WorldCat Identities

Neumark, David

Overview
Works: 190 works in 1,257 publications in 1 language and 11,282 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings  Longitudinal studies  Periodicals 
Roles: Author, Editor, Honoree, Other
Classifications: HD4918, 331.230973
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by David Neumark
Minimum wages by David Neumark( Book )

20 editions published between 2008 and 2010 in English and Undetermined and held by 909 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Minimum wages exist in more than one hundred countries, both industrialized and developing. The United States passed a federal minimum wage law in 1938 and has increased the minimum wage and its coverage at irregular intervals ever since; in addition, as of the beginning of 2008, thirty-two states and the District of Columbia had established a minimum wage higher than the federal level, and numerous other local jurisdictions had in place "living wage" laws. Over the years, the minimum wage has been popular with the public, controversial in the political arena, and the subject of vigorous debate among economists over its costs and benefits. In this book, David Neumark and William Wascher offer a comprehensive overview of the evidence on the economic effects of minimum wages. Synthesizing nearly two decades of their own research and reviewing other research that touches on the same questions, Neumark and Wascher discuss the effects of minimum wages on employment and hours, the acquisition of skills, the wage and income distributions, longer-term labor market outcomes, prices, and the aggregate economy. Arguing that the usual focus on employment effects is too limiting, they present a broader, empirically based inquiry that will better inform policymakers about the costs and benefits of the minimum wage. Based on their comprehensive reading of the evidence, Neumark and Wascher argue that minimum wages do not achieve the main goals set forth by their supporters. They reduce employment opportunities for less-skilled workers and tend to reduce their earnings; they are not an effective means of reducing poverty; and they appear to have adverse longer-term effects on wages and earnings, in part by reducing the acquisition of human capital. The authors argue that policymakers should instead look for other tools to raise the wages of low-skill workers and to provide poor families with an acceptable standard of living
On the job : is long-term employment a thing of the past?( Book )

9 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 467 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Improving school-to-work transitions by David Neumark( Book )

6 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 288 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sex differences in labor markets by David Neumark( Book )

14 editions published between 2004 and 2012 in English and held by 167 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sex differences abound in labor markets. In the United States three differences in particular have attracted the most attention: the earnings gap, occupational segregation, and the greater responsibility of women for child care and housework, and consequential lower participation in the labor market. Neumark tries to understand and analyze the relative importance of family economic decision-making and sex discrimination in generating sex differences in labor markets. Neumark's research covers three main levels of inquiry. The first studies non-discriminatory sources of sex differences in labor markets; the second grapples with the problem of sex discrimination; while the third evaluates policies to combat and reduce sex differences in labor markets
The economics of affirmative action( Book )

12 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 145 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Training and the growth of wage inequality by Jill M Constantine( Book )

11 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 143 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Shifts in the incidence of various types of training over the 1980s favored more-educated, more-experienced workers. Coupled with the fact that this training is associated with higher wages, these shifts suggest that training may have contributed to the growth of wage inequality in this period. However, the shifts were apparently too small, or the returns to training too low, for training to have played a substantial role in this increase. The estimated changes in wage differentials associated with schooling and experience are at best only slightly smaller once we account for changes in the distribution of training across schooling and experience groups, as well as changes in the returns to training and in the length of training programs
Are affirmative action hires less qualified? : evidence from employer-employee data on new hires by Harry J Holzer( Book )

15 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper we use micro-level data on employers and employees to investigate whether Affirmative Action procedures lead firms to hire minority or female employees who are less qualified than workers who might otherwise be hired. Our measures of qualifications include the educational attainment of the workers hired (both absolutely and relative to job requirements), skill requirements of the job into which they are hired, and a variety of outcome measures that are presumably related to worker performance on the job. The analysis is based on a representative sample of over 3,200 employers in four major metropolitan areas in the U.S. Our results show some evidence of lower educational qualifications among blacks and Hispanics hired under Affirmative Action, but not among white women. Further, our results show little evidence of substantially weaker job performance among most groups of minority and female Affirmative Action hires
Welfare for the elderly : the effects of SSI on pre-retirement labor supply by David Neumark( Book )

13 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The elderly are one of the exceptional groups in American society with access to a significant cash safety net, a means-tested program called Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Little attention has been paid to the pre-eligibility-age labor market disincentives created by such a program. In particular, asset and income limits might induce individuals nearing the eligibility age to work less. There is little if any hard evidence on such incentive effects. We exploit variation in states' supplementation of the federal SSI benefit to estimate the effects of the SSI program on pre-retirement labor supply, using data from the 1984, 1990, and 1991 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. We find some evidence that generous SSI benefits reduce the pre-retirement labor supply (and earnings) of men who are likely to participate in SSI after retirement as they near the eligibility age, especially that of men who have reached the age of eligibility for early Social Security benefits, which may be used to offset their reduced labor income
What does affirmative action do? by Harry J Holzer( Book )

14 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: We use data from a survey of employers to investigate how Affirmative Action in recruiting and hiring influences hiring practices, personnel policies, and ultimately employment outcomes. Our results show that Affirmative Action increases the number of recruitment and screening practices used by employers, raises their willingness to hire stigmatized applicants, increases the number of minority or female applicants as well as employees, and increases employers' tendencies to provide training and to formally evaluate employees. When Affirmative Action is used in recruiting, it does not lead to lower credentials or performance of women and minorities hired. When it is also used in hiring, it yields female and minority employees whose credentials are somewhat weaker, though performance generally is not. Over than, the more intensive search, evaluation, and training that accompany Affirmative Action appear to offset any tendencies of the policy to lead to hiring of less-qualified or less-productive women and minorities
Has job stability declined yet? : new evidence for the 1990's by David Neumark( Book )

12 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In earlier work we examined the temporal evolution of job stability in U.S. labor markets through the 1980's, using data assembled from a sequence of Current Population Survey tenure supplements. We found little or no change in aggregate job stability in the U.S. economy. In addition, older and more-tenured workers experienced increases in job stability in the" latter part of the 1980's. In this paper we update the evidence on changes in job stability through the mid-1990's, using recently-released CPS data for 1995 that parallel the earlier job tenure supplements. Updating the evidence from systematic random samples of the population and workforce through this period is especially important because the media have painted a particularly stark picture of declining job stability in the 1990's. In the aggregate, there is some evidence that job stability declined modestly in the first half of the 1990's. Moreover, the relatively small aggregate changes mask rather sharp declines in stability for workers with more than a few years of tenure. Nonetheless, the data available to this point do not support the conclusion that the downward shift in job stability for more-tenured workers stability, reflect long-term trends
Market forces and sex discrimination by Judith K Hellerstein( Book )

12 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 72 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, we use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Our strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more profitable. No such relationship exists for plants with apparently low levels of market power. This is consistent with sex discrimination in wages in the short run in markets where plants have product market power. We also examine evidence on the longer-run effects of market forces on discrimination, asking whether discriminatory employers with market power are punished over time through lower growth than non-discriminatory employers, or whether discriminatory employers are bought out by non-discriminators. We find little evidence that this occurs over a five-year period, as growth and ownership changes for plants with market power are generally not significantly related to the sex composition of a plant's workforce
Order from chaos? : the effects of early labor market experiences on adult labor market outcomes by Rosella Gardecki( Book )

14 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the consequences of initial periods of churning, ' floundering about, ' or mobility' in the labor market to help assess whether faster transitions to stable employment relationships--such as those envisioned by advocates of school-to-work programs--would be likely to lead to better adult labor market outcomes. Our interpretation of the results is that there is at best modest evidence linking early job market stability to better labor market outcomes. We find that adult labor market outcomes (defined as of the late 20s or early to mid-30s) are for the most part unrelated to early labor market experiences for both men and women. This evidence does not provide a compelling case for efforts to explicitly target the school-to-work transition, insofar as this implies changing the structure of youth labor markets so that workers become more firmly attached to employers, industries, or occupations at
The effects of minimum wages on the distribution of family incomes : a non-parametric analysis by David Neumark( Book )

15 editions published between 1998 and 2004 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us relatively little about whether minimum wages are likely to achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor and low-income families. In this paper, we present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS surveys. Using non-parametric estimates of the distributions of family income relative to needs in states and years with an without minimum wage increases, we examine the effects of minimum wages on this distribution, and on the distribution of the changes in income that families experience. Although minimum wages do increase the incomes of some poor families, the evidence indicates that the overall effects are to increase the proportion of families that are poor and near-poor, and to decrease the proportion of families with incomes between 1.5 and 3 times the poverty level
Wages, productivity, and worker characteristics : evidence from plant-level production functions and wage equations by Judith K Hellerstein( Book )

15 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We use a unique new data set that combines individual worker data with data on workers' employers to estimate plant-level production functions and wage equations, and thus to compare relative marginal products and relative wages for various groups of workers. The data and empirical framework lead to new evidence on numerous questions regarding the determination of wages, questions that hinge on the relationship between wages and marginal products of workers in different demographic groups. These include race and sex discrimination in wages, the causes of rising wages over the life cycle, and the returns to marriage. First, workers who have ever been married are more productive than never-married workers and are paid accordingly. Second, prime-aged workers (aged 35-54) are equally as productive as younger workers, and in some specifications are estimated to receive higher wages. However, older workers (aged 55+) are less productive than younger workers but are paid more. Third, the data indicate no difference between the relative wage and relative productivity of black workers. Finally, with the exception of managerial and professional occupations, women are paid about 25-35% less than men, but estimated productivity differentials for women are generally no larger than 15%, and significantly smaller than the pay differential
Evaluating school-to-work programs using the new NLSY by David Neumark( Book )

14 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A critical impediment to research on school-to-work programs has been the absence of large representative data sets with information on such programs. In contrast, the new NLSY (NLSY97) offers researchers opportunities to analyze direct evidence on school-to-work programs. In the NLSY97, individuals are asked a set of survey questions about programs schools offer to help students prepare for the world of work, ' and an accompanying survey includes information on school-to-work programs offered by schools attended by the interviewees. These data, coupled with observations on multiple individuals in the same schools, potentially allow researchers to estimate the effects of school-to-work programs on individuals while accounting for possible bias from selection into these programs, although apparent data problems pose some limitations. Because Round One of the NLSY97 covers workers only up to age 17, this paper focuses on the consequences of school-to-work programs for youth employment and schooling decisions while in high school, and students' subjective assessments of the likelihood of future schooling and work behavior. Overall, the evidence does not point to a causal effect of school-to-work program participation on behavior likely associated with future college attendance. On the other hand, school-to-work program participation does appear to have positive effects on educational attainment in terms of respondents' subjective probabilities of obtaining a high-school diploma. More in accordance with the traditional view of school-to-work programs, the data indicate that participation in these programs increases the perceived likelihood of future labor market activity, both for the year following the survey and at age 30. However, school-to-work programs do not appear to boost the probability of current employment
Labor market information and wage differentials by race and sex by David Neumark( Book )

12 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper attempts to test whether information problems in labor markets can explain why minority or female workers are sometimes paid less than equally-qualified white male workers. In particular, the relationship between starting wages, current performance, and race and sex is studied. OLS regressions of starting wages on current performance--which is measured some time after the beginning of employment--indicate that minority workers are paid lower starting wages than white workers with the same eventual performance, among both men and women. This may reflect taste discrimination. However, if employers base starting wages on expected productivity or performance, and average performance is lower for minority workers (as it is in these data), then these estimated differentials could reflect simple statistical discrimination. A test of statistical versus taste discrimination and a test of statistical discrimination versus pure measurement error provide some evidence for both men and women that statistical discrimination is partly to blame for these differences in starting wages between minority and white workers, although the evidence is not very strong statistically. Average performance of women is if anything higher than that of men, so simple statistical discrimination cannot explain the lower starting wages that women receive. However, more complex models of statistical discrimination suggest that worse labor market information about a particular group can generate lower wages for that group. A test of the quality of labor market information suggests that employers have better information about male workers, which may explain the lower starting wages paid to women. Together, this evidence suggests that better labor market information might boost starting wages of minorities and women
Is the time-series evidence on minimum wage effects contaminated by publication bias? by David Neumark( Book )

13 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Publication bias in economics may lead to selective specification searches that result in overreporting in the published literature of results consistent with economists' priors. In reassessing the published time-series studies on the employment effects of minimum wages, some recent research has reported evidence consistent with publication bias, and concluded that the most plausible explanation of this evidence is editors' and authors' tendencies to look for negative and statistically significant estimates of the employment effect of the minimum wage, (Card and Krueger, 1995a, p. 242). We present results indicating that the evidence is more consistent with a change in the estimated minimum wage effect over time than with publication bias. More generally, we demonstrate that existing approaches to testing for publication bias may generate spurious evidence of such bias when there are structural changes in some parameters. We then suggest an alternative strategy for testing for publication bias that is more immune to structural change. Although changing parameters may be uncommon in clinical trials on which most of the existing literature on publication bias is based, they are much more plausible in economics
Changes in job stability and job security : a collective effort to untangle, reconcile, and interpret the evidence by David Neumark( Book )

17 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

I synthesize and summarize a set of recent papers on changes in the employment relationship. The authors of these papers present the most up-to-date and accurate assessment of their evidence on changes in job stability and job security, and attempt to reconcile their evidence with the findings of other research, including the other papers discussed herein. Some of papers also begin to explore explanations of changes in the employment relationship. The evidence suggests that the 1990's witnessed some changes in the employment relationship consistent with weakened bonds between workers and firms. But the magnitudes of these changes indicate that while these bonds may have weakened, they have not been broken. Furthermore, the changes that occurred in the 1990's have not persisted very long. It is therefore premature to infer long-term trends towards declines in long-term employment relationships, and even more so to infer anything like the disappearance of long-term, secure jobs. The papers examining sources of changes in job stability and job security in the 1990's point to some potential explanations, including relative wage movements, growth in alternative employment relationships, and downsizing. However, with the possible exception of the first of these, this list does not encompass fundamental' or exogenous changes impacting the employment relationship, but rather to some extent suggests how various changes in the employment relationship may reinforce each other. Understanding the structural changes underlying empirical observations on changes in job stability and job security is likely to be a fruitful frontier for future research on the employment relationship
Using the EITC to help poor families : new evidence and a comparison with the minimum wage by David Neumark( Book )

14 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper evaluates the effects of the earned income tax credit (EITC) on poor families. Exploiting state-level variation in EITCs, we find that the EITC helps families rise above poverty-level earnings. This occurs by inducing labor market entry in families that initially do not have an adult in the workforce. Evidence based on the federal EITC is less supportive of a positive impact of the EITC on poor families. Finally, our results suggest that for the range of policy changes typical of recent history in the U.S., the EITC is more beneficial for poor families than is the minimum wage
Relative income concerns and the rise in married women's employment by David Neumark( Book )

12 editions published between 1993 and 1995 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We ask whether women's decisions to be in the labor force may be affected by the decisions of other women in ways not captured by standard models. We develop a model that augments the simple neoclassical framework by introducing relative income concerns into women's (or families') utility functions. In this model, the entry of some women into paid employment can spur the entry of other women, independently of wage and income effects. This mechanism may help to explain why, over some periods, women's employment appeared to rise faster than could be accounted for by the simple neoclassical model. We test the model by asking whether women's decisions to seek paid employment depend on the employment decisions of other women with whom relative income comparisons might be important. In particular, we look at the effects of sisters' employment on women's own employment. We find strong evidence that women's employment decisions are positively related to their sisters' employment decisions. We also take account of the possibility that this positive relationship arises from heterogeneity across families in unobserved variables affecting the employment decision. We conduct numerous empirical analyses to reduce or eliminate this heterogeneity bias. We also look at the relationship between husbands' relative income and wives' employment decisions. In our view, the evidence is largely supportive of the relative income hypothesis
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.44 (from 0.09 for Minimum wa ... to 0.74 for Market for ...)

Associated Subjects
Affirmative action programs Career education Discrimination in education--Economic aspects Discrimination in employment--Econometric models Discrimination in employment--Economic aspects Earned income tax credit--Econometric models Employee selection Employee selection--Econometric models Employees--Recruiting--Econometric models Employment (Economic theory) High school students--Employment Income distribution Income distribution--Econometric models Job security Job security--Econometric models Labor market Labor market--Econometric models Labor supply Labor supply--Econometric models Labor turnover Married women--Employment--Econometric models Minimum wage Minimum wage--Econometric models Minimum wage--Mathematical models Minorities--Employment Minorities--Employment--Econometric models Occupational mobility Occupational training--Econometric models Organizational change Pay equity Pay equity--Econometric models Poor--Econometric models Retirement age--Econometric models School-to-work transition Sex discrimination in employment Sex discrimination in employment--Econometric models Sex discrimination in employment--Government policy Supplemental security income program Supplemental security income program--Econometric models Time-series analysis United States Vocational education Wage differentials Wage differentials--Econometric models Wages and labor productivity--Econometric models Wages--Econometric models Wages--Effect of education on--Econometric models Wages--Women--Econometric models Women--Employment Work and family
Minimum wages
Alternative Names
David Neumark American economist

David Neumark economista estadounidense

David Neumark économiste américain

Neumark, D. 1959-

Neumark, David B. 1959-

ダーヴィト・ノイマルク

Languages
English (262)

Covers
On the job : is long-term employment a thing of the past?Improving school-to-work transitionsSex differences in labor marketsThe economics of affirmative actionChanges in job stability and job security : a collective effort to untangle, reconcile, and interpret the evidence