation under the auspices of a new Gulf Security Dialogue (GSD). The Dialogue now serves as the principal security coordination mechanism between the United States and the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC): Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman. The core objectives of the Dialogue are the promotion of intra-GCC and GCC-U.S. cooperation to meet common perceived threats. The Dialogue provides a framework for U.S. engagement with the GCC countries in the following six areas: (1) the improvement of GCC defense capabilities and interoperability, (2) regional security issues such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Lebanon, (3) counterproliferation, (4) counterterrorism and internal security, (5) critical infrastructure protection, and (6) commitments to Iraq. The Administration has proposed a series of arms sales intended to enhance the defense capabilities of the GCC countries and improve the interoperability of their militaries in line with the objectives of the Gulf Security Dialogue. In particular, the Administration recently has proposed the sale of defense systems designed to strengthen the maritime, air, and missile defenses of some GCC members. In recent months, some Members of Congress have expressed concern regarding an Administration proposal to sell satellite-guided Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) kits to Saudi Arabia. In the Middle East region, to date, the United States has sold JDAM kits to Israel, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman. This report describes the structure and objectives of the Gulf Security Dialogue, briefly assesses its regional implications, summarizes related proposed arms sales, provides an overview of congressional notification and review procedures, and analyzes recent related activity in the Administration and Congress. It will be updated as events warrant
Possible U.S. intervention in Syria : issues for Congress by Jeremy Maxwell Sharp( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Reports of a mass casualty chemical weapons attack in the suburbs of Damascus are reshaping the long-running and contentious debate over possible U.S. intervention in Syria's bloody civil war. Possible punitive U.S. military action against the Asad regime is now the subject of intense debate, amid the broader ongoing discussion of U.S. policy toward the Syrian civil war and its regional consequences. As Members of Congress consider the merits of possible military intervention in Syria, they also are reengaging in long-standing discussions about the proper role for Congress in authorizing and funding U.S. military action abroad and the efficacy of the use of force in shaping global events or deterring dictatorships from committing atrocities. This report poses and attempts to provide answers to a number of policy questions for lawmakers grappling with these short- and long-term issues
 
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Afghanistan : narcotics and U.S. policy
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