WorldCat Identities

Bodensteiner, Leo R. 1957-

Works: 38 works in 72 publications in 1 language and 85 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Classifications: LD5778.9, 597.092977
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works about Leo R Bodensteiner
Most widely held works by Leo R Bodensteiner
Winter habitat requirements and overwintering of riverine fishes by Robert J Sheehan( Book )

4 editions published between 1990 and 1994 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Shelter competition between native signal crayfish and non-native red swamp crayfish in Pine Lake, Sammamish, Washington : the role of size and sex by Karl W Mueller( )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Freshwater crayfish (Decapoda) communities worldwide are becoming increasingly similar from location to location by the intentional or accidental introduction of North American crayfishes. The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Cambaridae), which is native to the south-central United States and northeastern Mexico, is the most widely introduced crayfish in the world. It was first discovered in Pine Lake, Sammamish, Washington in 2000. The results of a 2005 baseline survey of the crayfish in Pine Lake suggested that the red swamp crayfish was displacing the native signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus, Astacidae). One mechanism through which non-native crayfishes displace native species is competitive interaction over shelter that influences susceptibility to predation. Field experiments were designed to explore how crayfish size and sex influence shelter occupancy in mixed-species pairs of signal crayfish and red swamp crayfish competing for limited shelter inside enclosures placed on the bottom of Pine Lake. In addition, the relative survivorship of signal crayfish and red swamp crayfish was quantified in experiments where mixed-species pairs were tethered outside of single shelters. Irrespective of species and sex, when paired with smaller heterospecifics, large crayfish readily monopolized the shelters inside the enclosures. When contestants were size-matched, the dominant crayfish or 'winner' was typically the one with longer chelae; frequently, this was the signal crayfish. Female crayfishes also were adept at monopolizing the shelter. The tether experiments revealed no significant differences in survivorship between species. These results suggest that additional mechanisms besides shelter competition are contributing to the possible displacement of signal crayfish at Pine Lake
Seasonal and age-based aspects of diet of the introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus) in Ross Lake, Washington by Carmen A Welch( )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study investigates the introduced population of the Redside Shiner (Richardsonius balteatus) in Ross Lake, Washington. The Redside Shiner was introduced to Ross Lake around 2000 and in the summer months, can be found in densities of hundreds per cubic meter in the shallow areas of Ross Lake. Ross Lake is a protected thirty-five and a half kilometer long reservoir in North Cascades National Park with cold, clear water of exceptional quality. Fish native to Ross Lake include: Bull Trout, Dolly Varden and Rainbow Trout. It is a commonly held belief that the introduced Redside Shiner have no negative effect on the native fish in Ross Lake and that they benefit the native fish as a source of prey. However, previous studies in other lakes have reported reduced growth and survival of juvenile Rainbow Trout as a result of the introduction of the Redside Shiner. Considering the conflict about the potential effects of the introduced Redside Shiner in Ross Lake, the two main goals of this study were to determine what the Redside Shiner in Ross Lake consumes and to evaluate the potential threat of long-term impacts to the native fish in Ross Lake. Samples were collected from three different locations in the lake across all seasons. Age was determined for 178 Redside Shiners and the stomach contents of 271 Redside Shiners were evaluated. Samples were collected to represent northern, middle and southern areas of Ross Lake. Collection occurred in the winter, spring, summer and fall. Age determination showed the samples consisted of Redside Shiners ages 0 to 6. Regardless of location, season and age, zooplankton and insects are the most important diet categories to the Redside Shiner in Ross Lake both in terms of frequency of occurrence and percent volume of total diet. They also consume oligochaetes, cestodes, algae and other unidentifiable incidental items such as wood, sediment and what appears to be plastics, however none are of much importance. Based on my findings, the Redside Shiner likely competes with the native fish in Ross Lake for food. The competitive juvenile bottleneck theory explains the potential for a predator to be negatively impacted from its prey due to competition with its juveniles. Like the Redside Shiner in Ross Lake, the juvenile native fish may also depend primarily on aquatic insects and zooplankton. Unless food resources are partitioned spatially and seasonally, the competitive juvenile bottle neck theory holds merit in Ross Lake and direct competition between the introduced Redside Shiner and the native fish seems likely. Based on back-calculated ages of the Redside Shiner in Ross Lake, this population seems to be stable with the potential to persist in high numbers into the future, forecasting that the risk for competition may also persist into the future. Considering the potential for competition now and into the future, further research is required to generate information about the dietary habits of the juvenile native fish, their spatial distribution and how they use the different habitats in Ross Lake
Habitat relationships and gene flow of Martes americana in northern Idaho by Tzeidle N Wasserman( )

2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Forest fragmentation can have a dramatic effect on landscape connectivity and dispersal of animals, potentially reducing gene flow within and among populations. American marten populations (Martes americana) are sensitive to forest fragmentation and the spatial configuration of patches of remnant mature forest has an important impact on habitat quality. This study represents an extensive multiple scale habitat relationships analysis conducted for American marten. In conjunction with Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the U.S. Forest Service, genetic data on marten populations across the Idaho Panhandle National Forest was used to build habitat relationships models. Over 3 years of winter fieldwork during 2004, 2005, and 2006, I detected martens at 569 individual hair snare stations distributed across a 3,000 square kilometer study area covering the Selkirk, Purcell, and Cabinet Mountain ranges. I investigated habitat relationships of this population of Martes americana in the Idaho Panhandle National Forest (IPNF) at three spatial scales: Plot, Home Range, and Multiple-Scale. I used bivariate scaling to measure each environmental variable across a broad range of radii ranging from 90m-1080m around each sample station. I used an information-theoretic approach to rank 45 a priori candidate models that described hypothesized habitat relationships at each spatial scale. At the plot scale, marten presence was positively predicted by the Percentage of Landscape (PLand) comprised of large sawtimber, and negatively predicted by PLand of seedling/sapling timber type. At the home range scale, the probability of detecting a marten decreased with increasing amounts of fragmentation and highly contrasted edges between patches of large sawtimber and patches of seedling/sapling and non-stocked patches. In the multiple-scale analysis, I used a variable screening step to find variables that were universal and consistent throughout all models in order to build candidate models. PLand comprised of large homogeneous patches of large sawtimber was a positive predictor of marten presence, while highly contrasted edges and fragmentation were strong negative predictors of marten presence. The scale at which martens selected habitats varied greatly across variables. Martens actively selected for high quality habitat at the fine scale (plot level) and strongly avoided areas comprised of seedling/sapling and non-stocked timber areas. Martens negatively responded to high contrast edges and strongly avoided them. Juxtaposition and configuration of patches of large sawtimber was important to marten habitat selection. This study demonstrates the importance of investigating marten habitat at multiple spatial scales and provides insights to linkages among scales and how martens respond to forest fragmentation. Genetic information was used to model genetic relationships of this marten population with respect to environmental and spatial variables within my study landscape. Over three field seasons 70 individual marten were detected across the study area. The genetic similarities were based on the pair-wise percentage dissimilarity among all individuals based on 7 microsatellite loci. I compared their genetic similarities with several landscape resistance hypotheses. The landscape resistance hypotheses describe a range of potential relationships between movement cost and landcover, elevation, roads, Euclidean distance and valleys between mountain ranges as barriers. The degree of support for each model was tested with causal modeling on resemblance matrices using partial Mantel tests. Hypotheses of Isolation by Distance and Isolation by Barrier were not supported, and Isolation by Landscape Resistance proved to be the best model describing genetic patterns of Martes americana in the IPNF. Elevation 1600m with a standard deviation of 600m was the most highly supported landscape resistance model correlated to genetic structure of marten in this landscape. Correlating genetic similarity of individuals across large landscapes with hypothetical movement cost models can give reliable inferences about population connectivity. By linking cost modeling to the actual patterns of genetic similarity among individuals it is possible to obtain rigorous, empirical models describing the relationship between landscape structure and gene flow, and to produce speciesspecific maps of landscape connectivity, and can provide managers with critical information to better administer our forests for meso-carnivores and other species of concern
The effects of introduced warm water fishes to the native kokanee population of Lake Whatcom, WA by Ian F Smith( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Non-lethal determination of heavy metals in spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) spines using LA-ICP-MS by Clayton L Bailes( )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biological structures that develop incremental growth patterns over time present a unique opportunity to study chronological aspects of the organism's chemical environment. Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), an abundant shark species, develop two dorsal spines that exhibit this type of growth pattern. The growth patterns on these spines have been used extensively as indicators of age. However, the chronological patterns of trace metal deposits in these spines have yet to be assessed. The main goals of this study were to develop the methods for analyzing this chronology and to explore techniques to analyze these data. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a recently developed analytical technique for studying spatially-distributed elemental compositions in solids. LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify the concentrations of zinc and strontium across the life histories of 18 Spiny Dogfish. Metal accumulation and size differed between sharks caught at two sampling locations. This method was able to chronologically relate metal deposition to age in individuals of this species
Age determination of the sixgill shark from hard parts using a series of traditional and novel approaches by S. Jeffrey Campbell( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Necessary to the management of any species of fish is the ability to determine age in individuals. Age information is used to establish growth rates, longevity, age at maturity, and population age structure, and to predict how population demographics will change over time. For most species of fish, reliable aging techniques have been in use since the early 20th century. Most boney fish are aged by counting bands of calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite that form over time in skeletal hard parts such as otoliths, fin-spines, and scales, which can be used as proxies for age in years. Fishes in the Class Elasmobranchii lack otoliths and have skeletons composed of cartilage, which often do not incorporate enough calcium to enable enumeration by traditional aging methods that rely on light microscopy, in some cases aided by enhancement techniques such as histological staining. For these fishes, alternative methods and aging structures are used to identify and enumerate annual patterns in calcium deposition. The aging structure of choice for most elasmobranches is the vertebral centrum, where bands of calcium are deposited that can be used as proxies for age in years. A few deep-dwelling species of Elasmobranchii, such as the sixgill shark (Hexanchus griseus,) have as yet defied efforts at age determination, inhibiting efforts to implement science-based management plans. This study has attempted to identify alternative aging structures that may incorporate seasonally-mediated concentrations of elements or isotopes into cartilage. Once identified, these structures were subjected to two recently developed methods of elemental microanalysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and laser ablation, inductively-coupled, plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), in an effort to develop an aging method for H. griseus, and potentially other poorly calcified elasmobranchs. In addition, it has also used two traditional, histological staining methods, Von Kossa's AgNO3, and Alizarin Red-S and applied them to these non-traditional aging structures. This study identified regions within the cartilaginous skeleton of H. griseus that lay down systematic banding patterns. These patterns were visually detected using AgNO3 staining enhanced light microscopy, as well as by periodic oscillations in isotopic concentrations for 24Mg, 88Sr, 107Ag, and 109Ag that were detected through the use of LA-ICP-MS. Future research in this field will need to verify if these bands are deposited on an annual basis. Methodologies must be developed for verification, and validation of these procedures to determine if the band patterns identified by either of these methods have utility for age determination in this and other poorly calcified species of elasmobranchs
Viability of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in relation to streamflow regulation in Terrell Creek, Washington by Ryan S Vasak( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As salmon and trout populations decline in the Pacific Northwest, emphasis should be placed on restoration of any stream capable of producing salmon and trout. Terrell Creek is a small, dam regulated, independent drainage that historically produced at least four species of salmon and trout. Streamflow, regulated at the Lake Terrell dam, has typically been close to zero during the summer low flow period and probably affected salmon and trout population levels in the Creek. This study was designed to characterize the current fish assemblage in Terrell Creek, estimate coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolt production levels, identify factors that limit coho salmon production, explore modifications to stream habitat and their potential impact on coho salmon smolt production, and recommend instream flow levels and management strategies that would increase levels of salmon and trout produced from Terrell Creek. Smolt traps were operated in two consecutive years to determine total salmonid production in the Creek during this period. Summertime streamflows were augmented with water from Lake Terrell. Instream temperatures were recorded during the flow augmentation period, and changes in useable stream area were measured at each discharge. Production of coho salmon, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) is low. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) may have been extirpated from Terrell Creek. Water temperatures exhibited a general cooling trend from the dam to downstream sites, and rearing habitat increased discharge. This study concluded that 1) a potential increase in coho smolt production levels is possible only with an increase in available rearing habitat, 2) to increase rearing habitat during the critical flow period, flow augmentation must occur, and 3) Lake Terrell is an adequate water source for flow augmentation, in the context of instream temperatures and flow quantity
Macroinvertebrate bioassessment of five Lake Whatcom, WA, tributaries by Dwight J Osmon( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Five streams (Anderson Creek, Austin Creek, Brannian Creek, Olsen Creek, and Smith Creek) located in the eastern portion of the Lake Whatcom, WA (USA), watershed were selected for a macroinvertebrate bioassessment study. Water quality samples were collected at all sites in July 2001, September-October 2001, and February 2002 to characterize summer, fall, and winter conditions. Results of the water quality portion of this study indicated no statistically significant differences among research sites for nutrients, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, turbidity, or alkalinity. There were slight differences among sites for pH and conductivity with respect to the range of values, but the differences were not statistically significant due to the low number of replicates. Substrate composition, riparian habitat, and aspects of channel morphology were evaluated at each study stream in September-October 2001. There were no statistical differences among sites for any substrate categories, riparian habitat or channel morphology characteristics. Substrate was composed mainly of cobble, coarse gravel, and fine gravel. The riparian habitat showed slight differences in canopy cover ranges, but due to the low number of replicates at each site, the differences were not statistically significant. Generally, the sites fell into three categories: closed canopy (Brannian Creek); deciduous canopy (Anderson, Austin, and Olsen Creeks); and open canopy (Smith Creek). Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected at all sites in September-October 2001 and evaluated using multiple measures of diversity and community integrity. Sites were compared using unsealed biometric criteria (raw scores) such as the number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa, the percentage of Cinygma, and the ratio of EPT individuals to total individuals. The Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) was used to compare the Lake Whatcom tributaries with other Puget Lowlands streams. The B-IBI's for macroinvertebrates in the Lake Whatcom watershed were relatively high compared to other streams in the Puget Lowlands indicating clean water and good macroinvertebrate habitat in the Lake Whatcom watershed. Austin Creek and Smith Creek macroinvertebrate data indicated these streams contained relatively large amounts of organic suspended solids that could contribute to the overall productivity of Lake Whatcom. Smith Creek also showed indications of temperature stress. Anderson Creek showed signs of low habitat complexity and sedimentation. Bootstrap sampling was used to evaluate the performance of the B-IBI and other biometric criteria. The bootstrap sampling results indicated the B-IBI performed poorly at low counts (100-500 individuals). The variance among recounts remained high and the B-IBI did not reach a stable score until 1000 or more individuals were counted. The performance of the EPT individuals to total individuals ratio showed low variance and a stable mean value at counts of 100 individuals. The EPT individuals to total individuals ratio also ranked sites in the same order as the other biometric criteria
Summer phytoplankton diversity in small lakes of Northwest Washington by Rachael D Gravon( )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

I sampled forty lakes in the Puget Sound region of northwest Washington to investigate the relationship between water quality, site characteristics, and algal composition. Water samples were collected during the summer of 2008 to measure nutrients, alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature. Watershed characteristics were recorded to assess shoreline composition and dominant land use. Phytoplankton samples were collected, preserved, and concentrated in settling chambers to determine taxonomic composition and algal biovolume. Unpreserved phytoplankton samples were also collected and used to generate a species list for each lake. The data were examined using correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering to evaluate relationships between water quality parameters and phytoplankton assemblages. The phytoplankton communities were quite diverse, and many species were collected that are described as uncommon in the taxonomic literature. Correlation analysis between water quality variables produced results consistent with the literature. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen both exhibited significant correlations with chlorophyll-a. In addition, significant correlations also occurred between alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. There were also many significant correlations between algal population parameters. In general, when Cyanobacteria increased in percentage, other species, most notably Chlorophyta, decreased, and as Cyanobacteria became dominant, other algal populations became less diverse. Lakes with similar water quality parameters clustered together. Lakes also clustered based on algal population structure, though cluster membership was different for water quality parameters versus algal assemblages. Lakes with high algal density clustered together. These lakes were almost always dominated by Cyanobacteria. My results indicated that as algal density increased, the populations became more dominated by Cyanobacteria and diversity decreased
An analysis of agricultural land use effects on surface water quality in Skagit County streams by MarySutton Carruthers( )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nonpoint source pollution is a concern in many streams nationwide. Puget Sound cleanup efforts have increasingly focused on targeting nonpoint sources of pollution, including nutrient and bacterial sources resulting from agricultural activities. Skagit County, Washington hosts a robust compilation of agricultural activities from large scale row crops and dairy operations to small hobby farms. It is also home to the Skagit River, the most important river system for Puget Sound salmon, and Samish Bay, the largest shellfish growing area in the north Puget Sound. Enormous efforts have been made to assess the health of Washington's waterways and to find an effective way to ensure clean water without threatening the historic agricultural sector. The Skagit County government established a monitoring program in 2003 for the express purpose of assessing agricultural effects on streams. Surface water quality data from 40 sites on 28 streams, collected from 2003-2011 as part of this program, were used in these analyses. The objective of this research was to augment Skagit County water quality reports in order to determine the influence of agricultural land-use and precipitation on regional surface water quality. Median fecal coliforms, salinity, and turbidity were higher at sites at the downstream end of agricultural areas as compared with upstream sites, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower. Sites downstream from agricultural activities were more likely to have detectable levels of total suspended solids, orthophosphate, ammonium, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen than midstream, upstream, or reference sites. Precipitation was only correlated with fecal coliforms at a quarter of the sites, though precipitation events were associated with higher median fecal coliforms at downstream sites. Land-use characteristics were more deterministic of median fecal coliforms than were inherent watershed characteristics
Changes in water chemistry and biological communities associated with metal mining in streams in the North Cascades by Brooke G Bannerman( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Hard rock and placer mining have been occurring throughout the mountains in the northern portion of Washington State since the late-1800s. As a result, aquatic ecosystems in this region are susceptible to the physical, chemical and biological changes that result from mining activities. These alterations, which include changes in water chemistry, habitat modifications, and reduction or contamination of food sources, can adversely impact aquatic communities of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. To evaluate changes in water chemistry and biological communities in two regions with extensive mining histories, the Ruby Creek watershed and Upper Skagit River watershed, I analyzed metals in grab samples of surface water, on Stabilized Liquid Membrane Devices (SLMDs) which passively sample metals in surface waters over time, and in periphyton. Metals were present in the water and benthos, and site-specific and temporal differences in the kinds and quantities of metals were linked to locations of hard rock and placer mining activities. Metal concentrations in surface waters differed between sites upstream and downstream of mining depending on different times when mining was or was not occurring. Metal concentrations in surface waters at some sites in the Ruby Creek watershed were high enough to be capable of adversely affecting aquatic organisms over time. Metals that were present in streams were not always detected in grab samples, but their presence was confirmed by SLMDs and periphyton. Clustering analyses of both SLMDs and periphyton each distinguished two different groups of samples, samples collected downstream of placer mining (SLMDs) and samples collected downstream of hard rock mining (periphyton). The accumulation of metals in periphyton indicated these communities could be a concentrated source of toxic metals to primary consumers, such as small aquatic insects, and may pass to other aquatic organisms at higher trophic levels through dietary exposures
Determining biologically available phosphorus in storm water entering Lake Whatcom, WA using the dual culture diffusion apparatus by Jonnel Deacon( )

2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Long term monitoring of Lake Whatcom, a large monomictic lake located near Bellingham, Washington, has indicated a decrease in water quality that resulted in excessive algae growth associated with increased phosphorus inputs. Recently, a total maximum daily load was issued to limit phosphorus inputs into the lake, with emphasis on storm water mitigation. Not all phosphorus in storm water can be used by algae; the portion that can be used is described as bioavailable, and includes both inorganic and organic forms of phosphorus. My research focused on quantifying the amount of phosphorus made available by alkaline phosphatase, an algal and bacterial enzyme that can release some of the phosphorus associated with organic and inorganic particulates. Storm water samples were collected from tributaries of Lake Whatcom and analyzed to determine the total phosphorus concentrations. The alkaline phosphatase bioavailable phosphorus concentration was determined using dual culture diffusion apparatuses, with phosphorus-starved Selenastrum capricornutum algal cultures that were separated from the storm water phosphorus source by an enzyme-permeable membrane. The total phosphorus concentrations in the storm water were reduced by 37 to 92% (median = 78%), which suggests that storm water entering Lake Whatcom contains a substantial amount of bioavailable phosphorus. Because of this, management goals should assume that all storm water entering the lake from these tributaries has an equal ability to sustain algal growth. Chlorophyll was not correlated with phosphorus reductions, suggesting that in these short-term tests, the algal cellular energy may have been focused on enzyme production to facilitate phosphorus uptake
An investigation of acid rock drainage in glacial streams through multivariate exploratory analysis and the Biotic Ligand Model in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru by Edward W Bain( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Water chemistry in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, where glaciers provide crucial freshwater to the arid Andes Mountains, was characterized during the dry season (June-August), 2014. Metal concentrations, anion concentrations, and physical and chemical parameters were assessed at 94 sample sites in seven river valleys. Nonparametric multivariate exploratory statistics were used to compare sample sites. Compared to other river valleys, high metal concentrations were evident in the Quilcayhuanca valley. Water chemistry and visual signs indicated that acid rock drainage (ARD) is occurring in the Cordillera Blanca, likely due to glacial recession. Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed on the results of a principal components analysis on the chemical data. The results of these two analyses showed cobalt, manganese, and nickel were the top metals that distinguished the different clusters. In addition to the exploratory analysis, the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) was used to predict toxicity to aquatic life based on the chemical measurements at the sampling sites. Approximately 20% of the sites had predicted toxic responses to metals and another 20% of the sites were outside of the pH tolerance range of individual species. These sites outside of the pH ranges were assumed to cause toxicity to the aquatic organisms due to hydrogen ions rather than metals. From this, the altered water quality in headwater streams in the Cordillera Blanca is predicted to be detrimental to aquatic life. The reduction in water quality makes the understanding of these headwater streams critical in efforts to mitigate the loss of crucial water resources
Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the Salish sucker (Catostomus sp.) : an endemic and endangered transboundary fish population by Nathaniel S Lundgren( )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Salish sucker (Catostomus sp.) is a recently described endemic fish species with a patchy distribution and a narrow geographic range in western Washington and southwestern British Columbia. In this study I examined populations within the Nooksack River watershed, attempting to elucidate the environmental factors contributing to observed patterns of distribution and abundance. I hypothesized that hypoxic and hyperthermic conditions during the summer months would restrict Salish sucker distribution. I tested this hypothesis by measuring dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, and Salish sucker abundance and movement at eight sites in the Bertrand Creek and Fishtrap Creek sub-basins. The results of this study did not support my original hypothesis; instead it seems more likely that physical habitat characteristics rather than water quality exert greater influence in patterns of abundance and distribution. My findings emphasize the importance of maintaining the quality and connectivity of habitat for Salish sucker conservation
Alternative foraging strategies among brown bears (Ursus arctos) fishing for chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at McNeil River, Alaska by Ian D Gill( )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Previous research on the fishing behavior of bears (Ursus spp.) along salmon streams suggests that dominant individuals forage more efficiently than their competitors; specifically, large adult males are the most efficient foragers at a given stream due to their ability to dominate the most productive locations. I tested this hypothesis by observing 26 individual brown bears (U. arctos) fishing for chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at McNeil River, Alaska, over 33 days during the summer of 2010. In contrast with previous findings I did not observe strong relationships between the foraging efficiency of individual bears and the frequency with which they engaged in dominance-related behaviors (e.g., displacing competitors, stealing fish, using more productive locations). While some individuals seemed to employ dominance as a strategy to achieve high catch rates, other individuals achieved high foraging efficiency by employing alternative foraging strategies that did not involve dominance-related behaviors. My observations suggest that bears at McNeil River employ a variety of fishing strategies, of which dominance-related behavior is but one alternative. I suggest that where foraging efficiency is concerned, an individual bear's ability to develop an effective foraging strategy may be more important than its social dominance. My findings open the door to intriguing questions for future research into which physical or cognitive traits lead to the development of successful foraging strategies among brown bears fishing for salmon
Soils as a source of bioavailable phosphorus in the Lake Whatcom Watershed by Scott Groce( )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Lake Whatcom is a warm monomictic lake located east of the City of Bellingham, WA, U.S.A. and serves as the primary drinking water source for approximately 100,000 Whatcom County and City of Bellingham residents. Matthews et al. (2004) noted indicators of increasing algal productivity in the lake. My study quantified the amount of soluble, bioavailable, and total phosphorus in the Lake Whatcom watershed soils to help quantify the major sources of phosphorus entering the lake. In addition, I assessed the influence of soil factors (soil series, size fraction, aspect, elevation, pH, slope, percent organic matter, median particle size, and percent by volume sand, silt and clay) on bioavailable phosphorus concentrations. Organic matter, slope and elevation were found to be significantly positively correlated with bioavailable phosphorus. Total phosphorus was found to be a significant predictor of bioavailable phosphorus and produced a linear model with strong predictive capability (log10bap = 1.39log10tppers - 1.38; Adj. R2 = 0.79; p-value <0.001). Total suspended solids data were used to predict concentrations of total and bioavailable phosphorus contributed by the watershed; the results were compared to actual total phosphorus concentrations measured in streams. The predicted phosphorus values were lower than actual stream phosphorus values, indicating that there were additional sources of phosphorus (e.g. residential runoff) entering the lake that supplement what was contributed by watershed soils. Alternatively, the difference between measured and predicted phosphorus concentrations may be due to high variability in phosphorus concentrations within the soils. The predicted and measured phosphorus values were closest during peak storm flows, suggesting that during high flow events, most of the phosphorus transported into the lake comes from watershed soils
Population characteristics and habitat use by the recently introduced Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) in Lake Whatcom, Washington by Jason A Buehler( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) was found in Lake Whatcom in 2011. This exotic clam is common throughout North America and is spread between watersheds by infested boats, fishing activities, as well as passively by waterfowl. Corbicula fluminea is a well documented invasive species that survives in many environments and exhibits an r-selected life history which can lead to potentially rapid population growth via a clonal reproductive ability typical among invasive bivalves and members of the family Corbiculidae. There are more reproductive strategies in Corbiculidae than any other freshwater bivalve. This rapid growth of a single organism and its associated consumption and excretions can lead to undesired changes in an aquatic ecosystem. Studies have shown a drop in species richness, alterations to algal communities and their availability to other organisms, and water quality changes associated with burrowing, shell accumulation, and clam decomposition. My research included an assessment of the growth of representative Lake Whatcom clam populations during 2012 and 2013 using shellfish surveying methods that have been applied to the marine intertidal environment. Surveying was based on multiple transects with randomly sampled 0.25-square meter quadrats. Three sites were identified that had populations of the clam and were accessible for surveys. These sites were Bloedel Donovan Park in the City of Bellingham, Lakewood, a facility run by Western Washington University, and a small park beach within the community of Sudden Valley. Surveys showed sample areas with 200 or more individual clams per square meter at all three sites. Studies state this density to be indicative of a self-sustaining population for C. fluminea. Some sites exhibited an increase in biomass and size from 2012 to 2013. All sites showed significant changes among some size classes that suggest growth. The sand and fine sediment substrate of the Sudden Valley site hosted significant density increases and biomass increases from 2012 to 2013. The harder rocky substrate of Lakewood hosted multiple size classes but did not show evidence of growth. Bloedel Donovan Park differed from the other sites in that it had a small size class in 2013 that was not present in 2012 suggesting a new generation of clams had reseeded the habitat. The overall environment within Lake Whatcom does not appear to be conducive to extended periods of reproduction based on the presence of distinct size classes. Distinct size classes are representative of specific reproductive windows during the year made available during the warmer months of summer. Density and biomass changed with depth within the nearshore shallows suggesting that the cooler deeper waters of the lake are not as suitable to the clam as the warmer, shallower areas within the littoral zone. Another explanation is less phytoplankton availability due to light limitations imposed by depth. Corbicula fluminea appears to be reproducing to varying degrees at all three sites in this study, and it will likely continue to spread to suitable habitat within Lake Whatcom. Typical impacts associated with the clam should be expected. These include changes in species richness, especially changes in native filter feeder concentration as well as changes to phytoplankton density, and alterations to the seston nutrient load because of burrowing and biological functions associated with C. fluminea
A comparison of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages among kryal and rhithral lake outlets in the North Cascade Mountains by Kelley L Turner( )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study compares the physico-chemical conditions and composition of benthic macroinvertebrates from five rhithral (snowmelt-fed) and five kryal (glacially-fed) lake outlet streams in the North Cascade Mountains, WA. Non-metric, non-parametric cluster and association analysis (NMCAA) clearly separated outlet streams of kryal and rhithral origin based on physico-chemical and taxon variables. Kryal lake outlets were characterized by lower water temperatures, unstable in-stream channels and higher turbidity, discharge and fine substrates than rhithral sites. A total of 24,985 specimens representing 93 macroinvertebrate taxa were collected. Rhithral lake outlets had significantly higher densities and supported more taxa than kryal sites (9,049 ind./m2 and 77 taxa versus 821 ind./m2 and 35 taxa). Chironomidae were the dominant taxon amongst all sites, although densities and taxa richness were one-third in the kryal lake outlets when compared to rhithral sites. Rhithral lake outlets contained higher densities of non-insect taxa such as Acari, Oligochaeta, Nemathelminthes, Planariidae and crustaceans. Water temperature, stream discharge and turbidity were the variables most strongly correlated to density and taxa richness. My results suggest that glacial presence was the dominant factor influencing instream environmental conditions and subsequently macroinvertebrate assemblages of alpine lake outlet streams
Influence of watershed and soil parameters on water quality in fifty western Washington lakes by Susan F Horton( )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of my study was to find reliable patterns in the data that linked watershed characteristics to water quality. The project area was regional in scope, spanning two very different ecoregions, involving 50 lakes many of which have been sampled for 7 years. I found highly significant correlations (Kendall's tau> 0.500, pvalue <0.001) between total phosphorus, chlorophyll α, total nitrogen, and turbidity. Total phosphorus, chlorophyll [alpha], total nitrogen, and turbidity also strongly correlated with mean and maximum lake depths. I also found highly significant correlations between watershed area, fetch, road length, and population. Road length and population were the parameters that best described residential development in my study. By evaluating lake water quality with regard to total phosphorus, chlorophyll [alpha], and using road length and population as indicators of development, I identified lakes that were at-risk due to development within the watersheds and the likelihood of nutrient resuspension. The most at-risk lake was Reed Lake. Currently Reed Lake is at the high end of the mesotrophic range, but it is at risk of becoming more permanently eutrophic due to the pressures of development on the water quality exacerbated by the likelihood of nutrient resuspension. Using clustering analysis based on principal components, the watersheds in my study formed three stable groups that were related to water quality and lake and watershed morphology. The extent to which soils affect water quality in these lakes was not fully revealed by the results of my work and is worthy of further investigation
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