WorldCat Identities

Adams, Gina C.

Overview
Works: 50 works in 89 publications in 1 language and 222 library holdings
Roles: Author, Instrumentalist
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works about Gina C Adams
 
Most widely held works by Gina C Adams
Adolescent and young adult fathers : problems and solutions by Gina Adams( Book )

2 editions published in 1988 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

State investments in child care and early childhood education by Gina Adams( Book )

2 editions published between 1991 and 1992 in English and held by 29 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study examined state expenditures during fiscal year 1990 for programs that helped low-income families purchase child care, provided preschool education services to children, or provided child care assistance to special groups of families such as families with teen parents, migrant or refugee families, and families whose children are at risk of abuse or neglect. A survey was sent to the state agency in each of the 50 states that administered funds for these programs. The survey included questions on expenditures, eligibility categories, reimbursement rates, and quality of care. Findings indicated that state expenditures on child care and early childhood development ranged from $0.24 per child to more than $70.00 per child. It was concluded that: (1) states invest too little money in child care and early childhood education; (2) despite new federal resources for child care appropriated in Fiscal Year 1990, resources are not sufficient to meet the need for child care; and (3) the level of state and federal investments is inadequate, thus preventing parents from working and causing children's further economic disadvantage. Attachments include lists of expenditures in fiscal year 1990 on child care and early childhood services by states and by state programs, and descriptions of the study methodology and the child care research project. (MM)
Who's caring for our youngest children? : child care patterns of infants and toddlers by Jennifer Ehrle( Book )

3 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite the growing interest in the care of children younger than age 3, there is little national information available on their current child care arrangements. This study used data from the National Survey of America's Families on the types of care, hours in care, and the number of nonparental arrangements for under-age-3 children of working mothers. The study also examined how aspects of care differ depending on characteristics of the children and families. The study found that 73 percent of infants and toddlers of employed mothers were cared for primarily by a nonparent during the mothers' working hours: 27 percent by relatives, 22 percent center care, 17 percent family care, and 7 percent nannies/babysitters. Thirty-nine percent were in care full-time. Type of care varied according to the age and race/ethnicity of the child. Center care was more common among children of more highly educated mothers. Center care also was used more often for children of higher-income families than for children of low-income families. Relative care was most common for low-income families. Children of single parents were more likely than two-parent families to rely on relatives for care. More children of single parents than two-parent families were in care full-time, as well. Types of care used differed depending on the amount of time parents had available. Time in nonparental care declined dramatically as parent availability increased. Twenty-seven percent of children were cared for primarily by a relative, with 51 percent of these children in multichild settings. Data tables are appended. (Contains 11 references.) (Kb)
Who cares? : state commitment to child care and early education by Gina Adams( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 19 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report analyzes data gathered through surveys of state administrators of child care and early childhood programs. The report is in three sections: (1) the state of child care and early education in the mid-1990s; (2) the relative level of commitment of each state in 1994; and (3) the likely impact of 1996 U.S. welfare reform legislation. The report indicates that: (1) per-child state levels of commitment to child care and early education varied widely nationally and between neighboring states; (2) state commitments were inadequate to serve the many children and families that needed help-even in states with relatively higher levels of effort; (3) many states with large proportions of poor children did not show a commitment to child care and early education; (4) state commitment depends more on state "will" than state "wallet"--Some states with fewer resources invested relatively more than states with greater resources; and (5) generally, states placed child care and early education low on their list of state priorities. The report recommends that financial commitment by all sectors be increased, and that funds be used for good quality, comprehensive services that help prevent dependency now and in the future. Five appendices provide methodological information, states' unmet needs for child care, supporting data, estimated 1997 state allocations for the new child care and development block grants, and state-by-state fact sheets. (Eaj)
Essential but often ignored : child care providers in the subsidy system by Gina Adams( Book )

3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 19 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As part of the "Assessing the New Federalism" project monitoring and assessing the devolution of social programs from the federal to the state and local levels, this report examines the child care providers upon whom the child care subsidy system depends. The report relies on data collected from subsidy agency administrators, key child care experts, child care caseworkers, parents, and providers in 17 sites across 12 states. The report focuses on subsidy policies and practices that can shape the experiences of providers serving subsidized children, including how much providers are paid and how providers experience the subsidy system. The report's findings suggest that a number of policies and practices can affect how much child care providers receive and the ease of their interactions with the subsidy system. In some cases, policies and practices appeared to undercut the amount providers received or made it more difficult for providers to interact with the subsidy system. Respondents suggested that these issues may also ultimately affect the willingness and ability of providers to participate in the subsidy system, thereby affecting whether children receiving subsidies have equal access to the range of providers available to nonsubsidized children. These policies and practices may have implications for the financial stability of providers and the quality of care they provide. Although a range of more supportive practices was also identified, the report notes that implementing these strategies is challenging within the current context of inadequate funding for children. The report's three appendices describe the study methodology, list the provider focus group participants, and compare the subsidies received by a hypothetical provider under various scenarios. (Contains 68 notes and 24 references.) (Kb)
Locked doors : states struggling to meet the child care needs of low-income working families by Gina Adams( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This survey of child care administrators from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, conducted by the Children's Defense Fund, examined the adequacy of federal and state funding for child care and state child care policies. Data were collected by means of phone interviews and verified with administrators following collection. The findings indicate that state child care subsidy programs are so under-funded that they cut off eligibility at family income levels far below the level allowed by federal law and what is needed by families. Even low-income working families who meet state income guidelines cannot get needed help because of shortages. Administrators in 43 states were not confident that their state could serve all eligible families if they knew they were eligible. State child care funds are stretched so thin that even families receiving subsidies do not receive enough assistance. A majority of the administrators anticipated being unable to serve eligible families in the future as welfare work requirements rise unless there are new investments in child care assistance. Recommendations based on these findings include the need for strong federal action, increased investments for the Child Care and Development Block Grant program, tax credits for families who need child care, state expansions of child care investments, and increased efforts by local governments and private sector organizations to support parents and make child care more affordable. (Tables delineating specific findings by state are appended. Contact information for survey respondents is also listed.) (kb)
Child care subsidy policies and practices : implications for child care providers by Gina Adams( Book )

3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This brief summarizes the report "Essential but Often Ignored: Child Care Providers in the Subsidy System," examining child care subsidy policies and practices shaping experiences of providers serving subsidized children, particularly those affecting providers' payments and their overall experience with the subsidy system. Research on the voucher subsidy system was based on interviews with state and local child care administrators and key experts, and focus groups with caseworkers, parents, and providers in the subsidy system in 17 sites in 12 states. The study found that how much providers are paid is critical for them and was affected by several issues, including policies affecting the maximum amount that state subsidy agencies paid. A challenging issue for states was how to deal with providers whose rates exceeded the maximum payment rate. Policies and practices serving to undercut whether providers received from the state the full rate they were due included issues related to absent days, reimbursement for other fees, part-time subsidies, and reimbursement for full period of service. Although provider-reported difficulties in collecting fees from parents are not unique to subsidized care, such difficulties could affect what providers receive. Factors influencing how providers experienced the subsidy system included policies/practices affecting the payment process (obtaining payment authorization, onerous paperwork requirements, and timing and reliability of payments), the ease of interacting with the subsidy agency (number of programs/agencies, staffing responsibilities within the agency, interactions with caseworkers, and the extent to which providers were viewed as partners. The brief includes a list of strategies to address providers' needs and compares the financial bottom line of a hypothetical provider under three subsidy scenarios. (KB)
Child care arrangements for children under five : variation across states by Jeffrey A Capizzano( Book )

4 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As part of the Assessing the New Federalism project, this study provides information on the primary child care arrangements used by children younger than 5 years with employed mothers, both nationally and across a number of states. Data are from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families, which oversampled low-income households. While parents work, a large proportion of preschool children, regardless of age or income, are regularly cared for by individuals other than their parents. This is true nationally and for each of the 12 states studied, a finding that emphasizes the importance of child care in the lives of U.S. families. The availability of state-specific child care data illuminates large differences in child care experiences across the states. Infants and toddlers are more likely to be cared for in less formal child care arrangements (such as relatives), and 3- and 4-year-olds are more likely to be cared for in center-based care, but there are clear exceptions. No single finding explains variations in state patterns of child care. Findings highlight the importance of continuing to explore state differences in child care and the challenges faced by policymakers working to develop child care policies. (Sld)
Navigating the child care subsidy system : policies and practices that affect access and retention by Gina Adams( Book )

3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This brief summarizes the report, "Getting and Retaining Child Care Assistance: How Policy and Practice Influence Families' Experiences," examining subsidy policies and practices that affect subsidy utilization, including those that affect every interaction the parent has with the subsidy agency and those that affect the ease of applying for, and retaining, subsidies. Information comes from interviews with state and local child care administrators and key experts and from focus groups with caseworkers, parents, and providers in 12 Assessing the New Federalism states. Research occurred between 1999 and 2000. Results indicate that many subsidy policies and practices make it difficult for low-income eligible families to access and retain child care subsidies. Barriers include interactions with caseworkers, general office practices and accessibility, use of multiple agencies, and the eligibility recertification process. Subsidies can be complex to access and obtain. Various practices may inadvertently undercut several fundamental goals of the child care subsidy system, including supporting work, reducing welfare receipt, and promoting stable child care. They may contribute to lower subsidy usage and higher subsidy turnover rates. Yet a number of sites have policies and practices that support access and retention, and states and localities have the freedom to implement such strategies in the current federal context. (SM)
How Safe? The status of state efforts to protect children in child care by Gina Adams( Book )

2 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Based on the view that strong state child care licensing policies can influence the quality of child care and thereby enhance children's health and development, this report examines the status of state efforts to improve the quality of child care programs. Almost all data were collected for a 1993 Parenting Magazine survey, and were verified by state administrators. The report is divided into six sections. The first section summarizes the findings and identifies gaps in state efforts to protect children. The second section covers selected health and safety regulations. The third section describes state policies on caregiver-child ratios and maximum group sizes. The fourth section examines guarantees for parents to visit programs unannounced and compliance visits by state licensing staff. Exemptions from regulations for family child care providers are highlighted in the fifth section. The sixth section consists of appendixes on the importance of child care, liability insurance requirements, corporal punishment restrictions, and state contacts for child care licensing information. Key findings from the survey indicate that, although several states have improved efforts to protect children in child care, in a number of states, inadequate protections persist. Forty-five states require all children in child care to have basic immunizations, but 15 states do not require children to have the vaccine against bacterial meningitis. Twenty-two states do not require that family child care providers have first aid training. Eighteen states allow one caregiver to care for five 6-month-olds, but a majority of states require programs serving 6- to 12-month-olds to meet national recommendations on child-caregiver ratios. Almost half the states do not limit the number of children per group. Parents are generally allowed unrestricted access to their child's program, but many states have infrequent inspections of family day care homes. Appendices include a summary of the impact of child care on children and tables showing state requirements regarding liability insurance and corporal punishment. (Kdfb)
Child care briefing book by Gina Adams( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report provides information on a range of key child care issues, including basic facts about child care and its importance to children, families, and communities; and information on key legislative issues and proposals affecting child care. Fact sheets, with supporting references and tabular data, comprise about one-half of the document. Topics for these fact sheets include: (1) the extent to which child care is an integral part of American families' experiences as children increasingly have parents in the work force; (2) the impact of the lack of available child care on children, families, and communities; (3) the role of child care in helping children enter school ready to succeed; (4) the importance of nutritional assistance to children's health; and (5) the current supply of child care. The remainder of the document is comprised of information related to the current child care policy debate, including: (1) the roles of federal, state, and local governments and private and public sectors; (2) quotations from parents regarding their need for child care and nutrition assistance; (3) frequently asked questions about child care policies; (4) key components of an effective federal child care policy; (5) a state-by-state listing of waiting lists, closed intake, and reallocation of funds in 1994; (6) comparisons of the child care and child nutrition provisions under current law, the House Child Care Block Grant Proposals (H.R. 4), and the Senate Work Opportunity Act of 1995 (S. 1120); and (7) a summary of main child care provisions in the Welfare Conference Agreement. (Kdfb)
State Child Care Profile for Children with Employed Mothers: Texas. State Profiles. Assessing the New Federalism: an Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies by Kathleen Snyder( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report draws on a recent survey--the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)--to examine child care arrangements and expenses for working families with children under age 13 in the state of Texas. Key components of the project include a household survey, studies of policies in 13 states, and a database with information on all states and the District of Columbia. This report provides data on the types of child care arrangements families use, the number of arrangements they use, the hours children spend in child care, and the amount families spend on child care. The report begins by describing key facts related to child care in Texas and defining relevant terms. Findings regarding the types and number of child care arrangements and the hours spent in care are examined for children under 5 years of age. Findings on the numbers of school-age children in supervised arrangements, self-care, and parent/other care follow. Child care expenses are examined for all families overall and for two particular groups of families: those with older versus younger children, and families with different earnings levels. Costs in Texas are then compared to those nationwide. Findings of this report reveal that half of children under age 5 and almost two-thirds of mothers with school-aged children are employed. Eighty percent of children under age 5 with employed mothers are in some form of nonparental child care, with more than 40 percent in full-time care. More than 20 percent of 6- to 9-year-olds with employed mothers are in before- and after-school programs, compared with fewer than 10 percent of 10- to 12-year-olds. Self-care increases as children get older. Of families who pay for care, low-income families spend almost three times more on child care as a percentage of their earnings than do higher-income families. (Kb)
The Hours that Children Under Five Spend in Child Care: Variation Across the States. No. B-8. Assessing the New Federalism: an Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies by Gina Adams( Book )

2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As part of the Assessing the New Federalism Project, this study examines the number of hours preschool children with employed mothers spent in child care in 1997, how the number of hours in child care varied across selected states, and how the amount of time in care differed across the states for children of different ages and income groups. Data are from the National Survey of America's Families, a survey of 44,461 households representative of the United States as a whole and 12 selected states. Findings show that child care plays an important role in the lives of many U.S. families. Despite enormous variation across the 12 states examined, a sizable proportion of preschool children with employed mothers are in care for a significant number of hours each week, regardless of state of residence, age, or family income. A second finding is that while national patterns hold across most states, it is clear that policymakers cannot rely on national child care data to capture the patterns in individual states. Every national pattern was contradicted by at least one state. The findings highlight the complexities facing policymakers as they work to develop policies to support the child care choices of families. (Sld)
The High Cost of Child Care Puts Quality Care Out of Reach for Many Families. Issue Brief by Karen Schulman( Book )

1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This issue brief presents data on the cost of child care, collected from local child care resource and referral agencies (CCR & Rs) through a joint survey by the Children's Defense Fund and the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (naccrra). The report's key findings on the high cost of child care are: (1) child care for a 4-year-old in a child care center averages $4,000 to $6,000 a year in cities and states around the country. Some centers charge $10,000 or more a year. Families with younger children or more than one child in care face even greater costs; (2) the average annual cost of child care for a 4-year-old in an urban area center is more than the average annual cost of public college tuition in almost every state. In some cities child care costs twice as much as college tuition; (3) the high cost of child care is evident in center, family, urban, and rural child care and in care for children of all ages; (4) low-income families are left with the fewest choices, often unable to afford even average-priced care and therefore forced to put children in lower-cost, often lower-quality care; and (5) the dilemma of high-cost child care cannot be resolved by asking child care providers to lower their prices. Most programs already operate on a very tight budget, paying staff an average of $12,000 a year. (Ev)
State Child Care Profile for Children with Employed Mothers California. State Profiles. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies by Kathleen Snyder( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report draws on a recent survey--the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)--to examine child care arrangements and expenses for working families with children under age 13 in the state of California. Key components of the project include a household survey, studies of policies in 13 states, and a database with information on all states and the District of Columbia. This report provides data on the types of child care arrangements families use, the number of arrangements they use, the hours children spend in child care, and the amount families spend on child care. The report begins by describing key facts related to child care in California and defining relevant terms. Findings regarding the types and number of child care arrangements and the hours spent in care are examined for children under 5 years of age. Findings on the numbers of school-age children in supervised arrangements, self-care, and parent/other care follow. Child care expenses are examined for all families overall and for two particular groups of families: those with older versus younger children, and families with different earnings levels. Costs in California are then compared to those nationwide. Findings of this report reveal that slightly fewer than half of mothers with children under age 5 and 60 percent of mothers with school-age children are employed. More than 60 percent of children under age 5 of employed mothers are in a nonparental care arrangement, with fewer than 33 percent in full-time nonparental care. Almost one-fourth of 6- to 9- year-olds with employed mothers are in before- and after- school programs, compared to fewer than one-tenth of 10- to 12-year-olds. The use of self-care increases as school-age children get older. Low income families spend more than twice as much on child care as a percentage of their earnings as do higher-income families. (KB)
Supporting immigrant families' access to prekindergarten by Julia Gelatt( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In recent years, many states have expanded their state-funded prekindergarten programs, drawing on evidence that public investments in early childhood education bring substantial returns in children's educational trajectories and a more skilled future workforce. Evidence also suggests that returns to early education may be larger for children of immigrants (defined as children with at least one parent born outside of the United States, including refugees) than for other children. Yet children of immigrants and of English language learners (ELLs) remain underrepresented in early education programs such as prekindergarten. Obstacles such as parents' lack of awareness of available programs, language barriers, logistical barriers to enrollment, and lack of comfort with available programs can all prevent immigrant families from enrolling their children. Given that children of immigrants form a growing share of the population of young children in the country, policymakers wishing to ensure that their prekindergarten programs are reaching children who could benefit from early education must continue to work to attract and include immigrant families and ELLs. This report is intended to help those interested in improving participation--from program staff to state directors and policymakers--learn from the experiences of other communities about ways to facilitate immigrant families' enrollment in public prekindergarten programs. To understand what strategies programs can adopt to enroll more children of immigrants, the authors conducted more than 40 telephone interviews with local prekindergarten program directors, outreach specialists, English as a second language (ESL) specialists, state prekindergarten directors, directors of other early childhood education programs such as Head Start, and national early childhood education specialists in communities and states across the country involved with diverse types of early childhood education programs. The strategies described fall into four main categories: outreach, enrollment assistance, building relationships with parents, and building immigrant-friendly prekindergarten programs. For each strategy, the authors describe actions used by local programs and regional program directors and discuss some of the policies, funding, and infrastructure at the state level that they identified as being helpful for this work. Some strategies involve substantial investments of resources and staff time, while others are quite simple and inexpensive to implement. The following are appended: (1) Examples of Programs Integrating Several Strategies for Including Immigrant Families; and (2) List of Interviewees
Child Care Patterns of School-Age Children with Employed Mothers. Occasional Paper. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies by Jeffrey Capizzano( Book )

2 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As part of the Assessing the New Federalism project, this report investigates the different types of child care arrangements, including unsupervised "self-care" that families with working mothers use for their school-age children. The study investigated how child care patterns differ by the age of the child, family income, race and ethnicity, parental time available, whether the mother works traditional versus nontraditional hours, and by state. The report uses data from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families to investigate child care patterns for children aged to 12. Of the nonparental child care arrangements, before- and after-school programs and relatives are the most commonly reported among 6-to 9-year-olds, with 21% of children in this age group in each of these forms of care while the mother is working. Five percent of 6-to-9-year-olds have self-care as their primary child care arrangement while the parent is working, and overall, 10% of children in this age group regularly spend any time in self-care. Like younger children, a significant percentage of 10-to-12-year-olds rely on relatives as the primary caregiver (17%), but smaller percentages of these children are in before- and after-school care. Twenty-four percent of the children in this age group have self-care as their primary form of care while the mother is working, and 35% of children in this age group regularly spend any time in self-care each week. Children from lower income families spend more time in their primary child care arrangement each week. In the younger age group, Black children are more likely to spend time in before- and after-school programs than Hispanic children, but, among 10-to-12-year-olds, White children are twice as likely as Hispanic children and almost three times as likely as Black children to use self-care as the primary form of care. Appendixes contain a discussion of the child care patterns for 5-year-olds and the standard error and sample size tables. (Contains 9 figures, 11 tables, 20 endnotes, and 17 references.) (Sld)
State Child Care Profile for Children with Employed Mothers Mississippi. State Profiles. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies by Kathleen Snyder( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report draws on a recent survey--the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)--to examine child care arrangements and expenses for working families with children under age 13 in the state of Mississippi. Key components of the project include a household survey, studies of policies in 13 states, and a database with information on all states and the District of Columbia. This report provides data on the types of child care arrangements families use, the number of arrangements they use, the hours children spend in child care, and the amount families spend on child care. The report begins by describing key facts related to child care in Mississippi and defining relevant terms. Findings regarding the types and number of child care arrangements and the hours spent in care are examined for children under 5 years of age. Findings on the numbers of school-age children in supervised arrangements, self-care, and parent/other care follow. Child care expenses are examined for all families overall and for two particular groups of families: those with older versus younger children, and families with different earnings levels. Costs in Mississippi are then compared to those nationwide. Findings of this report reveal that almost 60 percent of mothers with children under age 5 and more than two-thirds of mothers with school-age children are employed. More than 80 percent of children under age 5 with employed mothers are in some form of nonparental child care, with almost 60 percent in full-time care. More than half of 6- to 9-year- olds are in supervised arrangements, compared with slightly more than two-fifths of 10- to 12-year-olds. The use of self-care increases as children get older. Low-income families spend more than twice as much for child care as a percentage of their earnings as do higher-earning families. (KB)
State Child Care Profile for Children with Employed Mothers: Alabama. State Profiles. Assessing the New Federalism: an Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies by Kathleen Snyder( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report draws on a recent survey--the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)--to examine child care arrangements and expenses for working families with children under age 13 in the state of Alabama. Key components of the project include a household survey, studies of policies in 13 states, and a database with information on all states and the District of Columbia. This report provides data on the types of child care arrangements families use, the number of arrangements they use, the hours children spend in child care, and the amount families spend on child care. The report begins by describing key facts related to child care in Alabama and defining relevant terms. Findings regarding the types and number of child care arrangements and the hours spent in care are examined for children under 5 years of age. Findings on the numbers of school-age children in supervised arrangements, self-care, and parent/other care follow. Child care expenses are examined for all families overall and for two particular groups of families: those with older versus younger children and families with different earnings levels. Costs in Alabama are then compared to those nationwide. Findings of this report reveal that almost 60 percent of mothers with children under age 5 and over 67 percent of mothers of school-aged children are employed. More than 80 percent of children under age 5 of employed mothers are receiving nonparental care, with more than half in full-time care. As children get older, the percentage who are in a supervised care arrangement decreases and self-care increases. More than half of working families with children under age 13 pay out-of-pocket for child care. Working families who pay for care spend almost 10 percent of their earnings on child care. Those with low-income spend about one out of every six dollars earned on child care. (Kb)
State Child Care Profile for Children with Employed Mothers: Washington. State Profiles. Assessing the New Federalism: an Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies by Kathleen Snyder( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report draws on a recent survey--the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)--to examine child care arrangements and expenses for working families with children under age 13 in the state of Washington. Key components of the project include a household survey, studies of policies in 13 states, and a database with information on all states and the District of Columbia. This report provides data on the types of child care arrangements families use, the number of arrangements they use, the hours children spend in child care, and the amount families spend on child care. The report begins by describing key facts related to child care in Washington and defining relevant terms. Findings regarding the types and number of child care arrangements and the hours spent in care are examined for children under 5 years of age. Findings on the numbers of school-age children in supervised arrangements, self-care, and parent/other care follow. Child care expenses are examined for all families overall and for two particular groups of families: those with older versus younger children, and families with different earnings levels. Costs in Washington are then compared to those nationwide. Findings of this report reveal that more than half of Washington mothers with children under age 5 and more than 60 percent with school-age children are employed. More than 60 percent of children under age 5 with employed mothers are in some form of nonparental child care, with one-third in full-time care. Slightly fewer than half of 6- to 9-year-olds with employed mothers are in a supervised arrangement, compared with one-third of 10- to 12-year-olds. Self-care increases as children get older. Of families who pay for care, low-income families spend almost three times as much on child care as a percentage of their earnings as do higher-earning families. (Kb)
 
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