WorldCat Identities

RAND Homeland Security and Defense Center

Works: 17 works in 69 publications in 1 language and 9,175 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Classifications: JV6483, 363.285
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by RAND Homeland Security and Defense Center
Evaluating the reliability of emergency response systems for large-scale incident operations by Brian A Jackson( )

6 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1,959 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The ability to measure emergency preparedness - to predict the likely performance of emergency response systems in future events - is critical for policy analysis in homeland security. Yet it remains difficult to know how prepared a response system is to deal with large-scale incidents, whether it be a natural disaster, terrorist attack, or industrial or transportation accident. This research draws on the fields of systems analysis and engineering to apply the concept of system reliability to the evaluation of emergency response systems. The authors describe a method for modeling an emergency response system; identifying how individual parts of the system might fail; and assessing the likelihood of each failure and the severity of its effects on the overall response effort. The authors walk the reader through two applications of this method: a simplified example in which responders must deliver medical treatment to a certain number of people in a specified time window, and a more complex scenario involving the release of chlorine gas. The authors also describe an exploratory analysis in which they parsed a set of after-action reports describing real-world incidents, to demonstrate how this method can be used to quantitatively analyze data on past response performance. The authors conclude with a discussion of how this method of measuring emergency response system reliability could inform policy discussion of emergency preparedness, how system reliability might be improved, and the costs of doing so. --From publisher description
Aviation security : after four decades, it's time for a fundamental review by Brian Michael Jenkins( )

7 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 1,476 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Aviation security is costly, controversial, and contentious; no other security measures directly affect such a large portion of the country's population. Because of the nature of the threat, aviation security is the most intrusive form of security, pushing hard on the frontier of civil liberties. And the threat is real: Terrorists remain obsessed with attacking airplanes. At the same time, passenger loads are increasing, while security budgets are likely to decline. Performance suffers. Meanwhile, public tolerance and cooperation are beginning to fray. But the Transportation Security Administration is often blamed for things beyond its control. And post-catastrophe reviews can push us in the wrong direction, usually resulting in new security measures rather than a reexamination of strategy. After 40 years of focus on tactical measures, it is time for a sweeping review of aviation security. Instead of forming the usual federal commission to undertake this task, several non-government research institutions could be selected to independently design an optimal aviation security system, beginning not with the four decades of accumulated security measures currently in place but with a clean slate. The competing models would be reviewed and the best ideas or combination of ideas would be put forward. Even if the results turn out to resemble what is already in place, at least the process offers some comfort that we are pretty close to getting it right."--"Overview", p. [1]
Predicting suicide attacks : integrating spatial, temporal, and social features of terrorist attack targets by Walt L Perry( )

5 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 1,281 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) set out to develop ways to predict what determines the targets of suicide attacks. While the ultimate goal is to create a list of areas at risk for the U.S. environment, the first phase of development employed a data set from Israel. Initially, NRL focused on spatial attributes, creating its own risk index, but realized that this focus on the where ignored the broader social context, the why. The lab asked RAND to test, as a proof of principle, the ability of sociocultural, political, economic, and demographic factors to enhance the predictive ability of NRL's methodology. Again using Israel as a sample, RAND created a database that coded for these factors, then conducted both quantitative and qualitative analyses with an eye to determining what puts a given area at greater risk. The quantitative analysis established that these factors are related to the odds of attack within specific neighborhoods and that the relationships held even when controlling for geospatial factors, so they seem to confer risk for reasons beyond their association with geospatial features of neighborhoods. The specifics of the research are limited to the preferences of Palestinian suicide bombers in Israel; however, the methods used to assess target preferences in Israel could be transferred to the United States or other countries. Any results, if proven to be robust, could be used to develop recommendations for heightened public awareness in certain areas."--Page 4 of cover
Promoting online voices for countering violent extremism by Todd C Helmus( )

5 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 980 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

American Muslims have played an important role in helping to counter violent extremism (CVE) and support for al-Qa'ida, and are increasingly using the Internet and social media to these ends. Discussions with a number of Muslim leaders active in social media suggest that it is possible to expand such efforts even further, and doing so is a major objective of the August 2011 White House strategy to counter violent extremism. RAND researchers reviewed literature and interviewed American Muslims experienced in social media to understand and explain key challenges facing Muslim activists against extremism, and to identify ways in which the public and private sector can help empower CVE voices online. Their recommendations include reducing the national security focus of CVE where possible: addressing sources of mistrust within the Muslim community, focusing engagement and education on those influential in social media, and enhancing both government and private-sector funding and engagement
Modeling terrorism risk to the air transportation system : an independent assessment of TSA's risk management analysis tool and associated methods( )

5 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 683 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

RAND evaluated a terrorism risk modeling tool developed by the Transportation Security Administration and Boeing to help guide program planning for aviation security. This tool, the Risk Management Analysis Tool, or RMAT, is used by TSA to estimate the terrorism risk-reduction benefits attributable to new and existing security programs, technologies, and procedures. RMAT simulates terrorist behavior and success in attacking vulnerabilities in the domestic commercial air transportation system, drawing on estimates of terrorist resources, capabilities, preferences, decision processes, intelligence collection, and operational planning. It describes how the layers of security protecting the air transportation system are likely to perform when confronted by more than 60 types of attacks, drawing on detailed blast and other physical modeling to understand the damage produced by different weapons and attacks, and calculating expected loss of life and the direct and indirect economic consequences of that damage. This report describes RAND's conclusions about the validity of RMAT for TSA's intended uses and its recommendations for how TSA should perform cost-benefit analyses of its security programs
Air attack against wildfires : understanding U.S. Forest Service requirements for large aircraft( )

6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 660 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"An aging fleet of contracted fixed-wing airtankers and two fatal crashes in 2002 led the U.S. Forest Service to investigate how to recapitalize its fleet of airtankers. The Forest Service asked RAND for assistance in determining the composition of a fleet of airtankers, scoopers, and helicopters that would minimize the total social costs of wildfires, including the cost of large fires and aircraft costs. The research team developed two separate but complementary models to estimate the optimal social cost-minimizing portfolio of initial attack aircraft -- that is, aircraft that support on-the-ground firefighters in containing a potentially costly fire while it is still small. The National Model allocates aircraft at the national level, incorporating data on ten years of historical wildfires, and the Local Resources Model provides a more nuanced view of the effect of locally available firefighting resources, relying on resource allocation data from the Forest Service's Fire Program Analysis system. Both models favor a fleet mix dominated by water-carrying scoopers, with a niche role for retardant-carrying airtankers. Although scoopers require proximity to an accessible body of water, they have two advantages: shorter cycle times to drop water and lower cost. Two uncertainties could affect the overall optimal fleet size, however: future improvements in the dispatch of aircraft to fires and the value attributed to fighting already-large fires with aircraft."--Page 4 of cover
Using pattern analysis and systematic randomness to allocate U.S. border security resources : technical report by RAND Homeland Security and Defense Center( )

6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 638 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is responsible for protecting U.S. borders against terrorist threats, criminal endeavors, illegal immigration, and contraband. Unfortunately, due to budgetary and other resource constraints, it cannot "see and be" everywhere at once. In response, the Office of Border Patrol (OBP) is investigating how pattern and trend analysis and systematic randomness can be used to position border security personnel and equipment in the places and at the times they will be most effective. A RAND study examined how these techniques affect interdiction rates, incorporating results from a RAND-developed agent-based simulation model of the interaction of border patrol agents and illegal smugglers. The model allowed an exploration of how interdiction rates differ across thousands of scenarios that vary by the number of patrols, the rate of illegal flow, the size of the border, and the approach OBP takes to using pattern and trend analysis and systematic randomness. The analysis shows how approaches that combine these two techniques yield higher interdiction rates than approaches using either technique alone, and it identifies circumstances in which combined approaches are competitive with perfect surveillance
How do we know what information sharing is really worth? : exploring methodologies to measure the value of information sharing and fusion efforts by Brian A Jackson( )

4 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 619 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the sharing of intelligence and law enforcement information has been a central part of U.S. domestic security efforts. Though much of the public debate about such sharing focuses on addressing the threat of terrorism, organizations at all levels of government routinely share varied types of information through multiagency information systems, collaborative groups, and other links. Given resource constraints, there are concerns about the effectiveness of information-sharing and fusion activities and, therefore, their value relative to the public funds invested in them. Solid methods for evaluating these efforts are lacking, however, limiting the ability to make informed policy decisions. Drawing on a substantial literature review and synthesis, this report lays out the challenges of evaluating information-sharing efforts that frequently seek to achieve multiple goals simultaneously; reviews past evaluations of information-sharing programs; and lays out a path to improving the evaluation of such efforts going forward."--"Abstract" on web page
Efficient aviation security : strengthening the analytic foundation for making air transportation security decisions by Brian A Jackson( )

6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 552 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Introduction: The Goal of Efficient Security -- The Problem to Be Solved: Aviation Terrorism Risk Past, Present, and Future -- The Costs of Security Can Depend on What Is Being Protected-- and Security Can Affect Its Value -- The Benefits of Security Depend on How Different Security Measures Work Together -- The Benefits of Security Depend on How It Shapes Adversary Choices: The Example of the Federal Air Marshal Service -- The Benefits of Security Depend on Tradeoffs Between Intended and Unintended Consequences: The Example of a Trusted Traveler Program -- Can the Benefits of Security Be Estimated Validly? -- Conclusion: Efficient Security in a Time of Fiscal Pressure
Assessing the benefits of U.S. Customs and Border Protection regulatory actions to reduce terrorism risks( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 103 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Measuring illegal border crossing between ports of entry : an assessment of four promising methods by Andrew R Morral( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 96 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is responsible for controlling the flow of goods and people across the U.S. border, a difficult task that raises challenging resource management questions about how best to minimize illicit flows across the border while facilitating legitimate ones. Commonly reported border control measures, such as numbers of illegal migrants apprehended or miles of border under effective control, bear only an indirect and uncertain relationship to the border control mission, making them unreliable management tools. Fundamental to the question of border control effectiveness is the proportion of illicit border crossings that are prevented through either deterrence or apprehension. Estimating these proportions requires knowing the total flow of illicit goods or border crossings, but compelling methods for producing such estimates do not yet exist. This short paper describes four innovative approaches to estimating the total flow of illicit border crossings between ports of entry. Each is sufficiently promising to warrant further attention for purposes of supporting reliable, valid, and timely measures of illicit cross-border flow. Successfully implementing each of these approaches will require methodological development and analysis to identify barriers or constraints to using the approach, the cost of data collection, and the amount of error that can be expected in the resulting estimates
Influences on the adoption of multifactor authentication by Martin C Libicki( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 87 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Passwords are presently the primary method by which users authenticate themselves to computer systems. But passwords are proving less and less capable of protecting systems from abuse. Multifactor authentication (MFA)⁰́₄which combines something you know (e.g., a PIN), something you have (e.g., a token), and/or something you are (e.g., a fingerprint)⁰́₄is increasingly being required. This report investigates why organizations choose to adopt or not adopt MFA⁰́₄and where they choose to use it. The authors reviewed the academic literature and articles in the trade press and conducted structured conversations with selected organizations that use or have contemplated using MFA. They found that the type of organization⁰́₄for example, defense contractor, bank, hospital⁰́₄affected its MFA choices. MFA is mandated for U.S. government agencies, which tend to use PINs and tokens for remote access. Among private users of MFA, tokens that generate one-time passwords, rather than biometrics, predominate. The researchers recommend that the U.S. government develop methodologies by which the costs and benefits of mandating MFA can be evaluated. Guidance by the National Institute of Standards to government agencies may be useful in helping them sort out the various arguments for and against mandating MFA in a given sector
Identifying potential gaps in U.S. Coast Guard Arctic capabilities by Abbie Tingstad( Book )

3 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"A key Arctic strategy and planning challenge for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) is how to enhance activities to prepare for operations before a crisis comes to pass. The USCG Arctic Strategy has been instrumental in developing some momentum for USCG and DHS planning in the region, but may require updating in light of continuing transformations in the Arctic region. Another important step in planning will involve the development of a new Arctic Capabilities Analysis Report (CAR), one type of planning document within the broader DHS Joint Requirements Integration Management System process. The research described in this report focuses on articulating potential Arctic capability gaps in 2017 and the 2030s. It was designed to provide information for a forthcoming USCG Arctic CAR. As such, it includes some aspects of a capability analysis, such as the identification of necessary, high-level capabilities; articulation of links between capabilities and missions; and documentation of potential capability gaps. Although previous reports and statements have articulated Arctic needs, challenges, gaps, and vulnerabilities, this new work provides a fresh look at potential gaps using a structured, traceable approach that considers a broad spectrum of contingencies that DHS might have to respond to in the Arctic."--Publisher's description
Assessing impact to inform decisions : a toolkit on measures for policymakers by Scott Savitz( Book )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Well-designed measures are essential for informing plans, decisions, assessments, and communications with key stakeholders. This toolkit provides a very brief overview of how to identify concepts that should be measured, how to evaluate measures, and how to identify new measures that can contribute to better-informed decisions, plans, and assessments. It is based on the content presented in a series of instructional, interactive workshops that RAND conducted for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in 2016 and 2017. This content was derived from a series of prior RAND reports, as discussed in the body of the document."--Publisher's description
Gap analysis and alternatives analysis of the Coast Guard cost estimating workforce by Irv Blickstein( Book )

3 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center report assesses the capabilities of the current Coast Guard cost-estimating workforce; identifies current requirements and current and future demands for cost-estimating services, based on Coast Guard acquisition plans; and recommends staffing and organizational alternatives to achieve flexibility to deal with future requirements."--Publisher's description
Capabilities-based planning for energy security at Department of Defense installations by Constantine Samaras( )

4 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Department of Defense (DoD) installations rely on the commercial electricity grid for 99 percent of their electricity needs, but extensive energy delivery outages in 2012 have reinforced that the U.S. electricity grid is vulnerable to disruptions from natural hazards and actor-induced outages, such as physical or cyber attacks. In the event of a catastrophic disaster⁰́₄such as a severe hurricane, massive earthquake, or large-scale terrorist attack⁰́₄DoD installations would also serve as a base for emergency services. To enhance energy security, DoD has identified diversifying energy sources and increasing efficiency in DoD operations as critical goals. But how to enhance energy security across the portfolio of installations is not clear and several questions remain unanswered: Energy security for how long? Under what conditions? At what cost? The underlying analytical questions are, what critical capabilities do U.S. installations provide, and how can DoD maintain these capabilities during an energy services disruption in the most cost-effective manner? Answering these questions requires a systems approach that incorporates technological, economic, and operational uncertainties. Using portfolio analysis methods for assessing capability options, this paper presents a framework to evaluate choices among energy security strategies for DoD installations. This framework evaluates whether existing or proposed installation energy security strategies enhance DoD capabilities and evaluates strategy cost-effectiveness
Measuring the effectiveness of border security between ports-of-entry by Henry H Willis( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Strategic planning is necessary if the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to carry out its border-security missions effectively and efficiently. As part of that, DHS leadership must define concrete and sensible objectives and measures of success. These can be used to assess results along the way, to guide allocation of resources, and to inform programming and budgeting for future capabilities and functions. This report offers research and recommendations on ways to measure the overall efforts of the national border-security enterprise between ports of entry. To be meaningful, the set of measures for effectiveness of border security should be sound, reliable, useful, and general. Three DHS missions appear to currently be of special interest to DHS leadership because they are especially problematic: illegal drug control, counterterrorism, and illegal migration. The report recommends measuring performance of three fundamental functions that border-security efforts contribute to achieving national policy objectives: interdiction, deterrence, and exploiting networked intelligence. If the steps described here are taken, DHS and its components will be in a better position to discuss past performance and to provide reasoned justifications for future allocation of resources. Further, they will be able to relate their efforts to those of other agencies in pursuit of national objectives
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Evaluating the reliability of emergency response systems for large-scale incident operations
Measuring the effectiveness of border security between ports-of-entry
Alternative Names
Rand Corporation Homeland Security and Defense Center

Rand Homeland Security and Defense Center

English (69)