WorldCat Identities

Ohio State University College of Public Health

Works: 122 works in 124 publications in 1 language and 153 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Ohio State University
Risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in men who have sex with men : examination of a PSA biomarker, sexual behaviors, and the role of the body image by Cara Exten Rice( )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 19 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Results: In our first analysis, only one (2%) rectal swab was PSA-positive and it was collected from a man who reported no uRAI in the 72 hours preceding swab collection. In our second analysis, participation in group sex in the past three months was associated with a more than two-fold (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR): 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 3.95) increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia, after adjustment for race, age, and drug use. Our third analysis revealed no significant association between body image and prevalent STI in unadjusted or adjusted models (APR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.53)
The effect of school policies and practices and food environments on fruits and vegetables selected from salad bars among U.S. elementary schools by Lynn M Huynh( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Results: Six hundred and six elementary schools across the U.S. participated in the study. Several variables reflecting salad bar placement were found to significantly affect FV selection. These variables included formats (standalone vs. incorporated into the lunch line), (t (604) = -3.61, p <0.001), and visibility of standalone salad bars (standalone salad bar was seen first when entering the lunch area, hot lunch line was seen first, or both were seen at the same time), (F (2, 378) = 6.89, p = 0.001). School policies also were found to affect FV selection. Schools with more marketing and promotion or those with school meals policy elements had higher amounts of FV selected from salad bars than schools having absent or fewer policy elements mentioned, (F (2, 566) = 7.25, p = 0.001 and F (2, 566) = 9.53, p <0.001, respectively). Schools that did not have strong and mandatory language describing restrictions on competitive foods had fewer FV selected compared to schools that had some or many policies with strong and mandatory language, (F (2, 566) = 3.60, p = 0.028). The combination of food policies, practices, and salad bar placement variables had a stronger impact than each separate effect on FV selection. In regards to school policies, there was an interaction effect for nutrition education-marketing and promotion and school meals-competitive foods policies mentioned, (F (1, 564) = 15.00, p <0.001). In regards to school practices and salad bar placement, there was a significant interaction effect for marketing and promotion practices and prominent location of standalone salad bars, (F (2, 375) = 3.51, p = 0.031)
Comparing logit and hinge surrogate loss functions in outcome weighted learning by Mariah Claire Eisner( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Outcome weighted learning is a weighted classification-based approach for finding the optimal individualized treatment regime to prolong survival when subject characteristics impact response to different treatment options. Previous research on this method utilizes the hinge loss from machine learning to perform classification. However, there are other loss functions for binary classification that could be leveraged, such as the logit loss from logistic regression. This study compares the performance of outcome weighted learning models via simulations with different surrogate loss functions to determine whether the logit loss is a reasonable alternative to the hinge loss. Data are right censored with two possible treatments and decision functions are assumed to be linear. Simulations are conducted under three forms of the true decision function, using a correctly specified model with two covariates and an incorrectly specified model with an extra nuisance covariate. Logit loss and hinge loss outcome weighted learning models are applied to data from a randomized trial on aortic stenosis. Results indicate that the logit loss offers comparable performance to the hinge loss and therefore can be used as an alternative to the latter, though the performance of both outcome weighted learning models may suffer from instability when they are misspecified
Examining opioid-related overdose events in Dayton, oh using police, emergency medical services and coroner's data by Yuhan Pan( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We first aggregate all three data sources into ZIP code level and compare their spatial distribution using map visualizations and Spearman’s correlation test. We then use descriptive statistics and record linkage on the individual-level data from the police and the coroner to understand the demographic characteristics of fatal overdose events
Acute phase reactants prior to diagnosis of Cancer or Myocardial Infarction by James Larry Fisher( )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of these investigations was to evaluate hypotheses concerning associations between the acute phase response (APR), an adaptive response to cellular injury during which hepatocyte protein synthesis is altered, and preclinical cancer and myocardial infarction (MI). The goal of the first investigation (Chapter 2) was to determine how long prior to cancer or MI diagnoses alterations in serum albumin, transferrin (assessed as iron binding capacity [IBC]), and serum iron occur. Age-adjusted statistically significant decreases in serum albumin, IBC, and serum iron prior to both cancer and MI diagnoses are found. Men not diagnosed with either cancer or MI have initial IBC and serum iron levels significantly lower than men developing cancer and MI, and show significant increases in IBC and serum iron during the eight-year study period. Results from the second investigation (Chapter 3) indicate that routinely-measured acute phase reactants are altered at least three years prior to diagnoses of two smoking-related cancers: lung and bladder cancer, although results vary by sex. For example, among males, risk of bladder cancer is 8.24 times greater (95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 3.39-20.04), and risk for lung cancer is 2.95 times greater (95 percent CI: 1.90-4.56) in men with WBCC in the upper quartile compared to men in remaining quartiles. Results from the third investigation (Chapter 4) indicate that serum micronutrients are altered during the APR. Statistically significant inverse associations between the APR and the following micronutrients are found: serum iron, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin A, a-carotene, ß-carotene, and lycopene. Finally, results of the last investigation (Chapter 5) indicate that urinary albumin levels greater than 100 ug/dl are found associated with the APR independent of serum albumin (prevalence odds ratio = 1.80, 95 percent CI: 1.19-2.70), and urinary albumin excretion is associated with increased risk of prostate (RR = 1.88, 95 percent CI: 0.98-3.56), lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue (RR = 2.84, 95 percent CI: 1.31-6.17), and uterine (RR = 2.48, 95 percent CI: 0.78-7.95) cancers. The effects of the APR occur early in disease processes and are more wide-ranging than previously believed
Behavioral, policy, and environmental approaches to obesity prevention in preschool-aged children by Sherry T Liu( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We present a series of studies that assess behavioral, policy, and environmental approaches to obesity prevention in preschool-aged children using an ecological framework. Data from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006, a national longitudinal study designed to examine characteristics and experiences of children in Head Start, and the Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Child Care Survey, a descriptive cross-sectional survey of nutrition and physical activity practices and policies in child care settings in Columbus, Ohio, were used
To what extent is a rural community's social capital related to the likelihood of a hospital closing? by Naomi Martha Adaniya( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Government support of rural hospital programs have been identified for funding cuts. If social capital is found to be associated with preventing rural hospital closure, then rural communities, leaders, and healthcare administrators can adopt policies aimed at building social capital. Increasingly, social capital building policies or programs are being used by governments, international organizations, and financial institutions due to the positive link between building social capital and multiple community outcomes. In this context, social capital is viewed as a desirable outcome that if facilitated, can positively impact rural communities not just healthcare but in many other social and economic aspects
Use of molecular typing methods in characterizing MRSA infections in Ohio by Kristin McCarthy Sommerhalter( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a genetically heterogeneous bacterial organism responsible for causing significant human disease. Molecular strain typing of MRSA is regularly implemented to enhance surveillance procedures, supplement outbreak control programs, and to characterize evolutionary patterns of MRSA. Numerous molecular strain typing methods have been developed to characterize MRSA, but all have significant advantages and disadvantages. Four of the more commonly used typing methods include pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) typing, and Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing
Cocaine use among drug users in methadone treatment : results from the Amsterdam cohort study by Lili Feng( Book )

2 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The prevalence of family meals and mealtime practices among adults and their association with health outcomes by Rachel Ann Tumin( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The 2012 OMAS included two questions on family meal practices: never watching a TV show or video during family meals and eating home-cooked family meals. I examined the association between family meal frequency, practices, and odds of adult obesity. Approximately one third (36%) of adults never watched a TV show or video while eating, and 62% ate family meals that were all home-cooked. Both of these practices, but not family meal frequency, were associated with odds of obesity. Never watching TV during family meals was associated with a 37% lower odds compared to always watching (95% CI=0.54, 0.73), and adults who ate all home-cooked meals had a 25% lower odds of obesity than those who ate some or no home-cooked family meals (95% CI=0.63, 0.89). Although these cross-sectional findings could not support causal conclusions, adults may benefit from turning off the TV during family meals and preparing their own food
Bayesian threshold regression for current status data with informative censoring by Tao Xiao( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sometimes multivariate current status data also arise, e.g., tumors can develop in multiple organ sites in carcinogenicity studies. Examination time occurring at natural death could be affected by these different types of tumors which may intrinsically correlate with each other. We propose a multivariate Bayesian approach to accommodate multiple left censored events driven by different latent Wiener processes. We use a random effect shared by the drifts of the processes underlying the events of interest to model the correlation of the event times. The censoring process is modeled using a latent Wiener process whose time scale is affected by the occurrence of an event thus accounting for dependent censoring
Validation of clustering solutions for clinical data through biologically meaningful simulations and mixed-distance dissimilarity methods by Caitlin E Coombes( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Unsupervised clustering poses unique challenges in clinical data due to heterogeneous size and mixed type. We hypothesize that these limitations can be overcome by calculating dissimilarity by combining multiple distance methods. A review of the literature suggests that solutions for mixed, clinical data are sparse and lack rigor. In an initial experiment on real clinical data, we find limitations in a common approach: converting a mixed data set to a single data type. To rigorously test dissimilarity metrics and clustering methods, we develop 32,400 simulations of realistic, mixed-type clinical data and test 3 clustering algorithms (hierarchical clustering, Partitioning Around Medoids, and self-organizing maps) on 5 single distance metrics (Jaccard Index, Sokal & Michener distance, Gower coefficient, Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance) and 3 multiple distance methods of calculating dissimilarity (DAISY, Supersom, and Mercator, a method of our own devising). We apply the superior solution for a data mixture predominated by binary features, DAISY with Ward’s hierarchical clustering, to the data set from our initial experiment, and recover important prognostic features. These experiments raise future questions for clustering problems in clinical data, including identifying minimum size for successful clustering (relevant when clustering clinical trials) and addressing concerns for validation of sometimes variable outcome
Health facility capacity to provide general health services and outcomes of program to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV in the Democratic Republic of Congo by Christian Mpody( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Methods: We performed two studies using individual-level and health facility-level data from 105 clinics in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In the first study, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from an ongoing trial that enrolled women living with HIV receiving care in one of the three health facilities with the highest patient caseload from each of the 35 health zones in Kinshasa, DRC. We generated a dichotomous indicator of quality of antiretroviral therapy services based on three inputs of quality of care identified by the WHO. We used log binomial regression models to estimate prevalence ratios of undetectable viral load (viral load ≥40cp/mL) comparing women living with HIV receiving comprehensive antiretroviral therapy care to women living with HIV not receiving comprehensive antiretroviral therapy care
Do long work hours impede workers' ability to obtain health services? by Xiaoxi Yao( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Background: Currently, Americans receive only about half of the recommended health care. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act expands health insurance coverage to nearly everyone and eliminates patient cost-sharing for many preventive services. However, individuals may still face difficulties in obtaining needed care (e.g., language and cultural issues, lack of qualified practitioners, and having no usual source of care). Individuals may also forgo obtaining health care because they are busy with other competing activities and commitments, such as working in jobs having especially long work hours
The effect of benefit limits in mental health on delivery of care and outcomes by William Joseph Olesiuk( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the effects of the institution of annual limits on certain community based mental health services for adults on Medicaid in the state of Ohio. The first chapter provides an overview of the relevant literature that is used in the dissertation. The second chapter identifies which populations may be likely to experience care limitations as a result of these benefit limits. This is achieved using a log-binomial analysis of utilization data prior to the implementation of the policy. The third chapter of the dissertation explores quantitatively how care delivery changed after the implementation of the policy. The fourth chapter provides a qualitative analysis of the operational changes made by providers of community based mental health services, as well of the antecedents of these changes. The fifth and final chapter aims to summarize the achievements of the dissertation and to highlight areas where further research is needed
Predictive modeling of microcystin concentrations in drinking water treatment systems of Ohio and their potential health effects by Traven Aldin Wood( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cyanobacteria present significant public health and engineering challenges due to their expansive growth and potential synthesis of microcystins in surface waters that are used as a drinking water source. Eutrophication of surface waters coupled with favorable climatic conditions can create ideal growth environments for these organisms to develop what is known as a cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom (cHAB). Development of methods to predict the presence and impact of microcystins in drinking water treatment systems is a complex process due to system uncertainties. This research developed two predictive models, first to estimate microcystin concentrations at a water treatment intake, second, to estimate the risks of finished water detections after treatment and resultant health effects to consumers. The first model uses qPCR data to adjust phycocyanin measurements to improve predictive linear regression relationships. Cyanobacterial 16S rRNA and mcy genes provide a quantitative means of measuring and detecting potentially toxic genera/speciess of a cHAB. Phycocyanin is a preferred predictive tool because it can be measured in real-time, but the drawback is that it cannot distinguish between toxic genera/speciess of a bloom. Therefore, it was hypothesized that genus specific ratios using qPCR data could be used to adjust phycocyanin measurements, making them more specific to the proportion of the bloom that is producing toxin. Data was obtained from a water treatment plant (WTP) intake at Tappan Lake, Ohio, a drinking water source for the Village of Cadiz. Using Pearson correlations and linear regressive analysis, it was found that adjusted phycocyanin, based on Planktothrix 16S and Planktothrix mcyE gene abundance ratios, exhibits improved correlation with microcystins. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrated the practicality of the adjustment in turning negative correlations between phycocyanin and microcystins to positive. More data from other water systems are needed to validate the findings of this study. The second model utilizes a stochastic method to model the risk of microcystin finished water detections after water treatment. Data needed for such a model include initial and finished water toxin detections, removal efficiencies of various treatment processes, and exposure data related to a consumer. Three different methods for modelling the health status of a bloom in order to determine the intra- to extracellular (E/I) ratio of initial toxin concentrations were explored. Then, water treatment characteristics specific to the 2014 Toledo Water Crisis (TWC) were modeled to obtain estimated finished water detections. Finally, health risks were estimated using a hazard quotient based on finished water detections and exposure scenarios. Risk estimates for children were greater than adults and present throughout the crisis. This model produced accurate predictive outputs that are consistent with conditions observed during the 2014 TWC. Furthermore, this model presents a novel method of assigning E/I ratios to initial microcystin concentrations, which is useful for assessing and predicting WTP resiliency amidst a changing bloom. Together, these models can serve as an innovative way of predicting microcystins from intake to tap
A spatial risk map of malaria in four African countries by Adrienne Damicis( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In this study, four large survey samples of malaria indicator data and potential predictors of risk of malaria infection were analyzed from Togo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Malawi. For each country, sociodemographic factors, malaria prevention factors, and environmental factors were evaluated for significant association with malaria risk in children aged 5 years and younger. Two regression methods for correlated data, generalized estimating equations and logistic mixed effects models, were used and compared for this analysis and it was found that both methods were appropriate methodologies for the given data. Age and household wealth index were consistently significant predictors of malaria risk in all four countries. The significance of association of malaria prevention factors or environmental factors with malaria risk differed among the countries. The spatial autocorrelation of malaria risk was confirmed by semivariograms, and variogram fit was determined by maximum likelihood estimation. Simple kriging improved spatial risk maps for the four countries by predicting malaria risk at geographic locations where data was not observed. While simple kriging was effective at generating a smoothed prediction surface for malaria risk, local variability was significantly reduced and other methods of spatial interpolation should be explored to improve spatial resolution of malaria risk maps
Virginity pledges as a preventative measures for preventing unwated sexual, behavioral, and biological outcomes : a systematic review of adolescents and young adults in the U.S. by Nicole J Murphy( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

A common approach of abstinence promotion is the virginity pledge, a promise to abstain from sexual intercourse. A systematic review was performed in order to assess existing literature pertaining to virginity pledges and their effectiveness among the American adolescent and young adult population. Twelve publications of cohort and cross-sectional designs met the criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. While most studies support a statistically significant difference in sexual initiation or age of sexual debut between pledgers and non-pledgers, the pledgers that did participate in sexual relations had similar risk-taking behaviors to those that did not pledge. Religious commitment, high levels of morality, and highly supportive environments were often highly correlated to making a virginity pledge
Identification of carcinogenic di-amines in the indoor environment from common urethane polymer products by Marcia G Nishioka( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This research has led to the discovery of a heretofore unrecognized class of carcinogenic aromatic di-amines in the indoor environment by measurement of them in house dust; these di-amines are specific to urethane polymers that are used in common consumer products and building materials such as mattress foams, carpet underlayment, floor coatings, and faux leather. Using newly-developed sequential extraction methods, combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the di-amines 2,4-diamino toluene and 4,4'-methylene dianiline (DAT and MDA) were identified in house dust in several molecular forms, i.e., as individual molecules, and in polymeric form in urethane micro-particles. The monomeric di-amines were found to exist as neutral molecules, and as ionic species bound to water-soluble humic/fulvic acids and bound to water-insoluble humins. A newly-developed microwave digestion method, combined with GC/MS analysis, was used to identify the urethane polymer micro-particles on the basis of the di-amines that were released via hydrolysis of the urethane bonds therein. This hydrolysis reaction is similar to the hydrolytic actions of cellular enzymes and macrophages that are known to cause in vivo degradation of urethane polymers used in tissue augmentation and replacement. The similarity of these mechanisms suggests that inhalation and/or ingestion of urethane micro-particles may lead to inadvertent exposure to the di-amines via in vivo hydrolysis reactions that are a normal part of the immune system's "foreign body" response to particles. The sequential methods for extraction of monomeric di-amines by binding mechanism were relatively straight-forward in that they did not involve costly solid phase extraction (SPE) separations; instead, the developed methods relied on vortex mixing, ion exchange with sodium chloride, partitioning at high pH to exclude humic acids, chelation with magnesium chloride to exclude phospholipids, use of a compound class-specific surrogate recovery standard (SRS) for sample-by-sample information on method performance, and a compound class-specific internal standard to verify the completeness of sample cleanup. Conditions for efficient hydrolysis of known quantities of urethane polymers (sofa foam, shoe sole particles, and flakes of floor coating) were tested using both polymers alone and these polymers in the presence of 0.5 g of dust from which monomeric amines had been previously extracted. Conversion of shoe sole particles to amines was ~90%; conversion of the foam and coating was ~40% for similar quantities and this may have been due to the fact that bulk material was used rather than small particles. Experiments with paired samples of 0.5 g of dust and 0.5 g of dust with one added polymer showed that hydrolysis of the urethane micro-particles in dust was not affected by adding polymers, and the hydrolysis capacity of the system was not exceeded. Repeated digestion of dust showed that the initial digestion released at least 90% of the total that was recovered from two sequential digestions. In 86 house dust samples from a childhood leukemia case-control study that were analyzed here, both DAT and MDA were detected as neutral molecules, as ionic species bonded to water-soluble humics, as ionic species bonded to water-insoluble humins, and as constituents of urethane microparticles (the latter being present in 100% of samples). The concentrations of the polymeric-bound di-amines were 100-1000X greater than the sum of the monomeric forms. Two combustion source-related carcinogenic aromatic amines (ß-naphthyl amine and 4-amino-biphenyl) were measured concurrently in the monomeric fractions with these methods; their detection frequencies were lower, and concentrations were lower by factors of 10-100X, despite similar method detection limits. The maximum measured value of DAT in the polymeric fraction was 285 æg/g, which is equal to ~1.5 mg of polymeric urethane particles per g of dust. For the fraction where DAT was bonded via ionic bond to water-soluble humic/fulvic acids, the OR of disease increased (1.10, 1.57, 2.05) as the definition of the exposed and unexposed populations became more restrictive, suggesting an increase in risk with an increase in DAT concentration. These ORs were not statistically significant, so that these are presented as very tentative results that require analysis of a much larger sample set to confirm or refute these findings. This fraction, though, where amines are dislodged with only a salty pH=8 phosphate buffer is, of course, similar to a cellular matrix. This finding speaks to risk as being tied to bioavailability or the ease with which compounds are transferred from the dust matrix (once inhaled or ingested) to the cellular matrix for activation to an ultimate carcinogen and interaction with DNA
Identifying patters of doxorubicin sensitivity in soft tissue sarcoma using next generation sequencing by Manojkumar Bupathi( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Soft-tissue sarcomas account for less than 1% of new cancer diagnoses in both men and women in the United States. Surgery is offered for localized disease amenable to resection. However, less than 20% of patients present with initially resectable disease, and the 5-year survival rate for this locally advanced/metastatic population is abysmal (<25%). Sadly, our ability to systemically treat metastatic soft tissue sarcoma chemotherapy remains a case of trial-and-error. Indeed, the National Cancer Center Network guidelines list nine acceptable single agents and six different combination regimens. Doxorubicin serves as the backbone of most treatment regimens but induces significant tumor regression in only 15-30% of patients. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with leiomyosarcoma who were treated at our institution and had next generation sequencing with FoundationOne. Our aim was to determine if we could determine sensitivity to doxorubicin and other agents that are commonly used to treat STS based on p53 status. Our data indicates that the type of abnormality in p53 can have prognostic implications with doxorubicin and pazopanib. Further, we performed a cluster analysis to determine if there are any specific patterns in genetic pathways which could identify be used to group patients together. Using the leiomyosarcoma database in TCGA and GENIE, we generated the same clusters for those patients to compare the patients between the datasets. We found that there are similarities among along three datasets. For example, most male patients with leiomyosarcoma fall into cluster 3. The exact mechanism of why this happens is currently not known. In addition, patients in cluster 2 in TCGA perform worse compared to our dataset. However, patients in our dataset were treated with targeted therapy suggesting that molecular directed therapy could have better outcomes. Finally, we identified 10 patients with BRCA alterations. Four out of six patients with BRCA2 alterations had the same variance of unknown significance alteration at K33226x. This specific alteration has been associated with increased risk in breast, ovarian, pancreas and lung cancer. Given the high prevalence of this alteration in our cohort, it is important for this be evaluated in other datasets to get a better understanding of its prevalence so that patients can appropriately be screened or counseled regarding their risks. Though precision medicine focuses on individualized care success truly requires a population-based approach and understanding what interventions work on individual need to be compared with data from large, diverse numbers of people to identify population subgroups likely to respond differently to intervention
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