WorldCat Identities

Skoufias, Emmanuel

Overview
Works: 116 works in 336 publications in 1 language and 3,996 library holdings
Roles: Author, Other, Editor, Honoree
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 339.46091724
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Emmanuel Skoufias
The poverty and welfare impacts of climate change : quantifying the effects, identifying the adaptation strategies( )

8 editions published in 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 603 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Over the past century, the world has seen a sustained decline in the proportion of people living in poverty, but climate change could challenge poverty reduction efforts. This book surveys the relevant research on how climate change may affect global poverty rates and presents country-specific studies with implications for low-income rural populations as well as governments' risk management programs. Unsurprisingly, the impacts of climate change are shown to be generally regressive-- falling more heavily on the poor than on the rich. However, most estimates have tended to ignore the effect of aggregate economic growth on poverty and household welfare. With continued growth, the evidence suggests that the poverty impact will be relatively modest and will not reverse the major decline in poverty expected over the next 40 years. Sector-specific studies-- focusing on how climate change may affect agricultural yields-- are generally poor predictors of national-level poverty impacts because of heterogeneity in the ability of households to adapt. That heterogeneity features prominently in studies of how weather shocks affect rural households in Indonesia and Mexico. Erratic deviations from long-term weather patterns affect growing cycles and thereby rural households' consumption (per capita expenditure) and health indicators. In Indonesia, the affected households appeared able to protect food expenditures at the expense of nonfood expenditures, and their access to credit and community public-works projects had the strongest moderating effects. In Mexico, weather shocks affected both food and nonfood consumption in ways that varied by both region and timing. The affected households' ability to smooth consumption depended on factors including proximity to bus stations. In some regions, weather shocks also had measurable stunting effects on the stature of children between 12 and 47 months of age, perhaps from changes in household income, increases in communicable diseases, or both. Overall, more region-specific analyses within more finely tuned climate categories will help researchers to better estimate the effects of climate change on poverty and the effectiveness of government-level strategies to address those effects. This book will be of interest to academics, and decision makers in government and nongovernmental organizations, seeking to design climate-smart poverty alleviation and safety net programs based on evidence
All hands on deck : reducing stunting through multisectoral efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

6 editions published in 2019 in English and Undetermined and held by 538 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In Sub-Saharan Africa, the scale of undernutrition is staggering. 58 million children under the age of five are too short for their age (stunted), and 14 million weigh too little for their height (wasted). Poor diets in terms of diversity, quality, and quantity, combined with illness and poor water and sanitation facilities, are linked with deficiencies of micronutrients - such as iodine, vitamin A, and iron - associated with growth, development, and immune function. In the short term, inequities in access to the determinants of nutrition increase the incidence of undernutrition and diarrheal disease. In the long term, the chronic undernutrition of children has important consequences for individuals and societies: a high risk of stunting, impaired cognitive development, lower school attendance rates, reduced human capital attainment, and a higher risk of chronic disease and health problems in adulthood. Inequities in access to services early in life contribute to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Recent World Bank estimates suggest that the income penalty a country incurs for not having eliminated stunting when today's workers were children is about 9-10 percent of gross domestic product per capita in Sub-Saharan Africa. Much of the effort to date has focused on the costing, financing, and impact of nutrition-specific interventions delivered mainly through the health sector to reach the global nutrition targets for stunting, anemia, and breastfeeding, and interventions for treating wasting. However, the determinants of undernutrition are multisectoral, and the solution to undernutrition requires multisectoral approaches. An acceleration of the progress to reduce stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa requires engaging additional sectors - such as agriculture; education; social protection; and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) - to improve nutrition. This book lays the ground work for more effective multisectoral action by analyzing and generating empirical evidence to inform the joint targeting of nutrition-sensitive interventions. Using information from 33 recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), measures are constructed to capture a child's access to food security, care practices, health care, and WASH, to identify gaps in access among different socioeconomic groups; and to relate access to the senutrition drivers to nutrition outcomes. All Hands on Deck: Reducing Stunting through Multisectoral Efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa addresses three main questions: - Do children have inadequate access to the underlying determinants of nutrition? - What is the association between stunting and inadequate food, care practices, health, and WASH access? - Can the sectors that have the greatest impact on stunting be identified? This book provides country authorities with a holistic picture of the gaps in access to the drivers of nutrition within countries to assist them in the formulation of a more informed, evidence-based, and balanced multisectoral strategy against undernutrition
Evaluating the impact of Mexico's quality schools program : the pitfalls of using nonexperimental data by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

11 editions published between 2006 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 163 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The authors evaluate whether increasing school resources and decentralizing management decisions at the school level improves learning in a developing country. Mexico's Quality Schools Program (PEC), following many other countries and U.S. states, offers US$15,000 grants for public schools to implement five-year improvement plans that the school's staff and community design. Using a three-year panel of 74,700 schools, the authors estimate the impact of the PEC on dropout, repetition, and failure using two common nonexperimental methods-regression analysis and propensity score matching. The methods provide similar but nonidentical results. The preferred estimator, difference-in-differences with matching, reveals that participation in the PEC decreases dropout by 0.24 percentage points, failure by 0.24 percentage points, and repetition by 0.31 percentage points-an economically small but statistically significant impact. The PEC lacks measurable impact on outcomes in indigenous schools. The results suggest that a combination of increased resources and local management can produce small improvements in school outcomes, though perhaps not in the most troubled school systems
The impacts of cash and in-kind transfers on consumption and labor supply : experimental evidence from rural Mexico by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

8 editions published between 2008 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: The authors use the unique experimental design of the Food Support Program (Programa Apoyo Alimentario) to analyze in-kind and cash transfers in the poor rural areas of southern states of Mexico. They compare the impacts of monthly in-kind and cash transfers of equivalent value (mean share 11.5 percent of pre-program consumption) on household welfare as measured by food and total consumption, adult labor supply, and poverty. The results show that approximately two years later the transfer has a large and positive impact on total and food consumption. There are no differences in the size of the effect of transfer in cash versus transfers in-kind on consumption. The transfer, irrespective of type, does not affect overall participation in labor market activities but induces beneficiary households to switch their labor allocation from agricultural to nonagricultural activities. The analysis finds that the program leads to a significant reduction in poverty. Overall, the findings suggest that the Food Support Program intervention is able to relax the binding liquidity constraints faced by poor agricultural households, and thus increases both equity and efficiency
The poverty impacts of climate change A review of the evidence by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

10 editions published between 2011 and 2017 in English and held by 98 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Climate change is believed to represent a serious challenge to poverty reduction efforts around the globe. This paper conducts an up-to-date review of three main strands of the literature analyzing the poverty impacts of climate change : (i) economy-wide growth models incorporating climate change impacts to work out consistent scenarios for how climate change might affect the path of poverty over the next decades; (ii) studies focusing on the poverty impacts of climate change in the agricultural sector; and (iii) studies exploring how past climate variability impacts poverty. The analysis finds that the majority of the estimates of the poverty impacts tend to ignore the effect of aggregate economic growth on poverty and household welfare. The empirical evidence available to date suggests that climate change will slow the pace of global poverty reduction, but the expected poverty impact will be relatively modest and far from reversing the major decline in poverty that is expected to occur over the next 40 years as a result of continued economic growth. The studies focusing on the sector-specific channels of impacts of climate change suggest that the estimated impacts of climate change on agricultural yields are generally a poor predictor of the poverty impacts of climate change at the national level due to heterogeneity in the ability of households to adapt. It also appears that the impacts of climate change are generally regressive, that is, they fall more heavily on the poor than the rich
Conditional cash transfers, adult work incentives, and poverty by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

9 editions published between 2006 and 2017 in English and Undetermined and held by 92 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs aim to alleviate poverty through monetary and in-kind benefits, as well as reduce future levels of poverty by encouraging investments in education, health, and nutrition. The success of CCT programs at reducing poverty depends on whether, and the extent to which, cash transfers affect adult work incentives. The authors examine whether the PROGRESA program of Mexico affects adult participation in the labor market and overall adult leisure time, and they link these effects to the impact of the program on poverty. Using the experimental design of PROGRESA's evaluation sample, the authors find that the program does not have any significant effect on adult labor force participation and leisure time. Their findings on adult work incentives are reinforced further by the result that PROGRESA leads to a substantial reduction in poverty. The poverty reduction effects are stronger for the poverty gap and severity of poverty measures
Electoral accountability, fiscal decentralization and service delivery in Indonesia by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

9 editions published between 2011 and 2017 in English and held by 89 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This paper takes advantage of the exogenous phasing of direct elections in districts and applies the double difference estimator to: (i) measure impacts on the pattern of public spending and revenue generation at the district level; and (ii) investigate the heterogeneity of the impacts on public spending. The authors confirm that the electoral reforms had positive effects on district expenditures and these effects were mainly due to the increases in expenditures in the districts outside Java and Bali and the changes in expenditures brought about by non-incumbents elected in the districts. Electoral reforms also led to higher revenue generation from own sources and to higher budget surplus. Finally, the analysis finds that in anticipation of the forthcoming direct elections, district governments tend to have higher current expenditures on public works
Shorter, cheaper, quicker, better : linking measures of household food security to nutritional outcomes in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Uganda, and Tanzania by Sailesh Tiwari( )

6 editions published between 2013 and 2017 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using nationally representative household survey data from five countries-three from South Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal) and two from Sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania and Uganda)-this paper conducts a systematic assessment of the correlation between various measures of household food security and nutritional outcomes of children. The analysis, following the universally accepted and applied definition of food security, is based on some of the most commonly used indicators of food security. The results show that the various measures of household food security do appear to carry significant signals about the nutritional status of children that reside within the household. This result holds even after the analysis controls for a wide array of other socio-economic characteristics of the households that are generally also thought to be associated with the quality of child nutrition. If using these food security indicators as proxy measures for the underlying nutritional status of children is of some interest, then the results show that simple, cost-effective, and easy-to-collect measures, such as the food consumption score or the dietary diversity score, may carry at least as much information as other measures, such as per capita expenditure or the starchy staple ratio, which require longer and costlier surveys with detailed food consumption modules. Across five different countries in South Asia and Africa, the results suggest that the food consumption score, in particular, performs extremely well in comparison with all other measures from the perspective of nutritional targeting as well as for monitoring nutritional outcomes
The impacts of climate variability on welfare in rural Mexico by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

6 editions published between 2011 and 2017 in English and held by 87 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the impacts of weather shocks, defined as rainfall or growing degree days more than a standard deviation from their respective long-run means, on household consumption per capita and child height-for-age. The results reveal that the current risk-coping mechanisms are not effective in protecting these two dimensions of welfare from erratic weather patterns. These findings imply that the change in the patterns of climatic variability associated with climate change is likely to reduce the effectiveness of the current coping mechanisms even more and thus increase household vulnerability further. The results reveal that weather shocks have substantial (negative as well as positive) effects on welfare that vary across regions (North vs. Center and South) and socio-economic characteristics (education and gender). The heterogeneous impacts of climatic variability suggest that a "tailored" approach to designing programs aimed at decreasing the sensitivity and increasing the capacity of rural households to adapt to climate change in Mexico is likely to be more effective
On the poverty and welfare impacts of climate change quantifying the effects, identifying the adaptation strategies by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

14 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 87 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Over the past century, the world has seen a sustained decline in the proportion of people living in poverty, but climate change could challenge poverty reduction efforts. On the Poverty and Welfare Impacts of Climate Change: Quantifying the Effects, Identifying the Adaptation Strategies surveys the relevant research on how climate change may affect global poverty rates and presents country-specific studies with implications for low-income rural populations as well as governments' risk management programs. An evidence review examines three main strands of the literature. Unsurprisingly, the impa
Can we rely on cash transfers to protect dietary diversity during food crises? : estimates from Indonesia by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

6 editions published between 2011 and 2017 in English and held by 87 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The 2008 "food price crisis" and more recent spikes in food prices have led to a greater focus on policies and programs to cushion their impact on poverty and malnutrition. Estimating the income elasticity of micro-nutrients and assessing how they change during such crises is an important part of the policy debate as it affects the effectiveness of cash transfer and nutritional supplementation programs. This paper assesses these issues using data from two cross-sectional household surveys in Indonesia carried out before and soon after the 1997/98 economic crisis, which led to a sharp increase in food prices. First, the authors examine how the income elasticity of the starchy staple ratio differs between the two survey rounds using non-parametric as well as regression methods. Second, they provide updated estimates of the income elasticity for important nutrients in Indonesia. The analysis finds that (i) summary measures such as the income elasticity of the starchy staple ratio may not change during crises but this masks important differences across specific nutrients; (ii) methods matter-the ordinary least squares estimates for the income elasticity of micro-nutrients are likely to be misleading due to measurement error bias; (iii) controlling for measurement error, the income elasticity of some key micro-nutrients, such as iron, calcium, and vitamin B1, is significantly higher in the crisis year compared with a normal year; and (iv) the income elasticity for certain micro-nutrients-vitamin C in this case-remains close to zero. These results suggest that cash transfer programs may be even more effective during crises to protect the consumption of many essential micro-nutrients compared with non-crisis periods but in order to ensure that all micro-nutrients are consumed, specific nutritional supplementation programs are also likely to be required
An evaluation of the performance of regression discontinuity design on PROGRESA by Hielke Buddelmeyer( )

9 editions published between 2003 and 2013 in English and held by 85 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rigorous methods in the evaluation of poverty alleviation programs"--World Bank web site
Too little too late Welfare impacts of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

8 editions published between 2011 and 2017 in English and held by 80 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: The authors use regression analysis to assess the potential welfare impact of rainfall shocks in rural Indonesia. In particular, they consider two shocks: (i) a delay in the onset of monsoon and (ii) a significant shortfall in the amount of rain in the 90 day post-onset period. Focusing on households with family farm businesses, the analysis finds that a delay in the monsoon onset does not have a significant impact on the welfare of rice farmers. However, rice farm households located in areas exposed to low rainfall following the monsoon are negatively affected. Rice farm households appear to be able to protect their food expenditure in the face of weather shocks at the expense of lower nonfood expenditures per capita. The authors use propensity score matching to identify community programs that might moderate the welfare impact of this type of shock. Access to credit and public works projects in communities were among the programs with the strongest moderating effects. This is an important consideration for the design and implementation of adaptation strategies
Monsoon Babies Rainfall Shocks and Child Nutrition in Nepal by Sailesh Tiwari( )

7 editions published between 2013 and 2017 in English and held by 78 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper exploits the timing of monsoon rainfall shocks and the seasonal nature of agriculture to isolate income effects on early childhood anthropometric outcomes in rural Nepal and to provide evidence on the persistence of these effects into later childhood
Sources of welfare disparities across and within regions of Brazil : evidence from the 2002-03 household budget survey by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

2 editions published between 2008 and 2009 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Brazil's inequalities in welfare and poverty across and within regions can be accounted for by differences in household attributes and returns to those attributes. This paper uses Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions at the mean as well as at different quantiles of welfare distributions on regionally representative household survey data (2002-03 Household Budget Survey). The analysis finds that household attributes account for most of the welfare differences between urban and rural areas within regions. However, comparing the lagging Northeast region with the leading Southeast region, differences in returns to attributes account for a large part of the welfare disparities, in particular in metropolitan areas, supporting the presence of agglomeration effects in booming areas."--World Bank web site
Rainfall variability, occupational choice, and welfare in rural Bangladesh by Sushenjit Bandyopadhyay( )

5 editions published between 2012 and 2017 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study investigates the choice of occupational focus versus diversification between household members in rural Bangladesh as an autonomous and proactive adaptation strategy against ex ante local rainfall variability risks. The analysis combines nationally representative household level survey data with historical climate variability information at the Upazila level. The authors note that flood prone Upazilas may face reduced risks from local rainfall variability as compared with non-flood prone Upazilas. They find that two members of the same household are less likely to be self-employed in agriculture if they live in an area with high local rainfall variability. However, the occupational diversification strategy comes at a cost to households in terms of consumption welfare. The paper considers the effects of three policy actions, providing access to credit, safety net, and market. Access to market appears to be more effective in reducing the likelihood of costly within-household occupational diversification as an ex ante climate risk-reducing strategy as compared with access to credit and safety net
Indigenous peoples in Latin America : economic opportunities and social networks by Harry Anthony Patrinos( )

6 editions published between 2007 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite significant changes in poverty overall in Latin America, the proportion of indigenous peoples living in poverty did not change much from the early 1990s to the present. While earlier work focused on human development, much less has been done on the distribution and returns to income-generating assets and the effect these have on income generation strategies. The authors show that low income and low assets are mutually reinforcing. For instance, low education levels translate into low income, resulting in poor health and reduced schooling for future generations. Social networks affect the economic opportunities of individuals through two important channels-information and norms. However, the analysis shows that the networks available to indigenous peoples do not facilitate employment in nontraditional sectors
Social Networks among Indigenous Peoples in Mexico by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

8 editions published between 2009 and 2016 in English and Undetermined and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which social networks among indigenous peoples have a significant effect on a variety of human capital investment and economic activities, such as school attendance and work among teenage boys and girls, and migration, welfare participation, employment status, occupation and sector of employment among adult males and females. The analysis uses data from the 10 percent population sample of the 2000 Population and Housing Census of Mexico and an empirical strategy that allows taking into account the role of municipality and language group fixed effects. The authors confirm empirically that social network effects play an important role in the economic decisions of indigenous people, especially in rural areas. The analysis also provides evidence that better access to basic services, such as water and electricity, increases the size and strength of network effects in rural areas
Synergies in Child Nutrition Interactions of Food Security, Health and Environment, and Child Care by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

5 editions published between 2016 and 2017 in English and Undetermined and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the extent to which the three key underlying determinants of nutrition-food security; adequate caregiving resources at the maternal, household, and community levels; and access to health services and a safe and hygienic environment-on their own and interactively are correlated with nutrition outcomes, such as height-for-age z-scores. Based on data from different years in eight countries in four regions where malnutrition is high, an indicator is constructed for each component of the three underlying drivers of nutrition. In spite of the limitations inherent in the available data, the analysis (i) reveals that progress toward improved access to adequate food security and adequate environment and health has been quite limited; and (ii) provides evidence of significant synergies among adequate food, child care, and environment and health
Cyclical Variations in Participation and Employment in Urban Brazil by Emmanuel Skoufias( )

2 editions published in 2016 in Undetermined and English and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Brazilian labor markets have performed very strongly for most of the last 15 years, with dramatic increases in the employment rate of unskilled workers and significant declines in the overall unemployment rate. However, the economic and political developments and fiscal crisis of the last sixteen months in Brazil have resulted in a substantial decline in the rate of economic activity, a dramatic slowdown in the rate of new job creation a devaluation of the domestic currency and increasing concerns about the sustainability of the gains in poverty reduction and inequality accomplished during the years of the commodity boom. The decline in economic activity has raised concerns again about increasing unemployment rates, and the extent to which these developments will have an adverse impact on specific age and gender groups. Efforts to maintain or increase the proportion of the population employed in the aggregate or within any specific demographic group must take into consideration how the unemployment rate and the labor force participation rate of the group vary with changes in the level of economic activity. The sensitivity of the proportion of the population employed to changes in the level of aggregate demand is a key parameter informing the design of an appropriate and effective labor market policy. Specifically, teenagers and young women between 20-34 years of age comprise only 25 percent of the adult population, but they account for more than 50 percent of the cyclical variation in employment. In contrast, adult men between 26 and 64 years of age, who comprise 32.6 per cent of the population in the US account for only 23.6 percent of the change in the cyclical variation in employment. Estimates of the sensitivity of the proportion of the population employed to changes in the level of aggregate demand based on data from recent years that reflect the prevailing structural relationships between labor demand and employment and labor supply, labor force participation and unemployment are more useful for predicting how labor force participation is likely to react to the downturn in economic activity since the end of the commodity boom and the onset of the economic crisis in Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to examine two inter-related questions about the behavior of the labor market in Brazil. The first question is about the direction and sensitivity of the labor force participation rate, and the employment rate to changes in the level of aggregate demand. The second question relates to the differences in the cyclical sensitivity of these key variables across age and gender groups. The next section of the paper discusses the recent macroeconomic context, and some of the limitations associated with using Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilios (PNAD) data to predict changes in the on the labor force participation rate of different age gender and skill groups during the crisis. Section 3 discusses the data and the model used
 
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The poverty and welfare impacts of climate change : quantifying the effects, identifying the adaptation strategies
Covers
All hands on deck : reducing stunting through multisectoral efforts in Sub-Saharan AfricaOn the poverty and welfare impacts of climate change quantifying the effects, identifying the adaptation strategies
Alternative Names
Emmanuel Skoufias economist (World Bank Group)

Emmanuel Skoufias econoom

Emmanuel Skoufias Wirtschaftswissenschaftler (World Bank Group)

Skoufias, E.

Languages
English (134)