WorldCat Identities

Rouse, Cecilia Elena

Works: 58 works in 349 publications in 1 language and 3,849 library holdings
Genres: Case studies 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Cecilia Elena Rouse
The price of independence : the economics of early adulthood by Sheldon Danziger( )

7 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 1,141 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

More and more young men and women today are taking longer and having more difficulty making a successful transition to adulthood. They are staying in school longer, having a harder time finding steady employment at jobs that provide health insurance, and are not marrying and having children until much later in life than their parents did. In this book, a roster of distinguished experts diagnose the extent and causes of these trends. From publisher description
Private school vouchers and student achievement : an evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program by Cecilia Elena Rouse( Book )

18 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 142 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1990, Wisconsin became the first state in the country to provide vouchers to low income students to attend non-sectarian private schools. In this paper, I use a variety of estimation strategies and samples to estimate the effect of the program on math and reading scores. First, since schools selected students randomly from among their applicants if the school was oversubscribed, I compare the academic achievement of students who were selected to those who were not selected. Second, I present instrumental variables estimates of the effectiveness of private schools (relative to public schools) using the initial selection as an instrumental variable for attendance at a private school. Finally, I used a fixed-effects strategy to compare students enrolled in the private schools to a sample of students from the Milwaukee public schools. I find that the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program appears to have had a positive effect on the math achievement of those who attended a private school; but had no benefits for reading scores. I have found the results to be fairly robust to data imputations and sample attrition, however these limitations should be kept in mind when interpreting the results
Wage effects of unions and industrial councils in South Africa by Kristin F Butcher( )

15 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and Undetermined and held by 128 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

January 2001 Do union workers earn higher wages than nonunion workers in South Africa? (Yes, but less so than previous estimates would suggest.) And do industrial council agreements extend these premia to nonunion workers? (On the surface, yes, but the effects are too small to be the primary reason for South Africa's vast unemployment.) In South Africa unions, which played a crucial role in the country's transition from apartheid, are coming under fire. Some argue that a high union wage premium and the industrial council system are important causes of inflexibility in South Africa's labor market. Butcher and Rouse analyze unions' direct effect on workers' wages (including the time-honored question about whether the union wage gap is real or reflects the fact that workers who are members of unions differ from those who are not) and ask whether there is evidence that industrial council agreements force affected employers to pay union wages for nonunion workers. They estimate that among Africans union members earn about 20 percent more than nonmembers, while among whites union workers earn 10 percent more than nonunion workers. They find that African nonunion workers who are covered by industrial council agreements receive a premium of 6 to 10 percent; the premium is positive but not statistically significant for whites. In addition, the union gap is smaller inside the industrial council system than outside the system for Africans, implying that the total union premium for union members covered by an industrial council agreement is similar to the union premium outside the industrial council system. Among Africans, the industrial council and union wage gaps are greatest among low-wage workers. To increase employment, policies in South Africa should focus on increasing competition among employers within sectors, rather than increasing compe-tition among workers by trying to reduce union power. This paper--a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to understand the impact of labor market policies and institutions on economic performance. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project "The Impact of Labor Market Policies and Institutions on Economic Performance" (RPO 680-96). The authors may be contacted at or
Intraschool variation in class size : patterns and implications by Michael Alan Boozer( Book )

22 editions published between 1995 and 2001 in English and held by 127 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Economists attempting to explain the widening of the black-white wage gap in the late 1970's by differences in school quality have been faced with the problem that recent data reveal virtually no gap in the quality of schools attended by blacks and whites using a variety of measures. In this paper, we reexamine racial differences in school quality by considering the effects of using the pupil-teacher ratio, rather than the school's average class size, in an education production function since the pupil-teacher ratio is a rough proxy, at best. We find that while the pupil-teacher ratio and average class size are correlated, the pupil-teacher ratio is systematically less than or equal to the average class size. Part of the difference is due to intraschool allocation of teachers to classes. While the pupil-teacher ratio shows no black-white differences in class size, measures of the school's average class size suggest blacks are in larger classes. Also, the two measures lead to differing estimates of the role of class size in an education production function. We also conclude that school level measures may obscure important within-school variation in class size due to the small class sizes for compensatory education and a kind of aggregation bias results. Not only are blacks in schools with larger average class sizes but they are also in larger classes within schools, conditional on class type. The intraschool class size patterns suggest that using within-school variation in education production functions is not a good solution to aggregation problems due to non-random assignment of students to different sized classes. But once the selection problem has been addressed, smaller classes at the 8th grade lead to larger test score gains from 8th to 10th grade and differences in class size can explain approximately 15% of the black-white gap in educational achievement
Orchestrating impartiality : the impact of "blind" auditions on female musicians by Claudia Dale Goldin( Book )

20 editions published between 1997 and 2001 in English and held by 122 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Discrimination against women has been alleged in hiring practices for many occupations, but it is extremely difficult to demonstrate sex-biased hiring. A change in the way symphony orchestras recruit musicians provides an unusual way to test for sex-biased hiring. To overcome possible biases in hiring, most orchestras revised their audition policies in the 1970s and 1980s. A major change involved the use of blind' auditions with a screen' to conceal the identity of the candidate from the jury. Female musicians in the top five symphony orchestras in the United States were less than 5% of all players in 1970 but are 25% today. We ask whether women were more likely to be advanced and/or hired with the use of blind' auditions. Using data from actual auditions in an individual fixed-effects framework, we find that the screen increases by 50% the probability a woman will be advanced out of certain preliminary rounds. The screen also enhances, by severalfold, the likelihood a female contestant will be the winner in the final round. Using data on orchestra personnel, the switch to blind' auditions can explain between 30% and 55% of the increase in the proportion female among new hires and between 25% and 46% of the increase in the percentage female in the orchestras since 1970
The underrepresentation of women in economics : a study of undergraduate economics students by Karen E Dynan( Book )

17 editions published between 1995 and 1998 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although women are underrepresented in the field of economics, many see little need for intervention, arguing that women are inherently less interested in economics, or are less willing or able to get the math skills skills needed to do well in the subject. At the same time, others support active efforts to increase the number of women in the field, citing other possible causes of their current underrepresentation. These people argue, for example, that women are deterred from entering the field because of a lack of female role models, or that women are discouraged by an unappealing classroom environment. This study assesses these hypotheses by examining factors that influence undergraduate students' decisions to become economics majors using a survey of students in the introductory economics course at Harvard University as well as data on an entire class of students from Harvard's registrar. We find that although women in the introductory economics course at Harvard tend to begin the course with a weaker math background than men, math background does not explain much of the gender difference in students' decisions about majoring in economics. The class environment and the presence or absence of role models also do not explain much of the gender gap. On the other hand, women do less well in economics relative to other courses than men do, and controlling for this difference in relative performance significantly diminishes the estimated gender gap. An economically large but statistically insignificant difference between sexes in the probability of majoring in economics remains, however, which may be due to differing tastes or information about the nature of economics
Income, schooling, and ability : evidence from a new sample of identical twins by Orley Ashenfelter( Book )

18 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 120 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We develop a model of optimal schooling investments and estimate it using new data on approximately 700 identical twins. We estimate an average return to schooling of 9 percent for identical twins, but estimated returns appear to be slightly higher for less able individuals. Simple cross-section estimates are marginally upward biased. These empirical results imply that more able individuals attain more schooling because they face lower marginal costs of schooling, not because of higher marginal benefits
Schooling, intelligence, and income in America : cracks in the bell curve by Orley Ashenfelter( Book )

14 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 112 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

One of the best documented relationships in economics is the link between education and income: higher educated people have higher incomes. Advocates argue that education provides skills, or human capital, that raises an individual's productivity. Critics argue that the documented relationship is not causal. Education does not generate higher incomes; instead, individuals with higher ability receive more education and more income. This essay reviews the evidence on the relationship between education and income. We focus on recent studies that have attempted to determine the causal effect of education on income by either comparing income and education differences within families or using exogenous determinants of schooling in what are sometimes called natural experiments.' In addition, we assess the potential for education to reduce income disparities by presenting evidence on the return to education for people of differing family backgrounds and measured ability. The results of all these studies are surprisingly consistent: they indicate that the return to schooling is not caused by an omitted correlation between ability and schooling. Moreover, we find no evidence that the return to schooling differs significantly by family background or by the measured ability of the student
Financial aid packages and college enrollment decisions : an econometric case study by David M Linsenmeier( Book )

14 editions published between 2001 and 2002 in English and held by 106 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: We study the effects of a change in financial aid policy introduced by a Northeastern university in 1998. Prior to that time, the university's financial aid packages for low-income students consisted of grants, loans, and campus jobs. After the change, the entire loan portion of the package for low-income students was replaced with grants. We find the program increased the likelihood of matriculation by low-income students by about 3 percentage points, although the effect is not statistically significant. The effect among low-income minority students was between 8 and 10 percentage points and statistically significant at the 10 percent level
New evidence on workplace education by Alan B Krueger( Book )

14 editions published in 1994 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the impact of a workplace education program that was administered by a community college at two companies. One of the companies we study is in the manufacturing sector and the other is in the service sector. The analysis relies on longitudinal administrative data and cross-sectional survey data. We examine a broad range of outcome variables, including workers' earnings, performance awards, job attendance, and subjective performance measures. Our main finding is that the program had a small, positive impact on earnings at the manufacturing company, but an insignificant impact at the service company. We also find that the training program had a positive association with the incidence of job bids, upgrades, performance awards, and job attendance. At the manufacturing company, occupational courses, such as blue print reading, had the largest impact
Estimating returns to schooling when schooling is misreported by Thomas J Kane( Book )

13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 104 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We propose a general method of moments technique to identify measurement error in self-reported and transcript-reported schooling using differences in wages, test scores, and other covariates to discern the relative verity of each measure. We also explore the implications of such reporting errors for both OLS and IV estimates of the returns to schooling. The results cast a new light on two common findings in the extensive literature on the returns to schooling: sheepskin effects' and the recent IV estimates, relying on natural experiments' to identify the payoff to schooling. First, respondents tend to self-report degree attainment much more accurately than they report educational attainment not corresponding with degree attainment. For instance, we estimate that more than 90 percent of those with associate's or bachelor's degrees accurately report degree attainment, while only slightly over half of those with 1 or 2 years of college credits accurately report their educational attainment. As a result, OLS estimates tend to understate returns per year of schooling and overstate degree effects. Second, because the measurement error in educational attainment is non-classical, IV estimates also tend to be biased, although the magnitude of the bias depends upon the nature of the measurement error in the region of educational attainment affected by the instrument
Putting computerized instruction to the test : a randomized evaluation of a "scientifically-based" reading program by Cecilia Elena Rouse( Book )

15 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 99 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although schools across the country are investing heavily in computers in the classroom, there is surprisingly little evidence that they actually improve student achievement. In this paper we present results from a randomized study of a well-defined use of computers in schools: a popular instructional computer program, known as Fast ForWord, which is designed to improve language and reading skills. We assess the impact of the program using four different measures of language and reading ability. Our estimates suggest that while use of the computer program may improve some aspects of students' language skills, it does not appear that these gains translate into a broader measure of language acquisition or into actual reading skills
Labor market returns to two- and four-year colleges : is a credit a credit and do degrees matter? by Thomas J Kane( Book )

15 editions published between 1993 and 1995 in English and held by 96 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In CPS data, the 20% of the civilian labor force with 1-3 years of college earn 15% more than high school graduates. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of1972 which includes postsecondary transcript data and the NLSY to study the distinct returns to 2-year and 4-year college attendance and degree completion. Controlling for background and measured ability, wage differentials for both 2-year and 4-year college credits are positive and similar. We find that the average 2-year and 4-year college student earned roughly 5% more than high school graduates for every year of credits completed. Second, average bachelor and associate degree recipients did not earn significantly more than those with similar numbers of college credits and no degree, suggesting that the credentialing effects of these degrees are small. We report similar results from the NLSY and the CPS. We also pursue two IV strategies to identify measurement error and selection bias. First, we use self-reported education as an instrument for transcript reported education. Second, we use public tuition and distance from the closest 2-year and 4-year colleges as instruments, which we take as orthogonal to schooling measurement error and other unobserved characteristics of college students. We find that in our data the two biases roughly cancel each other, suggesting that the results above are, if anything, understated
Do accountability and voucher threats improve low-performing schools? by David N Figlio( Book )

15 editions published between 2004 and 2008 in English and held by 95 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"In this paper we study the effects of the threat of school vouchers and school stigma in Florida on the performance of "low-performing" schools using student-level data from a subset of districts. Estimates of the change in school-level high-stakes test scores from the first year of the reform are consistent with the early results used by the state of Florida to claim large-scale improvements associated with the threat of voucher assignment. However, we also find that much of this estimated effect may be due to other factors. While we estimate a small relative improvement in reading scores on the high-stakes test for voucher-threatened/stigmatized schools, we estimate a much smaller relative improvement on a lower-stakes, nationally norm-referenced, test. Further, the relative gains in reading scores are explained largely by changing student characteristics. We find more evidence for a positive differential effect on math test scores on both the low- and highstakes tests, however, the results from the lower-stakes test appear primarily limited to students in the high-stakes grade. Finally, we find some evidence that the relative improvements following the introduction of the A Plan by low-performing schools were more due to the stigma of receiving the low grade rather than the threat of vouchers"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Using market valuation to assess public school spending by Lisa Barrow( Book )

12 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 83 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: In this paper we use a 'market-based' approach to examine whether increased school expenditures are valued by potential residents and whether the current level of public school provision is inefficient. We do so by employing an instrumental variables strategy to estimate the effect of state education aid on residential property values. We find evidence that, on net, additional state aid is valued by potential residents and that school districts do not appear to overspend on education. We also find that school districts may overspend in areas in which residents are poor or less educated, in large districts, and in districts with higher shares of rental property. One interpretation of these results is that increased competition has the potential to reduce overspending on public schools in some areas
Constrained after college : student loans and early career occupational choices by Jesse Rothstein( )

11 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 74 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the early 2000s, a highly selective university introduced a "no-loans" policy under which the loan component of financial aid awards was replaced with grants. We use this natural experiment to identify the causal effect of student debt on employment outcomes. In the standard life-cycle model, young people make optimal educational investment decisions if they are able to finance these investments by borrowing against future earnings; the presence of debt has only income effects on future decisions. We find that debt causes graduates to choose substantially higher-salary jobs and reduces the probability that students choose low-paid "public interest" jobs. We also find some evidence that debt affects students' academic decisions during college. Our estimates suggest that recent college graduates are not life-cycle agents. Two potential explanations are that young workers are credit constrained or that they are averse to holding debt. We find suggestive evidence that debt reduces students' donations to the institution in the years after they graduate and increases the likelihood that a graduate will default on a pledge made during her senior year; we argue this result is more likely consistent with credit constraints than with debt aversion
Technology's edge : the educational benefits of computer-aided instruction by Lisa Barrow( )

11 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 72 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We present results from a randomized study of a well-defined use of computers in schools: a popular instructional computer program for pre-algebra and algebra. We assess the program using a test designed to target pre-algebra and algebra skills. Students randomly assigned to computer-aided instruction score 0.17 of a standard deviation higher on pre-algebra/algebra tests than students randomly assigned to traditional instruction. We hypothesize that the effectiveness arises from increased individualized instruction as the effects appear larger for students in larger classes and in classes with high student absentee rates
Feeling the Florida heat? : how low-performing schools respond to voucher and accountability pressure by David N Figlio( )

12 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

While numerous recent authors have studied the effects of school accountability systems on student test performance and school "gaming" of accountability incentives, there has been little attention paid to substantive changes in instructional policies and practices resulting from school accountability. The lack of research is primarily due to the unavailability of appropriate data to carry out such an analysis. This paper brings to bear new evidence from a remarkable five-year survey conducted of a census of public schools in Florida, coupled with detailed administrative data on student performance. We show that schools facing accountability pressure changed their instructional practices in meaningful ways. In addition, we present medium-run evidence of the effects of school accountability on student test scores, and find that a significant portion of these test score gains can likely be attributed to the changes in school policies and practices that we uncover in our surveys
Financial incentives and educational investment the impact of performance-based scholarships on student time use by Lisa Barrow( )

6 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using survey data from a field experiment in the U.S., we test whether and how financial incentives change student behavior. We find that providing post-secondary scholarships with incentives to meet performance, enrollment, and/or attendance benchmarks induced students to devote more time to educational activities and to increase the quality of effort toward, and engagement with, their studies; students also allocated less time to other activities such as work and leisure. While the incentives did not generate impacts after eligibility had ended, they also did not decrease students' inherent interest or enjoyment in learning. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that students were motivated more by the incentives provided than simply the effect of giving additional money, and that students who were arguably less time-constrained were more responsive to the incentives as were those who were plausibly more myopic. Overall these results indicate that well-designed incentives can induce post-secondary students to increase investments in educational attainment
Can a Summer Make a Difference? the Impact of the American Economic Association Summer Program on Minority Student Outcomes by Charles M Becker( )

8 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 41 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the 1970s, the American Economic Association (AEA) was one of several professional associations to launch a summer program with the goal of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in its profession. In this paper we estimate the effectiveness of the AEA's program which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to rigorously study such a summer program. Using a comparison group consisting of those who applied to, but did not attend, the program and controlling for an array of background characteristics, we find that program participants were over 40 percentage points more likely to apply to and attend a PhD program in economics, 26 percentage points more likely to complete a PhD, and about 15 percentage points more likely to ever work in an economics-related academic job. Using our estimates, we calculate that the program may directly account for 17-21 percent of the PhDs awarded to minorities in economics over the past 20 years
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The price of independence : the economics of early adulthood
Alternative Names
Cecilia Rouse American economist

Cecilia Rouse Amerikaans econome

Cecilia Rouse amerikansk ekonom

Cecilia Rouse amerikansk økonom

Cecilia Rouse economista estadounidense

Cecilia Rouse économiste américaine

Cecilia Rouse US-amerikanische Ökonomin

Rouse, Cecilia

Rouse, Cecilia E.

Rouse, Cecilia E. (Cecilia Elena)

سيسيليا روس عالمة اقتصاد أمريكية

English (279)