Cochrane, John H. (John Howland) 1957
Overview
Works:  140 works in 679 publications in 1 language and 7,135 library holdings 

Genres:  Conference papers and proceedings History 
Roles:  Author, Editor, Contributor, Thesis advisor 
Classifications:  HG4636, 332.6 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by
John H Cochrane
Asset pricing by
John H Cochrane(
Book
)
34 editions published between 2001 and 2010 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,053 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Written to be a summary for academics and professionals as well as a textbook for advanced graduate students, this book condenses and advances recent scholarship in financial economics."Jacket
34 editions published between 2001 and 2010 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,053 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
"Written to be a summary for academics and professionals as well as a textbook for advanced graduate students, this book condenses and advances recent scholarship in financial economics."Jacket
Currencies, capital, and central bank balances by
John B Taylor(
)
9 editions published in 2019 in English and Undetermined and held by 794 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Drawing from their 2018 conference, the Hoover Institution brings together leading academics and monetary policy makers to share ideas about the practical issues facing central banks today. The expert contributors discuss U.S. monetary policy at individual central banks and reform of the international monetary and financial system. The discussion is broken down into seven key areas: 1) International Rules of the Monetary Game; 2) Banking, Trade and the Making of the Dominant Currency; 3) Capital Flows, the IMF's Institutional View and Alternatives; 4) Payments, Credit and Asset Prices; 5) Financial Stability, Regulations and the Balance Sheet; 6) The Future of the Central Bank Balance Sheet; and 7) Monetary Policy and Reform in Practice. With indepth discussions of the volatility of capital flows and exchange rates, and the use of balance sheet policy by central banks, they examine relevant research developments and debate policy options
9 editions published in 2019 in English and Undetermined and held by 794 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Drawing from their 2018 conference, the Hoover Institution brings together leading academics and monetary policy makers to share ideas about the practical issues facing central banks today. The expert contributors discuss U.S. monetary policy at individual central banks and reform of the international monetary and financial system. The discussion is broken down into seven key areas: 1) International Rules of the Monetary Game; 2) Banking, Trade and the Making of the Dominant Currency; 3) Capital Flows, the IMF's Institutional View and Alternatives; 4) Payments, Credit and Asset Prices; 5) Financial Stability, Regulations and the Balance Sheet; 6) The Future of the Central Bank Balance Sheet; and 7) Monetary Policy and Reform in Practice. With indepth discussions of the volatility of capital flows and exchange rates, and the use of balance sheet policy by central banks, they examine relevant research developments and debate policy options
Financial markets and the real economy by
John H Cochrane(
)
21 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 419 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
What are the real, macroeconomic risks that drive asset prices? This question is centrally important to macroeconomics. Where better to learn about the risks of recessions and depressions than by understanding the prices of assets such as stocks that carry macroeconomic risks? The question is also at the core of finance. For example, finance has long wondered if asset prices are "rational" or not. The only meaning of that term is whether asset prices are properly connected to macroeconomic risks. Financial Markets and the Real Economy reviews the current academic literature on the macroeconomics of finance. It starts by collecting the important facts such as the equity premium, size and value effects, and the predictability of returns. It then reviews the equity premium puzzle, which is the most basic challenge to the connection between asset prices and macroeconomics. Next, it surveys the current state of consumptionbased models, and some of their surprising recent successes. It covers production and generalequilibrium models that tie asset returns to more cyclically important output and investment
21 editions published between 2005 and 2006 in English and held by 419 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
What are the real, macroeconomic risks that drive asset prices? This question is centrally important to macroeconomics. Where better to learn about the risks of recessions and depressions than by understanding the prices of assets such as stocks that carry macroeconomic risks? The question is also at the core of finance. For example, finance has long wondered if asset prices are "rational" or not. The only meaning of that term is whether asset prices are properly connected to macroeconomic risks. Financial Markets and the Real Economy reviews the current academic literature on the macroeconomics of finance. It starts by collecting the important facts such as the equity premium, size and value effects, and the predictability of returns. It then reviews the equity premium puzzle, which is the most basic challenge to the connection between asset prices and macroeconomics. Next, it surveys the current state of consumptionbased models, and some of their surprising recent successes. It covers production and generalequilibrium models that tie asset returns to more cyclically important output and investment
The structural foundations of monetary policy by
Amit Seru(
)
6 editions published between 2017 and 2018 in English and held by 338 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
6 editions published between 2017 and 2018 in English and held by 338 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The Fama portfolio : selected papers of Eugene F. Fama by
Eugene F Fama(
Book
)
9 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 147 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Few scholars have been as influential in finance and economics as University of Chicago professor Eugene F. Fama. Over the course of a brilliant and productive career, Fama has published more than one hundred papers, filled with diverse, highly innovative contributions. Published soon after the fiftieth anniversary of Fama's appointment to the University of Chicago and his receipt of the Nobel Prize in Economics, The Fama Portfolio offers an authoritative compilation of Fama's central papers. Many are classics, including his nowfamous essay on efficient capital markets. Others, though less famous, are even better statements of the central ideas. Fama's research considers key questions in finance, both as an academic field and an industry: How is information reflected in asset prices? What is the nature of risk that scares people away from larger returns? Does lots of buying and selling by active managers produce value for their clients? The Fama Portfolio provides for the first time a comprehensive collection of his work and includes introductions and commentary by the book's editors, John H. Cochrane and Tobias Moskowitz, as well as by Fama's colleagues, themselves top scholars and successful practitioners in finance. These essays emphasize how the ideas presented in Fama's papers have influenced later thinking in financial economics, often for decades. 
9 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 147 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Few scholars have been as influential in finance and economics as University of Chicago professor Eugene F. Fama. Over the course of a brilliant and productive career, Fama has published more than one hundred papers, filled with diverse, highly innovative contributions. Published soon after the fiftieth anniversary of Fama's appointment to the University of Chicago and his receipt of the Nobel Prize in Economics, The Fama Portfolio offers an authoritative compilation of Fama's central papers. Many are classics, including his nowfamous essay on efficient capital markets. Others, though less famous, are even better statements of the central ideas. Fama's research considers key questions in finance, both as an academic field and an industry: How is information reflected in asset prices? What is the nature of risk that scares people away from larger returns? Does lots of buying and selling by active managers produce value for their clients? The Fama Portfolio provides for the first time a comprehensive collection of his work and includes introductions and commentary by the book's editors, John H. Cochrane and Tobias Moskowitz, as well as by Fama's colleagues, themselves top scholars and successful practitioners in finance. These essays emphasize how the ideas presented in Fama's papers have influenced later thinking in financial economics, often for decades. 
By force of habit : a consumptionbased explanation of aggregate stock market behavior by
John Y Campbell(
)
28 editions published between 1994 and 1998 in English and held by 136 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present a consumptionbased model that explains the procyclical variation of stock prices, the longhorizon predictability of excess stock returns, and the countercyclical variation of stock market volatility. Our model has an i.i.d. consumption growth driving process, and adds a slowmoving external habit to the standard power utility function. The latter feature produces cyclical variation in risk aversion, and hence in the prices of risky assets. Our model also predicts many of the difficulties that beset the standard power utility model, including Euler equation rejections, no correlation between mean consumption growth and interest rates, very high estimates of risk aversion, and pricing errors that are larger than those of the static CAPM. Our model captures much of the history of stock prices, given only consumption data. Since our model captures the equity premium, it implies that fluctuations have important welfare costs. Unlike many habitpersistence models, our model does not necessarily produce cyclical variation in the risk free interest rate, nor does it produce an extremely skewed distribution or negative realizations of the marginal rate of substitution
28 editions published between 1994 and 1998 in English and held by 136 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We present a consumptionbased model that explains the procyclical variation of stock prices, the longhorizon predictability of excess stock returns, and the countercyclical variation of stock market volatility. Our model has an i.i.d. consumption growth driving process, and adds a slowmoving external habit to the standard power utility function. The latter feature produces cyclical variation in risk aversion, and hence in the prices of risky assets. Our model also predicts many of the difficulties that beset the standard power utility model, including Euler equation rejections, no correlation between mean consumption growth and interest rates, very high estimates of risk aversion, and pricing errors that are larger than those of the static CAPM. Our model captures much of the history of stock prices, given only consumption data. Since our model captures the equity premium, it implies that fluctuations have important welfare costs. Unlike many habitpersistence models, our model does not necessarily produce cyclical variation in the risk free interest rate, nor does it produce an extremely skewed distribution or negative realizations of the marginal rate of substitution
New facts in finance by
John H Cochrane(
Book
)
13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The last 15 years have seen a revolution in the way financial economists understand the world around us. We once thought that stock and bond returns were essentially unpredictable. Now we recognize that stock and bond returns have a substantial predictable component at long horizons. We once thought the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) provided a good description of why average returns on some stocks, portfolios, funds or strategies were higher than others. Now we recognize that the average returns of many investment opportunities cannot be explained by the CAPM, and multifactor models' have supplanted the CAPM to explain them. We once thought that longterm interest rates reflected expectations of future short term rates and that interest rate differentials across countries reflected expectations of exchangerate depreciation. Now, we see timevarying risk premia in bond and foreign exchange markets as well as in stock markets. Once, we thought that mutual fund average returns were well explained by the CAPM. Now, we recognize ``value'' and other high return strategies in funds, and slight persistence in fund performance. In this article, I survey these new facts. I show how they are related. Each case uses price variables to infer market expectations of future returns; each case notices that an offsetting adjustment (to dividends, interest rates, or exchange rates) seems to be absent or sluggish. Each case suggests that financial markets offer rewards in the form of average returns for holding risks related to recessions and financial distress, in addition to the risks represented by overall market movements
13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The last 15 years have seen a revolution in the way financial economists understand the world around us. We once thought that stock and bond returns were essentially unpredictable. Now we recognize that stock and bond returns have a substantial predictable component at long horizons. We once thought the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) provided a good description of why average returns on some stocks, portfolios, funds or strategies were higher than others. Now we recognize that the average returns of many investment opportunities cannot be explained by the CAPM, and multifactor models' have supplanted the CAPM to explain them. We once thought that longterm interest rates reflected expectations of future short term rates and that interest rate differentials across countries reflected expectations of exchangerate depreciation. Now, we see timevarying risk premia in bond and foreign exchange markets as well as in stock markets. Once, we thought that mutual fund average returns were well explained by the CAPM. Now, we recognize ``value'' and other high return strategies in funds, and slight persistence in fund performance. In this article, I survey these new facts. I show how they are related. Each case uses price variables to infer market expectations of future returns; each case notices that an offsetting adjustment (to dividends, interest rates, or exchange rates) seems to be absent or sluggish. Each case suggests that financial markets offer rewards in the form of average returns for holding risks related to recessions and financial distress, in addition to the risks represented by overall market movements
Longterm debt and optimal policy in the fiscal theory of the price level by
John H Cochrane(
)
14 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The fiscal theory says that the price level is determined by the ratio of nominal debt to the present value of real primary surpluses. I analyze longterm debt and optimal policy in the fiscal theory. I find that the maturity structure of the debt matters. For example, it determines whether news of future deficits implies current inflation or future inflation. When long term debt is present, the government can trade current inflation for future inflation by debt operations; this tradeoff is not present if the government rolls over short term debt. I solve for optimal debt policies to minimize the variance of inflation. I find cases in which longterm debt helps to stabilize inflation, and I find that the optimal inflationstabilizing policy produces time series that are surprisingly similar to U.S. surplus and debt time series
14 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 133 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The fiscal theory says that the price level is determined by the ratio of nominal debt to the present value of real primary surpluses. I analyze longterm debt and optimal policy in the fiscal theory. I find that the maturity structure of the debt matters. For example, it determines whether news of future deficits implies current inflation or future inflation. When long term debt is present, the government can trade current inflation for future inflation by debt operations; this tradeoff is not present if the government rolls over short term debt. I solve for optimal debt policies to minimize the variance of inflation. I find cases in which longterm debt helps to stabilize inflation, and I find that the optimal inflationstabilizing policy produces time series that are surprisingly similar to U.S. surplus and debt time series
Continuoustime linear models by
John H Cochrane(
)
20 editions published between 2012 and 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 127 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I translate familiar concepts of discretetime timeseries to contnuoustime equivalent. I cover lag operators, ARMA models, the relation between levels and differences, integration and cointegration, and the HansenSargent prediction formulas
20 editions published between 2012 and 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 127 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I translate familiar concepts of discretetime timeseries to contnuoustime equivalent. I cover lag operators, ARMA models, the relation between levels and differences, integration and cointegration, and the HansenSargent prediction formulas
Portfolio advice for a multifactor world by
John H Cochrane(
)
13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Asset returns, it turns out, do not follow the Capital Asset Pricing Model, and are somewhat predictable over time. I survey and interpret the large body of recent work that adapts traditional portfolio theory to answer, what should an investor do about these new facts in finance? I survey the extension of the famous 2  fund' theorem to an Nfund'' theorem in which investors either hedge or assume the additional, nonmarket, sources of priced risk; I survey the burgeoning literature on timevarying portfolio rules and the Bayesian literature that advocates a great deal of caution. In a survey, I emphasize the risksharing nature of asset markets, I note the likelihood that many supposed anomalies will not last, and I emphasize the fact that the average investor must hold the market so portfolio decisions must be driven by differences between an investor and the average investor
13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Asset returns, it turns out, do not follow the Capital Asset Pricing Model, and are somewhat predictable over time. I survey and interpret the large body of recent work that adapts traditional portfolio theory to answer, what should an investor do about these new facts in finance? I survey the extension of the famous 2  fund' theorem to an Nfund'' theorem in which investors either hedge or assume the additional, nonmarket, sources of priced risk; I survey the burgeoning literature on timevarying portfolio rules and the Bayesian literature that advocates a great deal of caution. In a survey, I emphasize the risksharing nature of asset markets, I note the likelihood that many supposed anomalies will not last, and I emphasize the fact that the average investor must hold the market so portfolio decisions must be driven by differences between an investor and the average investor
Beyond arbitrage : "gooddeal" asset price bounds in incomplete markets by
John H Cochrane(
)
14 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 124 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
It is often useful to price assets and other random payoffs by reference to other observed prices rather than construct fullfledged economic asset pricing models. This approach breaks down if one cannot find a perfect replicating portfolio. We impose weak economic restrictions to derive usefully tight bounds on asset prices in this situation. The bounds basically rule out high Sharpe ratios  `good deals'  as well as arbitrage opportunities. We present the method of calculation, we extend it to a multiperiod context by finding a recursive solution, and we apply it to option pricing examples including the BlackScholes setup with infrequent trading, and a model with stochastic stock volatility and a varying riskfree rate
14 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 124 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
It is often useful to price assets and other random payoffs by reference to other observed prices rather than construct fullfledged economic asset pricing models. This approach breaks down if one cannot find a perfect replicating portfolio. We impose weak economic restrictions to derive usefully tight bounds on asset prices in this situation. The bounds basically rule out high Sharpe ratios  `good deals'  as well as arbitrage opportunities. We present the method of calculation, we extend it to a multiperiod context by finding a recursive solution, and we apply it to option pricing examples including the BlackScholes setup with infrequent trading, and a model with stochastic stock volatility and a varying riskfree rate
A frictionless view of U.S. inflation by
John H Cochrane(
)
15 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 123 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Financial innovation challenges the foundations of monetary theory, and standard monetary theory has not been very successful at describing the history of U.S. inflation. Motivated by these observations, I ask: Can we understand the history of U.S. inflation using a framework that ignores monetary frictions? The fiscal theory of the price level allows us to think about price level determination with no monetary frictions. The price level adjusts to equilibrate the real value of nominal government debt with the present value of surpluses. I describe the theory, and I argue that it is a return to prequantity theoretic ideas in which money is valued via a commodity standard or because the government accepts it to pay taxes. Both sources of value are immune to financial innovation and the presence or absence of monetary frictions. I then interpret the history of U.S. inflation with a fiscaltheory, frictionless view. I show how the fiscal theory can accommodate the stylized fact that deficits and inflation seem to be negatively, not positively correlated. I verify its prediction that open market operations do not affect inflation. I show how debt policy has already smoothed inflation a great deal
15 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 123 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Financial innovation challenges the foundations of monetary theory, and standard monetary theory has not been very successful at describing the history of U.S. inflation. Motivated by these observations, I ask: Can we understand the history of U.S. inflation using a framework that ignores monetary frictions? The fiscal theory of the price level allows us to think about price level determination with no monetary frictions. The price level adjusts to equilibrate the real value of nominal government debt with the present value of surpluses. I describe the theory, and I argue that it is a return to prequantity theoretic ideas in which money is valued via a commodity standard or because the government accepts it to pay taxes. Both sources of value are immune to financial innovation and the presence or absence of monetary frictions. I then interpret the history of U.S. inflation with a fiscaltheory, frictionless view. I show how the fiscal theory can accommodate the stylized fact that deficits and inflation seem to be negatively, not positively correlated. I verify its prediction that open market operations do not affect inflation. I show how debt policy has already smoothed inflation a great deal
Money as stock : price level determination with no money demand by
John H Cochrane(
)
15 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I show that a determinate, finite price level can be achieved in an economy with no monetary frictions, and no commodity standard or other explicit redemption commitment. I make one small modification to a standard cash in advance model: I reopen the security market at the end of the day. With this modification, overnight money demand is precisely zero. I show that the price level is still determined, however, by the government debt valuation equation. Nominal government debt is, despite appearances, a residual claim to government surpluses. Thus, the price level is determined just like the price of stock, and just as if we used (say) Microsoft stock as numeraire, unit of account, and medium of exchange. I resolve Buiter's (1999) criticism that fiscal price level determination mistreats the government budget constraint. The government is not forced by a budget constraint to raise surpluses in response to an offequilibrium deflation, just as Microsoft is not forced to raise earnings if there is a bubble in its stock price. I also address McCallum's (1998) criticism that fiscal models do not properly treat indeterminacies, and a number of other confusions and misconceptions surrounding fiscal price level determination. I provide a taxonomy of fiscal and monetary regimes
15 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I show that a determinate, finite price level can be achieved in an economy with no monetary frictions, and no commodity standard or other explicit redemption commitment. I make one small modification to a standard cash in advance model: I reopen the security market at the end of the day. With this modification, overnight money demand is precisely zero. I show that the price level is still determined, however, by the government debt valuation equation. Nominal government debt is, despite appearances, a residual claim to government surpluses. Thus, the price level is determined just like the price of stock, and just as if we used (say) Microsoft stock as numeraire, unit of account, and medium of exchange. I resolve Buiter's (1999) criticism that fiscal price level determination mistreats the government budget constraint. The government is not forced by a budget constraint to raise surpluses in response to an offequilibrium deflation, just as Microsoft is not forced to raise earnings if there is a bubble in its stock price. I also address McCallum's (1998) criticism that fiscal models do not properly treat indeterminacies, and a number of other confusions and misconceptions surrounding fiscal price level determination. I provide a taxonomy of fiscal and monetary regimes
Explaining the poor performance of consumptionbased asset pricing models by
John Y Campbell(
)
16 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The poor performance of consumptionbased asset pricing models relative to traditional portfoliobased asset pricing models is one of the great disappointments of the empirical asset pricing literature. We show that the external habitformation model economy of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) can explain this puzzle. Though artificial data from that economy conform to a consumptionbased model by construction, the CAPM and its extensions are much better approximate models than is the standard power utility specification of the consumptionbased model. Conditioning information is the central reason for this result. The model economy has one shock, so when returns are measured at sufficiently high frequency the consumptionbased model and the CAPM are equivalent and perfect conditional asset pricing models. However, the model economy also produces timevarying expected returns, tracked by the dividendprice ratio. Portfoliobased models capture some of this variation in state variables, which a stateindependent function of consumption cannot capture, and so portfoliobased models are better approximate unconditional asset pricing models
16 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The poor performance of consumptionbased asset pricing models relative to traditional portfoliobased asset pricing models is one of the great disappointments of the empirical asset pricing literature. We show that the external habitformation model economy of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) can explain this puzzle. Though artificial data from that economy conform to a consumptionbased model by construction, the CAPM and its extensions are much better approximate models than is the standard power utility specification of the consumptionbased model. Conditioning information is the central reason for this result. The model economy has one shock, so when returns are measured at sufficiently high frequency the consumptionbased model and the CAPM are equivalent and perfect conditional asset pricing models. However, the model economy also produces timevarying expected returns, tracked by the dividendprice ratio. Portfoliobased models capture some of this variation in state variables, which a stateindependent function of consumption cannot capture, and so portfoliobased models are better approximate unconditional asset pricing models
Where is the market going? : uncertain facts and novel theories by
John H Cochrane(
)
16 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 118 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Will the stock market provide high returns in the future as it has in the past? The average US stock return in the postwar period has been about 8% above treasury bill rates. But that average is poorly measured: The standard confidence interval extends from 3% to 13%. Furthermore, expected returns are low at times such as the present of high prices. Therefore, the statistical evidence suggests a period of low average returns, followed by a slow reversion to a poorly measured long term average. I turn to a detailed survey of economic theory, to see if models that summarize a vast amount of other information shed light on stock returns. Standard models predict nothing like the historical equity premium. After a decade of effort, a range of drastic modifications to the standard model can account for the historical equity premium. It remains to be seen whether the drastic modifications and a high equity premium, or the standard model and a low equity premium, will triumph in the end. Therefore, economic theory gives one reason to fear that average excess returns will not return to 8% after the period of low returns signaled by today's high prices. I conclude with a warning that low average returns does not imply one should change one's portfolio. Someone has to hold the market portfolio; one should only deviate from that norm if one is different from everyone else
16 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 118 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Will the stock market provide high returns in the future as it has in the past? The average US stock return in the postwar period has been about 8% above treasury bill rates. But that average is poorly measured: The standard confidence interval extends from 3% to 13%. Furthermore, expected returns are low at times such as the present of high prices. Therefore, the statistical evidence suggests a period of low average returns, followed by a slow reversion to a poorly measured long term average. I turn to a detailed survey of economic theory, to see if models that summarize a vast amount of other information shed light on stock returns. Standard models predict nothing like the historical equity premium. After a decade of effort, a range of drastic modifications to the standard model can account for the historical equity premium. It remains to be seen whether the drastic modifications and a high equity premium, or the standard model and a low equity premium, will triumph in the end. Therefore, economic theory gives one reason to fear that average excess returns will not return to 8% after the period of low returns signaled by today's high prices. I conclude with a warning that low average returns does not imply one should change one's portfolio. Someone has to hold the market portfolio; one should only deviate from that norm if one is different from everyone else
The risk and return of venture capital by
John H Cochrane(
)
15 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 117 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper measures the mean, standard deviation, alpha and beta of venture capital investments, using a maximum likelihood estimate that corrects for selection bias. Since firms go public when they have achieved a good return, estimates that do not correct for selection bias are optimistic. The selection bias correction neatly accounts for log returns. Without a selection bias correction, I find a mean log return of about 100% and a log CAPM intercept of about 90%. With the selection bias correction, I find a mean log return of about 7% with a 2% intercept. However, returns are very volatile, with standard deviation near 100%. Therefore, arithmetic average returns and intercepts are much higher than geometric averages. The selection bias correction attenuates but does not eliminate high arithmetic average returns. Without a selection bias correction, I find an arithmetic average return of around 700% and a CAPM alpha of nearly 500%. With the selection bias correction, I find arithmetic average returns of about 53% and CAPM alpha of about 45%. Second, third, and fourth rounds of financing are less risky. They have progressively lower volatility, and therefore lower arithmetic average returns. The betas of successive rounds also decline dramatically from near 1 for the first round to near zero for fourth rounds. The maximum likelihood estimate matches many features of the data, in particular the pattern of IPO and exit as a function of project age, and the fact that return distributions are stable across horizons
15 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 117 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper measures the mean, standard deviation, alpha and beta of venture capital investments, using a maximum likelihood estimate that corrects for selection bias. Since firms go public when they have achieved a good return, estimates that do not correct for selection bias are optimistic. The selection bias correction neatly accounts for log returns. Without a selection bias correction, I find a mean log return of about 100% and a log CAPM intercept of about 90%. With the selection bias correction, I find a mean log return of about 7% with a 2% intercept. However, returns are very volatile, with standard deviation near 100%. Therefore, arithmetic average returns and intercepts are much higher than geometric averages. The selection bias correction attenuates but does not eliminate high arithmetic average returns. Without a selection bias correction, I find an arithmetic average return of around 700% and a CAPM alpha of nearly 500%. With the selection bias correction, I find arithmetic average returns of about 53% and CAPM alpha of about 45%. Second, third, and fourth rounds of financing are less risky. They have progressively lower volatility, and therefore lower arithmetic average returns. The betas of successive rounds also decline dramatically from near 1 for the first round to near zero for fourth rounds. The maximum likelihood estimate matches many features of the data, in particular the pattern of IPO and exit as a function of project age, and the fact that return distributions are stable across horizons
A rehabilitation of stochastic discount factor methodology by
John H Cochrane(
)
14 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In a recent Journal of Finance article, Kan and Zhou (1999) find that the 'Stochastic discount factor' methodology using GMM is markedly inferior to traditional maximum likelihood even in a simple test of the static CAPM with i.i.d. normal returns. This result has gained wide attention. However, as Jagannathan and Wang (2001) point out, this result flows from a strange assumption: Kan and Zhou allow the ML estimate to know the mean market return exante. I show how this information advantage explains Kan and Zhou's results. In fact, when treated symmetrically, the discount factor  GMM and traditional methodologies behave almost identically in linear i.i.d. environments
14 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In a recent Journal of Finance article, Kan and Zhou (1999) find that the 'Stochastic discount factor' methodology using GMM is markedly inferior to traditional maximum likelihood even in a simple test of the static CAPM with i.i.d. normal returns. This result has gained wide attention. However, as Jagannathan and Wang (2001) point out, this result flows from a strange assumption: Kan and Zhou allow the ML estimate to know the mean market return exante. I show how this information advantage explains Kan and Zhou's results. In fact, when treated symmetrically, the discount factor  GMM and traditional methodologies behave almost identically in linear i.i.d. environments
Stocks as money : convenience yield and the techstock bubble by
John H Cochrane(
)
14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
What caused the rise and fall of tech stocks? I argue that a mechanism much like the transactions demand for money drove many stock prices above the 'fundamental value' they would have had in a frictionless market. I start with the Palm/3Com microcosm and then look at tech stocks in general. High prices are associated with high volume, high volatility, low supply of shares, wide dispersion of opinion, and restrictions on longterm short selling. I review competing theories, and only the convenience yield view makes all these connections
14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 116 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
What caused the rise and fall of tech stocks? I argue that a mechanism much like the transactions demand for money drove many stock prices above the 'fundamental value' they would have had in a frictionless market. I start with the Palm/3Com microcosm and then look at tech stocks in general. High prices are associated with high volume, high volatility, low supply of shares, wide dispersion of opinion, and restrictions on longterm short selling. I review competing theories, and only the convenience yield view makes all these connections
The Fed and interest rates : a highfrequency identification by
John H Cochrane(
)
14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 114 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We measure monetary policy shocks as changes in the Fed funds target rate that surprise bond markets in daily data. These shock series avoid the omitted variable, timevarying parameter, and orthogonalization problem of monthly VARs, and do not impose the expectations hypothesis. We find surprisingly large and persistent responses of bond yields to these shocks. 10 year rates rise as much as 8/10 of a percent to a one percent target shock. The usual view that monetary policy only temporarily raises long term rates and influences inflation would lead one to predict a negative long rate response
14 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 114 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
We measure monetary policy shocks as changes in the Fed funds target rate that surprise bond markets in daily data. These shock series avoid the omitted variable, timevarying parameter, and orthogonalization problem of monthly VARs, and do not impose the expectations hypothesis. We find surprisingly large and persistent responses of bond yields to these shocks. 10 year rates rise as much as 8/10 of a percent to a one percent target shock. The usual view that monetary policy only temporarily raises long term rates and influences inflation would lead one to predict a negative long rate response
Bond risk premia by
John H Cochrane(
)
12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 114 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper studies time variation in expected excess bond returns. We run regressions of annual excess returns on forward rates. We find that a single factor predicts 1year excess returns on 15 year maturity bonds with an R2 up to 43%. The single factor is a tentshaped linear function of forward rates. The return forecasting factor has a clear business cycle correlation: Expected returns are high in bad times, and low in good times, and the returnforecasting factor forecasts longrun output growth. The returnforecasting factor also forecasts stock returns, suggesting a common timevarying premium for real interest rate risk. The return forecasting factor is poorly related to level, slope, and curvature movements in bond yields. Therefore, it represents a source of yield curve movement not captured by most term structure models. Though the returnforecasting factor accounts for more than 99% of the timevariation in expected excess bond returns, we find additional, very small factors that forecast equally small differences between long term bond returns, and hence statistically reject a onefactor model for expected returns
12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 114 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This paper studies time variation in expected excess bond returns. We run regressions of annual excess returns on forward rates. We find that a single factor predicts 1year excess returns on 15 year maturity bonds with an R2 up to 43%. The single factor is a tentshaped linear function of forward rates. The return forecasting factor has a clear business cycle correlation: Expected returns are high in bad times, and low in good times, and the returnforecasting factor forecasts longrun output growth. The returnforecasting factor also forecasts stock returns, suggesting a common timevarying premium for real interest rate risk. The return forecasting factor is poorly related to level, slope, and curvature movements in bond yields. Therefore, it represents a source of yield curve movement not captured by most term structure models. Though the returnforecasting factor accounts for more than 99% of the timevariation in expected excess bond returns, we find additional, very small factors that forecast equally small differences between long term bond returns, and hence statistically reject a onefactor model for expected returns
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 National Bureau of Economic Research
 Taylor, John B. Author Editor
 Palermo, Kyle Editor
 Auclert, Adrien
 Bordo, Michael D. Author Editor
 Seru, Amit Author Editor
 Campbell, John Y. Author
 Piazzesi, Monika Author
 SantaClara, Pedro Author
 Moskowitz, Tobias J. (Tobias Jacob) 1971 Editor
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ArbitrageEconometric models Assets (Accounting)Econometric models Assets (Accounting)PricesEconometric models Banks and banking, Central Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) Budget Capital assets pricing model Capital investmentsEconometric models Capital market Consumption (Economics) Consumption (Economics)Mathematical models Debts, Public Debts, PublicEconometric models Demand for money Demand for moneyMathematical models Discretetime systems Econometric models Economics Efficient market theory Finance FinanceEconometric models Fiscal policy Inflation (Finance)Econometric models Interest rates Interest ratesForecastingEconometric models International economic relations International finance Investments Macroeconomics Management Monetary policy Monetary policyMathematical models Money supplyMathematical models Portfolio management PricesEconometric models Rate of return Rate of returnEconometric models Rate of returnForecastingEconometric models Rational expectations (Economic theory)Econometric models RiskEconometric models Securities SecuritiesPricesEconometric models Stock price forecasting Stock price forecastingEconometric models StocksPrices StocksPricesMathematical models StocksRate of return Time and economic reactions United States Venture capitalEconometric models
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Alternative Names
Cochrane, J. R. 1957
Cochrane, John
Cochrane, John H.
Cochrane, John H. (John Howland)
Cochrane, John Howland.
Cochrane, John Howland 1957
Howland Cochrane, John 1957
John H. Cochrane eacnamaí Meiriceánach
John H. Cochrane economista estadounidense
John H. Cochrane economista estatunidenc
John H. Cochrane economista estauxunidense
John H. Cochrane économiste américain
John H. Cochrane ekonomist amerikan
Джон Х. Кохрейн
جون إتش كوكرين عالم اقتصاد أمريكي
존 H. 코크레인
約翰·H·科克倫
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