WorldCat Identities

Carter, Patrick A.

Works: 13 works in 13 publications in 1 language and 36 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Patrick A Carter
The effects of domestication and temperature on growth and swim performance in clonal lines of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss by Kristy Lynn Bellinger( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the western U.S., the Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) are of significant cultural, socioeconomic and ecological importance. However, despite decades of conservation efforts, their continued decline remains a great concern. Two critical factors impacting the sustainability of salmon and steelhead populations in the Pacific Northwest include genetic introgression of captive-reared hatchery fish and climate warming. Although salmonid hatcheries have been recognized as having a valuable role in restoring wild stocks, gene flow from domesticated hatchery fish into wild populations presents obstacles for conservation. Additionally, climate change is predicted to continue to increase stream temperatures in the Pacific Northwest, which is particularly hazardous for cold-water dependent Oncorhynchus spp., as their physiology, behavior, and distribution are crucially linked to temperature. Here these factors were investigated using clonal lines of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by evaluating phenotypic responses to these two factors in the context of developing management protocols to facilitate their sustained existence. In the first two chapters the effects of hatchery selection for body size and increased temperature on growth and sprint swimming speed were examined; both of these measures represent components of evolutionary fitness in fish. In Chapter One, the effect of increased size selection on growth and sprint speed at a constant temperature of 15°C was examined by repeatedly measuring these traits over a period of ten weeks in clonal lines derived from both wild and captive-bred source populations. In Chapter Two, the effect of temperature was tested by repeatedly measuring growth and sprint speed over ten weeks in clonal lines originating from Alaska, Oregon, and California held at two different temperatures, 10°C and 18°C. In both of these chapters, we observed results that may suggest a tradeoff between increased body size/growth rate and reduced (slower) sprint speed. In Chapter Three we incorporated this tradeoff into a mathematical model to better understand their evolutionary and ecological consequences on populations of wild salmonids. We conclude that using hatchery fish with characteristics most similar to wild fish render the greatest possible chance of successful supplementation
Genetic history of Chinook and Sockeye salmon analyzed using ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA by Bobbi May Johnson( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) serve an important social and economic role in western North America. Despite historical abundance, native salmonids are now at risk of extinction throughout much of their native range. The accurate characterization of historic range, population size, and gene flow is essential for the development of successful conservation strategies. Therefore, conservation disciplines may look to the past to inform the future. One framework for such investigations is phylogeography, which examines geographical and genealogical connections in an effort to understand the evolutionary history of organisms. Another avenue is the study of genetic data from temporally diverse samples, which facilitates the direct observation of a genetic history. We utilize both methods to examine the history of two salmonid species, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Additionally, two studies specific to challenges associated with degraded and low copy number (LCN) DNA sources were pursued. Chapter one characterizes the genetic diversity of Chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin using ancient and contemporary samples. The results indicate less genetic diversity in contemporary samples relative to ancient counterparts for both the Snake River and mid/upper-Columbia River subbasins studied. However, there appear to be higher losses of diversity in the mid/upper-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. Chapters two and three explore specific challenges related to the study of ancient DNA: inhibition and contamination. The investigation of inhibition describes the development of a modified PCR protocol, rescue PCR, which successfully amplifies DNA of low-copy number in the presence of inhibitors. Chapter three, focusing on contamination, summarizes attempts to obtain DNA from formalin-preserved specimens and the resulting identification of non-target DNA from those samples. Finally, chapter four examines the history of sockeye salmon using DNA from contemporary samples in a phylogenetic framework. The genetic marker utilized was directly comparable to previous studies of Chinook salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), allowing for comparisons of the phylogeographic history of three salmonid species with varying life histories. The results revealed limited genetic diversity and a more recent within-species divergence for sockeye salmon
Evolution of larval growth curves in Tribolium castaneum : Analyzing constraints in a function-valued trait framework by Kristen Kay Irwin( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Body size often impacts individual fitness. Since final body size is attained through a process of growth, it is likely that growth patterns also have fitness consequences. Previous studies have found high levels of standing additive genetic (co)variance for growth trajectories despite the expectation that additive variance should be depleted by frequent, strong directional selection. Because growth trajectories are continuous by nature they are amenable to analysis using a function-valued (FV) trait framework to reveal their underlying genetic architecture. The FV framework was implemented to estimate the additive genetic covariance function for growth curves in Tribolium castaneum, and revealed that additive genetic variance is indeed plentiful and that evolution is probably limited through evolutionary constraints of a different type. Artificial selection can be used to demonstrate some of these alternate types of constraints. Though previous experiments have artificially selected on size at one or a few landmark ages, a novel FV method was designed to artificially select the growth curves through their continuous length to test for genetic constraints. Results indicated a significant response after one generation of selection, but no response afterwards. Correlated responses included increased mortality, increased critical weight, and decreased development time (DT). To further investigate the constraints that may be caused by these genetically correlated traits, a novel model was developed and used to estimate the additive genetic covariance between FV traits and landmark, singly-measured traits (such as DT). These novel additive covariance estimates can be used to predict evolutionary responses to natural or artificial selection in both the FVT and the landmark trait. Estimates of the additive covariance between growth curves and three DT traits indicate that body size and DT do not necessarily covary in the same direction throughout the growth period; predictions made using these estimates suggest that these covariances limit the evolutionary response of all traits analyzed, but to a lower degree than anticipated. In conclusion, the evolution of larval growth curves is likely constrained by their genetic covariances with not only a few but with many correlated traits
The effects of 2, 4 --Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on swim performance in larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) by Amanda Patricia Castro( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effects of sublethal amounts of herbicides on amphibians is poorly understood yet may contribute to amphibian population declines. In this study we tested the effects of environmentally relevant amounts of the herbicide 2, 4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) on sprint swim performance of a larval salamander native to the Palouse, Ambystoma macrodactylum. Larvae were collected from five different ponds which had endogenous levels of 2, 4-D ranging from 0 ppm to 0.0034 ppm. In the laboratory, larvae were exposed to one of 6 treatments of 2, 4-D: 18 ppm, 1.8 ppm, 0.18 ppm, 0.018 ppm, 0.0018 ppm and a control. Swim performance, body mass and snout-vent length were measured on each individual four times between 24 and 334 hours after exposure. Although we hypothesized an effect of 2, 4-D treatment on salamander swim performance, our results were not significant; exposure to 2, 4-D in the lab did not affect swim speed or body mass. However, there was a significant effect of pond on swim speed and body mass: salamanders from ponds with lower endogenous levels of 2, 4-D were larger and had faster swim speeds. This may have been caused by the differing amounts of 2, 4-D found naturally in the ponds, although other environmental or genetic factors can not currently be ruled out. Other studies indicate that amphibian eggs or hatchlings exposure to herbicides or pesticides can negatively impact individuals as they grow and develop. Future research on effects of 2, 4-D on Ambystoma macrodactylum should make use of common garden experiments on eggs and hatchlings to identify the underlying causes of the results reported herein
Oxidative stress among SOD-1 genotypes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by Anna Elizabeth Heink( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Ozone is commonly used as an oxidizing agent in recirculating hatchery systems to eliminate pathogens and organic solids, however, the physiological costs of chronic ozone exposure in salmonid fishes are not well understood. Natural variation in the antioxidant-enzyme SOD-1 is known to alter the impacts of oxidative damage at both the cellular and organismal levels. Using three clonal lines of rainbow trout, [Hot Creek (n = 30), Arlee (n = 21), and Swanson (n = 10)], all of which contain SNP differences and amino acid substitutions at the SOD-1 locus, this study investigated the functional effects of this variation in terms of SOD activity during ozone stress, and subsequent levels of oxidative damage to DNA and cell membranes. Fish from each line were subjected to a 24 hour period of ozone stress, after which, tissues were analyzed for antioxidant status (liver SOD-1, erythrocyte SOD) and oxidative damage (TBARS in gill tissue and blood plasma, DNA damage). SOD-1 activity in the liver among control and ozonated fish showed downregulation of SOD-1 in the Hot Creek line, and upregulation in the Arlee and Swanson fish. SOD activity in erythrocytes was not significantly upregulated following ozonation, however significant differences were observed among clonal lines overall, driven mainly by lower activity in the Hot Creek line. Ozone had a significant treatment effect in all oxidative damage parameters assessed, as it increased lesioning of DNA in erythrocytes, and levels of lipid peroxidation in gills and plasma. Among lines, Swanson showed significantly higher TBARS levels in gill tissue after ozonation than Arlee or Hot Creek. Swanson control and treatment fish also showed significantly lower TBARS levels in plasma than fish from the other lines. These among-line differences in SOD activity and oxidative damage provide evidence for the hypothesis that SOD-1 genotypes differ functionally in their defense against oxygen stressors such as ozone; linking other biochemical and organismal responses to oxygen stress within this clonal system merits further investigation. Information from this research will be of benefit to aquaculturists in selecting for genotypes which are less susceptible to oxidative damage
Functional significance of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) : genotypic and phenotypic polymorphism in clonal lines of rainbow trout by Amber Nicole Parrish( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the past decade a strong correlation has been drawn between an increase of the endogenous antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) activity, the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prevention of oxidative damage accumulation which results in increased disease resistance. The variation seen in antioxidant enzyme activity is a major determinant to how susceptible an organism is to ROS attack and oxidative stress (damage done to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes), yet little is understood concerning the actual genetic controls underlying the degree of phenotypic variation seen. A recent report found that the SOD-1 locus among eight clonal lines of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is hypervariable, containing 19 SNPs that result in 4 amino acid substitutions. The purpose of this research was to investigate the functional effects of this variation and the genetic basis of variation in SOD-1 enzyme activity. First we compared the SOD-1 enzyme activity in the liver of five of those clonal lines of rainbow trout and found two lines with significantly divergent activities: Oregon State University (OSU) with high enzymatic activity and Arlee (AR) with low enzymatic activity. Next we tested OSU and AR to see if there was a difference in oxidative damage by comparing liver lipid peroxidation (MDA) accumulation in both young (4 month) and old (52 month) individuals. There was no difference in MDA concentrations found between young OSU and young AR, but both older OSU and AR were significantly higher than their younger counterparts, and unexpectedly older OSU had a greater amount of MDA than older AR. Finally, doubled haploid progeny produced from an F1 hybrid of these two lines were used to evaluate the possible quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SOD-1 enzyme activity. Composite interval mapping revealed two significant QTL with opposing additive effects, explaining 19% and 34% of the phenotypic variation; neither of these QTL contain the SOD-1 locus itself. These two QTL, and the surprising inverse relationship between SOD-1 enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation levels, suggest a complex polygenic control for antioxidant activity and oxidative damage accumulation
The age-performance relationship in the general population and strategies to delay age related decline in performance by Geoffroy Berthelot( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Aggressive Behavior, Brain Size and Domestication in Clonal Rainbow Trout Lines by Janet M Campbell( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An integrative modeling approach to the age-performance relationship in mammals at the cellular scale by Geoffroy Berthelot( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The evolutionary genetics of alcohol dehydrogenase in tiger salamanders by Patrick A Carter( )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Endocrine rhythms in the brown bear (Ursus arctos): Evidence supporting selection for decreased pineal gland size( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract Many temperate zone animals adapt to seasonal changes by altering their physiology. This is mediated in large part by endocrine signals that encode day length and regulate energy balance and metabolism. The objectives of this study were to determine if the daily patterns of two important hormones, melatonin and cortisol, varied with day length in captive brown bears (Ursus arctos) under anesthetized and nonanesthetized conditions during the active (March-October) and hibernation periods. Melatonin concentrations varied with time of day and season in nonanesthetized female bears despite exceedingly low nocturnal concentrations (1-4pg/mL) in the active season. In contrast, melatonin concentrations during hibernation were 7.5-fold greater than those during the summer in anesthetized male bears. Functional assessment of the pineal gland revealed a slight but significant reduction in melatonin following nocturnal light application during hibernation, but no response to beta-adrenergic stimulation was detected in either season. Examination of pineal size in two bear species bears combined with a phylogenetically corrected analysis of pineal glands in 47 other species revealed a strong relationship to brain size. However, pineal gland size of both bear species deviated significantly from the expected pattern. Robust daily plasma cortisol rhythms were observed during the active season but not during hibernation. Cortisol was potently suppressed following injection with a synthetic glucocorticoid. The results suggest that melatonin and cortisol both retain their ability to reflect seasonal changes in day length in brown bears. The exceptionally small pineal gland in bears may be the result of direct or indirect selection
Individual variation and repeatability of maximum cold-induced energy assimilation in house mice( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Genetics and evolution of function-valued traits : understanding environmentally responsive phenotypes by John R Stinchcombe( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Audience level: 0.56 (from 0.42 for Oxidative ... to 1.00 for The evolut ...)

Alternative Names
Carter, P. A. (Patrick Andrew)

Carter, Patrick Andrew

Carter, Patrick (Patrick Andrew)

English (13)