WorldCat Identities

Klerman, Jacob Alex

Works: 123 works in 348 publications in 1 language and 14,002 library holdings
Genres: Examinations 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other
Classifications: HV98.C3, 362.5809794
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Jacob Alex Klerman
Welfare reform in California : state and county implementation of CalWORKs in the first year by Patricia A Ebener( Book )

28 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 519 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report describes the implementation of California's Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program in its first two years. According to the CalWORKs welfare-to-work model, immediately following the approval of the aid application, nearly all recipients search for jobs in the context of Job Clubs. For those who do not find employment through job search, an intensive assessment and a sequence of activities follow, to identify and overcome barriers to employment. Implementation in most counties is proceeding more slowly than some observers had hoped, but about as fast as could realistically be expected. County welfare districts (CWDs) face the dual challenge of expanding their capacity to deal with the new, higher, steady-state workload that CalWORKs entails and handling the much larger one-time surge of old cases as they move through the system. Providing mandated support services--child care and transportation; education and training; and treatment for alcohol and substance abuse, mental health, and domestic abuse--has been a challenge for most CWDs. To cope with this expanded workload, they have made different capacity-building decisions. The slow pace movement through the system is worrisome, however, given the five-year lifetime limit that aid recipients face. Finally, those who have found jobs often do not earn enough to move them completely off aid and toward self-sufficiency. Additional post-employment services appear to be needed
Welfare reform in California : early results from the impact analysis by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

23 editions published between 2001 and 2004 in English and held by 342 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report presents early results on the impact of the California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program on work activity participation rates of welfare recipients, welfare caseloads, and outcomes for welfare leavers. It describes outcomes under CalWORKs through approximately the summer of 2000 and begins the process of explaining the observed variation in outcomes through time, between California and other states, and among California's counties. Analyses of national data (administrative data on caseloads and national survey data on household income) and statewide data (on caseloads, employment, and earnings) show almost uniform improvement in outcomes in California since the implementation of CalWORKs. While the CalWORKs reforms appear to have been responsible for some of that improvement, the robust economy and other policy changes were probably also important. The rest of the nation has experienced similar improvements in outcomes
The transition to stable employment : the experience of U.S. youth in their early labor market career by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

6 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 255 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed to identify patterns in the early labor market and employment experience of a sample of 12,781 U.S. youths who were first interviewed in 1979 (at ages 14 through 21) and last interviewed in 1990 (at ages 25 through 32 years). School-to-work transition patterns were classified by school-leaving group (slg) (no high school diploma, high school diploma, some college, college diploma, or some postcollege education). SLGs were analyzed in terms of the following factors: percentage of sample members employed, percentage in school, number of jobs held, and age at entrance into first job. While the median high school graduate entered his "three-year job" while he was 22, the median high school dropout, who first entered the labor force several years earlier, did not enter that job until he was 23. In contrast, the median college graduate--who entered the labor force four years later than the high school graduate--entered his "three-year job" shortly after turning 23. Although racial/ethnic groups and women manifested different employment, school attendance, and job stability patterns, the patterns of school-to-work transition by male high school graduates were surprisingly similarly across the three racial/ethnic groups. By using the slg classification and a different concept of job duration, the study found less support for the notion that high school graduates typically mill about in the labor market until well into their twenties. It was recommended that school-to-work transition initiatives be targeted toward high school noncompleters. Appended is information about sample distribution by slg and effect of alternative slg definitions and/or sample members' return to school. Contains 53 references and 67 tables/figures. (Mn)
State monitoring of national school lunch program nutritional content by Liisa Hiatt( Book )

9 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 184 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As part of the School Meals Initiative (SMI), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food and Nutrition Service (USDA-FNS) now requires each state to regularly review the nutritional content of food served by each School Food Authority (SFA) as part of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). While states must monitor the nutritional content of school meals, they are not required to forward any information to USDA-FNS. However, USDA-FNS is required to measure progress against Objective 2.1 of FSN's 1997-2002 Strategic Plan, which states that it will "ensure that school meals are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans DGA and the Recommended Daily Allowances RDA." In September 2000, FNS issued a completely revised Strategic Plan, which established goals for school lunches under a new Objective 1.3: "Improved nutritional quality of meals, commodities, and other program benefits." The "target" established under Objective 1.3 is "By 2005, reach less than or equal to 30% calories from total fat and less than 10% calories from saturated fat; maintain calorie, vitamin and mineral content at greater than or equal to 33% of RDA." To measure progress, USDA-FNS needs to produce state and national aggregations of the nutrient content in school lunches to show that meals in a given state or in the country as a whole are consistent with the DGA and RDA. In addition, FNS needs to do this while imposing minimal reporting burdens on the states
New estimates of the effect of Kassebaum-Kennedy's group-to-individual conversion provision on premiums for individual health insurance by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

3 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 177 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using new tabulations from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and newly released data from the Current Population Survey, this report reexamines the likely effect on insurance premiums in the individual health insurance market of the Health Insurance Act of 1995 (commonly known as "Kassebaum-Kennedy"). A widely cited study by the Health Insurance Association of America (HIAA) estimates that the proposed legislation would increase premiums for those currently buying individual health insurance by over twenty percent. This study estimates a range of effects from 5.5 percent to under one percent. The upper end of the range maintains the HIAA assumptions, but substitutes new tabulations of the figures used in the computation of the estimate. The lower end of the range considers the interaction of the proposed federal legislation and current state insurance regulations
Enlistment decisions in the 1990s : evidence from individual-level data by M. Rebecca Kilburn( Book )

5 editions published between 1990 and 1999 in English and held by 170 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work updates previous estimates of individual enlistment models, investigating the relationship between family, individual, local labor market, and other background characteristics and the decision to enlist. The study makes three primary innovations to earlier models. First, it uses data from the early 1990s, while the most recent estimates were from the early 1980s. The data report the enlistment behavior of a cohort of individuals from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) who were high school seniors in 1992. In general, the authors find that their coefficient estimates are similar to those estimated by earlier models, while the mean levels of the explanatory variables are more often significantly different from those in earlier data. Second, the authors explore the utility of including some additional variables in the model that are more relevant to the 1990s or were not available in early data. These include measures of immigrant status, criminal behavior, drug use, in-state college tuition, and whether parents were in the military. The research finds that immigrant status, criminal behavior, and having parents in the military are significant determinants of individual enlistment decisions. Third, the authors estimate the individual enlistment decision as a three-choice decision-whether to enlist, enroll in college, or work after high school graduation-in contrast to earlier studies, which modeled the enlistment decisions as a two-way choice of whether to enlist or not. The study concludes that the trivariate-choice model dominates the bivariate model because it produces more significant coefficient estimates and yields more insights into the reasons that individuals enlist rather than choosing alternative activities
Attracting college-bound youth into the military : toward the development of new recruiting policy options by Beth J Asch( Book )

7 editions published between 1998 and 2000 in English and held by 161 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although the military's need for enlisted personnel has declined by almost one-third since the end of the cold war, the armed services are finding it difficult to meet their recruiting goals. Among ongoing changes in the civilian labor market is a strong demand for skilled labor, which has prompted an increasing number of "high quality" youth to pursue post-secondary education and subsequent civilian employment. Because of this competition for high quality youth, the Department of Defense may want to explore new options for attracting desirable young people into the armed forces. The military, for example, offers a myriad of options for service members to take college courses while in active service. However, the programs do not in fact generate significant increases in educational attainment during time in service. One popular program, the Montgomery GI Bill, enrolls large numbers of individuals, but the vast majority of service members use their benefits after separating from service. Thus, the military does not receive the benefits of a more educated and productive workforce, unless the individuals subsequently join a reserve component. The authors suggest the Department of Defense should consider nontraditional policy options to enhance recruitment of college-bound youth. Recruiters could target more thoroughly students on two-year college campuses, or dropouts from two- or four-year colleges. Options for obtaining some college before military service could be expanded by allowing high school seniors to first attend college, paid for by the military, and then enlist. Or the student might serve in a reserve component while in college and then enter an active component after college. Alternatively, the military could create an entirely new path for combining college and military service by encouraging enlisted veterans to attend college and then reenlist (at a higher pay grade). The most promising alternatives should be evaluated in a national experiment designed to test their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, similar to the one that led to the creation of the Army College Fund and the Navy College Fund
Employment continuity among new mothers by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

4 editions published between 1993 and 1994 in English and held by 160 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recently both state and federal governments have enacted maternity leave legislation. The key provision of that legislation is that after a leave (of a limited duration), the recent mother is guaranteed the right to return to her pre-leave employer at the same or equivalent position. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey-Youth (NLS-Y), this paper correlates work status after childbirth with work status before pregnancy. Almost all women (nearly 90 percent) who work full-time both before and after childbirth continue to work at the same employer. Thus maternity leave legislation is unlikely to have a major effect on employment continuity. However, compared to all demographically similar women, new mothers do have an excess probability of leaving their jobs. Finally, most maternity leave legislation limits its protections to full-time workers with sufficient job tenure at sufficiently large firms. Using the NLS-Y, the paper estimates that the federal Family Leave Act covers only about a third of all working new mothers. The restriction to full-time workers is relatively unimportant because few part-time workers would satisfy the tenure and firm-size requirements
Characterizing leave for maternity : modeling the NLSY data by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

4 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 157 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Major changes in women's labor force behavior over the last two decades imply that while time away from the workforce after the birth of a child was once measured in years, it is now measured in weeks or even days. Concentrating on the weeks immediately following childbirth, this paper characterizes the labor force behavior of women immediately before and after the birth of a child. The timing of labor market exits (during pregnancy) and entrances (after childbirth) are estimated to the day, and reported to the week. Quits, exits to unpaid leave, and exits to paid leave are separately identified. The estimates reveal that most women who work before the birth of a child return to work relatively quickly after the birth of a child. The model time to return occurs only about six weeks after childbirth. Those who work long into pregnancy return to work more quickly after childbirth. The empirical work uses the National Longitudinal Survey-Youth (NLS-Y). The estimates are generated using a system of profit and hazard models. The system includes unobserved heterogeneity to capture the correlation between decisions. The econometric model is specified to correct for the focus of the NLS-Y protocol (in some years) on employment, so that it is not possible to distinguish paid from unpaid leave
Women's employment during pregnancy and following birth by Arleen A Leibowitz( Book )

3 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 151 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effects of changing the staffing in military treatment facilities by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

6 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 146 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The military provides health services to dependents and retirees both through the on-base military health system; Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs), and through the private health care system; CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical Plan for the Uniformed Services). Because the average cost per visit has been estimated to be less in the MTFs, it has been suggested that increasing MTF staffing levels might draw into the MTFs patients who otherwise would use CHAMPUS, thereby decreasing total military health expenditures. This report addresses this assumption. The report uses data on variation in staffing levels between WY 1988 and WY 1992 to generate estimates of the effects of increasing MTF staffing on the utilization of MTF care and on the utilization of CHAMPUS care. Two considerations are examined that might diminish the projected cost savings. First, increased staffing levels may yield a less than proportional increase in patients served. Second, with better care available in the MTFs, total utilization may increase. This report was initially prepared in 1996. It reflects research carried out in 1993-1995. The findings of this study will be of special interest to government and other agencies concerned with the efficient use of resources in the military health care system
Estimating AFQT scores for National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) respondents by M. Rebecca Kilburn( Book )

7 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 145 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This is the first report of a two-part project that estimates the determinants of individual enlistment decisions using the 1992 and 1994 waves of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS). The authors estimate AFQT scores for NELS respondents using test scores reported in the 1992 NELS, test score trends from the 1978-1992 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and the sample in the 1980 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that was used to norm the AFQT. Percentile scores on the NELS tests are equated to percentile scores on the AFQT in the NLSY with an adjustment to reflect test score trends observed in the NAEP over the period 1980-1992. In addition to estimating AFQT scores for NELS respondents, the authors examine test score trends between 1980 and 1992 to draw implications for recruiting policy. The evidence suggests that concerns that a rising share of minorities in the youth population will result in a decline in the potential supply of high-quality youth are unwarranted. Even though minorities in the early 1990s continued to score lower than average on the AFQT, the growth in their population share was outweighed by their greater-than-average test score growth during the 1980s and early 1990s. The net result of these countervailing trends was that a larger fraction of minorities were estimated to be high-quality potential recruits and that the share of the entire high school senior population scoring in that range was largely unchanged
Health insurance among children of unemployed parents by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

4 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 142 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report presents tabulations of the interrelationship between health insurance coverage for children and parental employment, using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, a longitudinal survey conducted by the Census Bureau. The data cover the period October 1989 to April 1994. The tabulations show that (1) most uninsured children are in poor families where at least one parent works; and (2) few children in unemployed families have a family member recently employed in an insured job. Thus, the continuation program proposed by the Clinton administration would have only a small effect on children of unemployed parents
The effect of reserve activations and active-duty deployments on local employment during the global war on terrorism by David S Loughran( Book )

5 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 137 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Today, American service personnel are deploying at rates not seen since the Vietnam War. Such deployments and activations have raised concerns about their effect on the local economies-due to the temporary loss of employees in the workforce-but little analysis has been done on the issue. To address this gap in understanding, the authors of this report use econometric models to analyze the impact of activations and deployments on economic conditions, as measured by changes in employment at the county level. The authors conclude that long-term impacts on local economic conditions, in aggregate, will not be significant. For reserve activations, the authors' estimates imply a nearly one-for-one decline in employment with activation in the short run, but by four months following a given activation, employment returns to its pre-activation level. For active-duty deployments, their estimates imply an increase of about one civilian employee for every ten deploying active-duty service members. The authors suggest that future research might focus on the impact of activations on smaller firms and the self-employed, neither of which could be examined specifically with the data used in this report
Activation and the earnings of reservists by David S Loughran( Book )

4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 128 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Reports estimates of the effect of activation on the earnings of reservists and finds that earnings loss attributable to activation is less common than that suggested by survey-based analyses. However, the substantial earnings gains most reservists experience might not be sufficient to compensate reservists for the hardship of activation
Sanctions in the CalWORKS program by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

10 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 125 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The California Department of Social Services asked RAND to study the state's policy for sanctioning welfare program participants who do not comply with statutory requirements of the welfare-to-work program. Researchers found that sanctions were weak in practice and that caseworkers were reluctant to sanction clients. Making sanction swifter, stronger, and safer are possible directions for reforming sanction policy and practice
Explaining the increase in unemployment compensation for ex-servicemembers during the global war on terror by David S Loughran( Book )

4 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Between 2002 and 2004, the number of veterans receiving Unemployment Compensation for Ex-Servicemembers and the cost of this program to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) increased by about 75 percent. The UCX program is the military counterpart to the civilian Unemployment Insurance (UI) program, which provides income assistance to the unemployed as they search for work. Honorably discharged active-component personnel and reserve-component personnel completing a period of active-duty service of 90 or more days are eligible to receive UCX benefits provided that they meet other federal and state-specific requirements of the UI system. The sharp and sustained increase in the UCX caseload since 2002 has contributed to concerns that veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are having difficulty transitioning to the civilian labor market. The research reported in this document examines the reasons why the UCX caseload has risen and considers the implications of those findings for the UCX program
Recruiting older youths : insights from a new survey of army recruits by Bernard Rostker( Book )

4 editions published between 2008 and 2014 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

More than half of all U.S. Army recruits are choosing to join later in life instead of immediately after high school graduation. Older recruits tend to reenlist and receive promotions at greater rates than their younger peers. Among those surveyed, recruits who enlisted later were more concerned about the domestic job market and less concerned about external factors, such as opposition from family and friends. Since the advent of the all-volunteer force, little attention has been paid to high school graduates who do not enlist immediately after graduation, primarily those who seek employment in the private sector of the economy. However, over time, this group has made up a significant and increasing portion of total enlistments. However, since 2005, the majority of the Army's recruits has not joined directly out of high school but has instead made the decision to join at a later time. Why these recruits initially chose not to join when they had the opportunity after graduating from high school and why they changed their minds several years later and enlisted are the subjects of this report. Given the importance of older recruits to the Army, the authors examine what is known about these recruits, their performance during military service, and why they came to join the Army after first choosing another postsecondary path. The results of a survey of 5,000 Army recruits designed to answer this question are presented. Finally, the implications of the survey results are discussed, along with suggestions of ways to gain additional insights by tracking this survey cohort through their Army careers
Determinants of the Food Stamp Program caseload by Jacob Alex Klerman( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Family options study : 3-year impacts of housing and services interventions for homeless families by Daniel Gubits( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
Audience Level
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.39 (from 0.02 for Attracting ... to 0.63 for Explaining ...)

Welfare reform in California : state and county implementation of CalWORKs in the first year
Alternative Names
Klerman, Jacob 1959-

Klerman, Jacob A.

Klerman, Jacob A. 1959-

English (139)

Welfare reform in California : early results from the impact analysisThe transition to stable employment : the experience of U.S. youth in their early labor market careerState monitoring of national school lunch program nutritional contentNew estimates of the effect of Kassebaum-Kennedy's group-to-individual conversion provision on premiums for individual health insuranceEnlistment decisions in the 1990s : evidence from individual-level dataAttracting college-bound youth into the military : toward the development of new recruiting policy optionsThe effects of changing the staffing in military treatment facilitiesEstimating AFQT scores for National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) respondents