WorldCat Identities

Ghani, Ejaz

Overview
Works: 88 works in 210 publications in 1 language and 3,633 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Author, Other, Editor, Honoree
Classifications: HC430.6, 338.954
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Ejaz Ghani
Promoting economic cooperation in South Asia : beyond SAFTA by Ejaz Ghani( )

9 editions published in 2010 in English and Undetermined and held by 1,243 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Promoting Economic Cooperation in South Asia: Beyond SAFTA examines the distinct development dichotomy that exists in South Asia and tries to find a workable solution to bridge this gap. In spite of rapid economic growth since 1980, there is extensive poverty and inequality in South Asia. This dichotomy has two faces: one is highly urbanized and well-linked to global markets, and the other is rural, isolated from the global economy, and growing very slowly. The large bulk of South Asia's poor live in the latter environment. The book brings together perspectives from academics, the private sect
The poor half billion in South Asia : what is holding back lagging regions?( Book )

8 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 185 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Reshaping tomorrow : is South Asia ready for the big leap? by Ejaz Ghani( Book )

7 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 156 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This volume, by distinguished economists and policymakers, presents a balanced outlook on growth in South Asia. The essays analyse the impact of demographics, globalisation, human mobility, and the rise of the middle class in accelerating growth in the face of transformational challenges
The service revolution in South Asia( Book )

6 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 122 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Contributed articles on service industries and their trade aspects in South Asia
Political Reservations and Women's Entrepreneurship in India by Ejaz Ghani( )

6 editions published between 2013 and 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 109 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We quantify the link between the timing of state-level implementations of political reservations for women in India with the role of women in India's manufacturing sector. While overall employment of women in manufacturing does not increase after the reforms, we find significant evidence that more women-owned establishments were created in the unorganized/informal sector. These new establishments were concentrated in industries where women entrepreneurs have been traditionally active and the entry was mainly found among household-based establishments. We measure and discuss the extent to which this heightened entrepreneurship is due to channels like greater finance access or heightened inspiration for women entrepreneurs
Productivity growth, capital accumulation, and the banking sector : some lessons from Malaysia by Ejaz Ghani( )

7 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 106 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

How did the East Asian miracle turn into one of the worst financial crises of the century? A case study of Malaysia provides some answers
Accelerating growth and job creation in South Asia by SAARC Business Conclave( Book )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 104 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Transcript of papers presented during the 2nd SAARC Business Conclave held in Mumbai, India, in 2007 organized by South Asia Region of the World Bank in collaboration with South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Trade policy reform, efficiency, and growth by Ejaz Ghani( )

4 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 103 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Is India's manufacturing sector moving away from cities? by Ejaz Ghani( )

8 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 93 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper investigates the urbanization of the Indian manufacturing sector by combining enterprise data from formal and informal sectors. We find that plants in the formal sector are moving away from urban and into rural locations, while the informal sector is moving from rural to urban locations. While the secular trend for India's manufacturing urbanization has slowed down, the localized importance of education and infrastructure have not. Our results suggest that districts with better education and infrastructure have experienced a faster pace of urbanization, although higher urban-rural cost ratios cause movement out of urban areas. This process is associated with improvements in the spatial allocation of plants across urban and rural locations. Spatial location of plants has implications for policy on investments in education, infrastructure, and the livability of cities. The high share of urbanization occurring in the informal sector suggests that urbanization policies that contain inclusionary approaches may be more successful in promoting local development and managing its strains than those focused only on the formal sector
Diasporas and outsourcing : evidence from oDesk and India by Ejaz Ghani( )

8 editions published between 2012 and 2013 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the role of the Indian diaspora in the outsourcing of work to India. The data are taken from oDesk, the world's largest online platform for outsourced contracts. Despite oDesk minimizing many of the frictions that diaspora connections have traditionally overcome, diaspora connections still matter on oDesk, with ethnic Indians substantially more likely to choose a worker in India. This higher placement is the result of a greater likelihood of choosing India for the initial contract, due in large part to taste-based preferences, and substantial path dependence in location choices. The paper further examines wage and performance outcomes of outsourcing as a function of ethnic connections
What Explains Big Gender Disparities in India? Local Industrial Structures and Female Entrepreneurship by Ejaz Ghani( )

5 editions published between 2012 and 2013 in English and Undetermined and held by 81 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite rapid economic growth, gender disparities in women's economic participation have remained deep and persistent in India. What explains these huge gender disparities? Is it poor infrastructure, limited education, and gender composition of the labor force and industries? Or is it deficiencies in social and business networks and a low share of incumbent female entrepreneurs?This paper analyzes the spatial determinants of female entrepreneurship in India in the manufacturing and services sectors. Good infrastructure and education predict higher female entry shares. There are strong agglomeration economies in both manufacturing and services, where higher female ownership among incumbent businesses within a district-industry predicts a greater share of subsequent entrepreneurs will be female. Moreover, higher female ownership of local businesses in related industries (similar labor needs, input-output markets) predicts greater relative female entry rates. Gender networks thus clearly matter for women's economic participation. However, there is a need to develop a better understanding of how gender networks influence aggregate efficiency. There is no doubt that gender empowerment can be the escalator to realizing human potential and for creating a robust platform for growth and job creation
Regional Diversity and Inclusive Growth in Indian Cities by Ejaz Ghani( )

3 editions published in 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 80 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the employment growth of Indian districts from 2000 to 2010 in the manufacturing and services sectors. Specialization and diversity metrics that combine industries in both sectors are calculated and related to subsequent job growth. The analysis finds robust and consistent evidence that the diversity of industries in the district across the two sectors links to subsequent job growth. Somewhat surprisingly, this link finds its strongest expression outside typical stories about the role of diversity. For example, the growth is strongest in rural areas of districts and in districts with low population density. Diversity correlates with disproportionately higher employment growth in the informal sector and plays a role in generating employment in the district's smaller industries. These findings point toward the "inclusive" nature of diversity-driven growth and highlight a potentially important agenda item for policy makers concerned with inclusive development
Spatial determinants of entrepreneurship in India by Ejaz Ghani( )

8 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze the spatial determinants of entrepreneurship in India in the manufacturing and services sectors. Among general district traits, quality of physical infrastructure and workforce education are the strongest predictors of entry, with labor laws and household banking quality also playing important roles. Looking at the district-industry level, we find extensive evidence of agglomeration economies among manufacturing industries. In particular, supportive incumbent industrial structures for input and output markets are strongly linked to higher establishment entry rates. We also find substantial evidence for the Chinitz effect where small local incumbent suppliers encourage entry. The importance of agglomeration economies for entry hold when considering changes in India's incumbent industry structures from 1989, determined before large-scale deregulation began, to 2005
Local industrial structures and female entrepreneurship in India by Ejaz Ghani( )

7 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze the spatial determinants of female entrepreneurship in India in the manufacturing and services sectors. We focus on the presence of incumbent female-owned businesses and their role in promoting higher subsequent female entrepreneurship relative to male entrepreneurship. We find evidence of agglomeration economies in both sectors, where higher female ownership among incumbent businesses within a district-industry predicts a greater share of subsequent entrepreneurs will be female. Moreover, higher female ownership of local businesses in related industries (e.g., those sharing similar labor needs, industries related via input-output markets) predict greater relative female entry rates even after controlling for the focal district-industry's conditions. The core patterns hold when using local industrial conditions in 1994 to instrument for incumbent conditions in 2000-2005. The results highlight that the traits of business owners in incumbent industrial structures influence the types of entrepreneurs supported
Highway to success : the impact of the Golden Quadrilateral project for the location and performance of Indian manufacturing by Ejaz Ghani( )

7 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate the impact of the Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) highway project on the Indian organized manufacturing sector using enterprise data. The GQ project upgraded the quality and width of 5,846 km of roads in India. We use a difference-in-difference estimation strategy to compare non-nodal districts based upon their distance from the highway system. We find several positive effects for non-nodal districts located 0-10 km from GQ that are not present in districts 10-50 km away, most notably higher entry rates and increases in plant productivity. These results are not present for districts located on another major highway system, the North-South East-West corridor (NS-EW). Improvements for portions of the NS-EW system were planned to occur at the same time as GQ but were subsequently delayed. Additional tests show that the GQ project's effect operates in part through a stronger sorting of land-intensive industries from nodal districts to non-nodal districts located on the GQ network. The GQ upgrades further helped spread economic activity to moderate-density districts and intermediate cities
The Exceptional Persistence of India's Unorganized Sector by Ejaz Ghani( )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The transformation of India's unorganized sector is important to its modernization, growth, and attainment of regional economic equality. This paper documents several key facts about India's unorganized sector in manufacturing and services. First, the unorganized sector is large, accounting for more than 99 percent of establishments and 80 percent of employment in manufacturing. Second, the unorganized sector is stubbornly persistent-it accounted for 81 percent of manufacturing employment in 1989 and 2005. Third, this persistence is not due to particular subsets of industries or states, as most industries and states show limited change in unorganized sector employment shares. Fourth, the degree to which localized unorganized activity exists is important as it is associated with weaker production functions for manufacturing firms. Building from these facts, the paper investigates conditions promoting transformation by state-industry. Decomposition exercises find that both within and between adjustments for state-industries weakly reduce unorganized sector shares. The aggregate persistence instead comes from the covariance term, where fast-growing state-industries witness rising unorganized sector activity. Regressions quantify that growth in the organized sector by state-industry reduces the unorganized sector employment share, but only marginally reduces employment levels in unorganized activity. Analysis of the establishment size distribution highlights that entrepreneurship and larger organized sector plants are most important for transitions in the manufacturing sector, while small establishments play a key role in the services sector
Making regional cooperation work for South Asia's poor by Sadiq Ahmed( )

2 editions published between 2008 and 2012 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"South Asia has attracted global attention because it has experienced rapid GDP growth over the last two decades. What is not so well known is that South Asia is the least integrated region in the world. South Asia has opened its door to the rest of the world but it remains closed to its neighbors. Poor market integration, weak connectivity, and a history of friction and conflict have resulted in two South Asias. The first South Asia is dynamic, growing rapidly, highly urbanized, and is benefiting from global integration. The second South Asia is rural, land locked, full of poverty, and lagging. The divergence between the two South Asias is on the rise. Policy makers in South Asia have realized that countries and regions can not grow in isolation. The unique geography of South Asia-distance and density--has the potential to raise growth through increased flow of labor, capital, ideas, technology, goods and services within the region and with the rest of the world. Most lagging regions, in terms of both per capita income and poverty incidence, in South Asia are either land-locked or located in the border areas. Regional cooperation and market integration will unlock the development of these lagging regions in South Asia."--World Bank web site
How Will Changes in Globalization Impact Growth in South Asia? by Ejaz Ghani( )

4 editions published between 2009 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The current global crisis may change globalization itself, as both developed and developing countries adjust to global imbalances that contributed to the crisis. Will these changes help or hinder economic recovery and growth in South Asia? This is the focus of this paper. The three models of globalization--trade, capital, and economic management--may not be the same in the future. Changes in globalization could change the composition of trade flows, capital flows, and economic management, which in turn, could accelerate or restrain growth. South Asia is somewhat peculiar and different from other regions in how it has globalized, although there is a lot of diversity within the region. Its trade characteristics are different. India's growth has been spearheaded by exports of modern services and less by goods exports. Modern service trade tends to be more resilient compared with goods trade. Globalization of services is still at an early stage. So, as consumers pull back in the United States, service trade is likely to be less impacted compared to goods trade. Trade also contributes to growth through knowledge spillovers, externalities, and learning. The global crisis has not reduced the stock of global knowledge. Changes in capital flows are also not likely to have a big impact on growth in South Asia, as South Asia's investments are largely driven by domestic savings. Its dependence on foreign capital is low. South Asia has attracted capital flows that are less volatile. Remittances, which are more resilient, have been the dominant form of capital inflows, exceeding foreign direct investment and other inflows.This global downturn calls for counter-cyclical economic management. But South Asia has limited room for fiscal stimulus, given high debt-to-gross domestic product ratios. Nevertheless, reduced commodity prices have created some fiscal space that can be used for growth enabling infrastructure and safety nets. As South Asia undergoes structural transformation, the region is well positioned to bounce back with global economic recovery
Spatial dynamics of electricity usage in India by Ejaz Ghani( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

India's manufacturing sector has undergone many spatial adjustments since 1989, including, for example, the organized sector's migration to rural locations, the powerful rise of informal manufacturing within cities, and the development of intermediate cities for manufacturing. This paper investigates the impact of these spatial adjustments for electricity usage in India's manufacturing sector. Striking spatial differences in energy usage exist, and whether spatial adjustments exacerbate or alleviate energy consumption strains is important for issues ranging from reducing India's power blackouts to stemming rising pollution levels. Using detailed surveys for the organized and unorganized sectors, the analysis finds that electricity usage per unit of output in urban plants declined steadily during 1989-2010. In the rural areas, by contrast, electricity consumption per unit of output for organized sector plants peaked in 2000 and thereafter declined. Decomposing the observed trends in aggregate electricity usage from 2000 onwards, the paper finds that most reductions in electricity usage per unit of output came from reductions in existing sites of activity (defined through state-industry-urban/rural cells). The second biggest factor leading to reduced usage was lower usage in fast-growing sectors. By contrast, spatial movements of manufacturing activity across India did not significantly change usage levels and may have even increased them. This appears to have been in part because of the split nature of the mobility, with organized and unorganized sectors migrating in opposite directions
Informal tradables and the employment growth of Indian manufacturing by Ejaz Ghani( )

2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 49 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

India's manufacturing growth from 1989 to 2010 displays two intriguing properties: 1) a substantial fraction of absolute and net employment growth is concentrated in informal tradable industries, and 2) much of this growth is connected to the development of one-person establishments. This paper investigates the causes and determinants of these growth patterns. The rapid urbanization of the informal sector plays the strongest role, while there is some evidence for subcontracting by the formal sector and a "push" entrepreneurship story. The paper also finds modest connections of this growth to rising female labor force participation. The connection between the presence of informal manufacturing and local productivity levels is strong, and varies across urban and rural areas in ways that bolster urbanization and subcontracting hypotheses
 
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Promoting economic cooperation in South Asia : beyond SAFTA
Covers
The poor half billion in South Asia : what is holding back lagging regions?The service revolution in South AsiaAccelerating growth and job creation in South Asia
Alternative Names
Ejaz Ghani

Languages
English (100)