WorldCat Identities

Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.

Works: 145 works in 685 publications in 2 languages and 2,637 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author, Opponent, Redactor, Honoree, dgs
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano
Global income divergence, trade and industrialization : the geography of growth take-offs by Richard E Baldwin( Book )

24 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 105 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper takes a step towards formalizing the theoretical interconnections among four post-Industrial Revolution phenomena - the industrialization and growth take-off of rich northern' nations, massive global income divergence, and rapid trade expansion. Specifically, we present a stages-of-growth model in which the four phenomena are jointly endogenous and all are triggered by a gradual fall in the cost of doing business internationally. In the first stage, while trade costs are high, industry is dispersed and growth is low. In the second stage, the north industrializes rapidly, growth takes off and the south diverges. In the third stage, high growth becomes self sustaining. The model shows under which conditions, in a fourth stage, the south can quickly industrialize and converge
Multiproduct multinationals and reciprocal FDI dumping by Richard E Baldwin( Book )

22 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 100 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The global pattern of foreign direct investment (FDI) is quite similar to the world trade pattern. In particular, intraindustry FDI between rich nations is almost as pervasive as intraindustry trade among rich nations. In the standard' MNC model (of Markusen, Venables, Brainard, and others), FDI is driven by a tradeoff between proximity and scale, so firms typically supply the foreign market via exports or via FDI. The close correlation of two-way trade and investment flows is therefore difficult to explain with the standard model. We propose a model of multiproduct MNCs where firms simultaneously engage in intraindustry FDI and intraindustry trade
Monopolistic competition, multiproduct firms and optimum product diversity by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

21 editions published between 1991 and 1999 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The economic value of cultural diversity : evidence from US cities by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

20 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

What are the economic consequences to U.S. natives of the growing diversity of American cities? Is their productivity or utility affected by cultural diversity as measured by diversity of countries of birth of U.S. residents? We document in this paper a very robust correlation: US-born citizens living in metropolitan areas where the share of foreign-born increased between 1970 and 1990, experienced a significant increase in their wage and in the rental price of their housing. Such finding is economically significant and survives omitted variable bias and endogeneity bias. As people and firms are mobile across cities in the long run we argue that, in equilibrium, these correlations are consistent only with a net positive effect of cultural diversity on productivity of natives
Integration, agglomeration and the political economics of factor mobility by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

20 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Outsiders in economic integration : the case of a transition economy by Stefano Manzocchi( Book )

18 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The labor market impact of immigration in western Germany in the 1990's by Francesco D'Amuri( Book )

22 editions published between 2008 and 2009 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We adopt a general equilibrium approach in order to measure the effects of recent immigration on the Western German labor market, looking at both wage and employment effects. Using the Regional File of the IAB Employment Subsample for the period 1987-2001, we find that the substantial immigration of the 1990's had no adverse effects on native wages and employment levels. It had instead adverse employment and wage effects on previous waves of immigrants. This stems from the fact that, after controlling for education and experience levels, native and migrant workers appear to be imperfect substitutes whereas new and old immigrants exhibit perfect substitutability. Our analysis suggests that if the German labor market were as 'flexible' as the UK labor market, it would be more efficient in dealing with the effects of immigration
The district goes global : export vs. FDI by Giorgio Basevi( Book )

18 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 57 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rethinking the gains from immigration : theory and evidence from the U.S. by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

15 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 56 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Recent influential empirical work has emphasized the negative impact immigrants have on the wages of U.S.-born workers, arguing that immigration harms less educated American workers in particular and all U.S.-born workers in general. Because U.S. and foreign born workers belong to different skill groups that are imperfectly substitutable, one needs to articulate a production function that aggregates different types of labor (and accounts for complementarity and substitution effects) in order to calculate the various effects of immigrant labor on U.S.-born labor. We introduce such a production function, making the crucial assumption that U.S. and foreign-born workers with similar education and experience levels may nevertheless be imperfectly substitutable, and allowing for endogenous capital accumulation. This function successfully accounts for the negative impact of the relative skill levels of immigrants on the relative wages of U.S. workers. However, contrary to the findings of previous literature, overall immigration generates a large positive effect on the average wages of U.S.-born workers. We show evidence of this positive effect by estimating the impact of immigration on both average wages and housing values across U.S. metropolitan areas (1970-2000). We also reproduce this positive effect by simulating the behavior of average wages and housing prices in an open city-economy, with optimizing U.S.-born agents who respond to an inflow of foreign-born workers of the size and composition comparable to the immigration of the 1990s"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Agglomeration in the global economy : a survey of the 'new economic geography' by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

13 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 45 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Openness to trade and industry cost dispersion : evidence from a panel of Italian firms by Massimo Del Gatto( Book )

13 editions published in 2007 in English and Italian and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Market size, trade, and productivity by Marc J Melitz( Book )

15 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We develop a monopolistically competitive model of trade with firm heterogeneity - in terms of productivity differences - and endogenous differences in the 'stoughness' of competition across markets - in terms of the number and average productivity of competing firms. We analyze how these features vary across markets of different size that are not perfectly integrated through trade; we then study the effects of different trade liberalization policies. In our model, market size and trade affect the toughness of competition, which then feeds back into the selection of heterogeneous producers and exporters in that market. Aggregate productivity and average markups thus respond to both the size of a market and the extent of its integration through trade (larger, more integrated markets exhibit higher productivity and lower markups). Our model remains highly tractable, even when extended to a general framework with multiple asymmetric countries integrated to different extents through asymmetric trade costs. We believe this provides a useful modeling framework that is particularly well suited to the analysis of trade and regional integration policy scenarios in an environment with heterogeneous firms and endogenous markups
Ad usum delphini : a primer in 'new economic geography' by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

10 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rethinking the effects of immigration on wages by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 31 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper asks the following important question: what was the effect of surging immigration on average and individual wages of U.S.-born workers during the period 1990-2004? Building on section VII of Borjas (2003) we emphasize the need for a general equilibrium approach to analyze this problem. The impact of immigrants on wages of US born workers can be evaluated only by accounting carefully for labor market and capital market interactions in production. Using such a general equilibrium approach we estimate that immigrants are imperfect substitutes for U.S.-born workers within the same education and experience group (because they choose different occupations and have different skills). Moreover, accounting for reasonable speed of adjustment of physical capital we show that most of the wage effects of immigration accrue to native workers already within a decade. These two facts, overlooked by the previous literature, imply a positive and significant effect of the 1990-2004 immigration on the average wage of U.S.-born workers overall, both in the short and in the long run. This positive average effect resulted from a positive effect on wages of all US-born workers with at least a high school degree and a small negative effect on wages of U.S. born workers with no high school degree
Immigration and national wages : clarifying the theory and the empirics by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

15 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper estimates the effects of immigration on wages of native workers at the national U.S. level. Following Borjas (2003) we focus on national labor markets for workers of different skills and we enrich his methodology and refine previous estimates. We emphasize that a production function framework is needed to combine workers of different skills in order to evaluate the competition as well as cross-skill complementary effects of immigrants on wages. We also emphasize the importance (and estimate the value) of the elasticity of substitution between workers with at most a high school degree and those without one. Since the two groups turn out to be close substitutes, this strongly dilutes the effects of competition between immigrants and workers with no degree. We then estimate the substitutability between natives and immigrants and we find a small but significant degree of imperfect substitution which further decreases the competitive effect of immigrants. Finally, we account for the short run and long run adjustment of capital in response to immigration. Using our estimates and Census data we find that immigration (1990-2006) had small negative effects in the short run on native workers with no high school degree ( -0.7%) and on average wages ( -0.4%) while it had small positive effects on native workers with no high school degree (+0.3%) and on average native wages (+0.6%) in the long run. These results are perfectly in line with the estimated aggregate elasticities in the labor literature since Katz and Murphy (1992). We also find a wage effect of new immigrants on previous immigrants in the order of negative 6%
Economic geography and public policy by Richard E Baldwin( Book )

5 editions published between 2003 and 2011 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Market size, competition, and the product mix of exporters by Thierry Mayer( Book )

17 editions published between 2010 and 2012 in English and held by 25 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We build a theoretical model of multi-product firms that highlights how market size and geography (the market sizes of and bilateral economic distances to trading partners) affect both a firm's exported product range and its exported product mix across market destinations (the distribution of sales across products for a given product range). We show how tougher competition in an export market induces a firm to skew its export sales towards its best performing products. We find very strong confirmation of this competitive effect for French exporters across export market destinations. Trade models based on exogenous markups cannot explain this strong significant link between destination market characteristics and the within-firm skewness of export sales (after controlling for bilateral trade costs). Theoretically, this within firm change in product mix driven by the trading environment has important repercussions on firm productivity and how it responds to changes in that trading environment
Immigration, offshoring and American jobs by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

16 editions published between 2010 and 2012 in English and held by 21 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

How many "American jobs" have U.S.-born workers lost due to immigration and offshoring? Or, alternatively, is it possible that immigration and offshoring, by promoting cost-savings and enhanced efficiency in firms, have spurred the creation of jobs for U.S. natives? We consider a multi-sector version of the Grossman and Rossi-Hansberg (2008) model with a continuum of tasks in each sector and we augment it to include immigrants with heterogeneous productivity in tasks. We use this model to jointly analyze the impact of a reduction in the costs of offshoring and of the costs of immigrating to the U.S. The model predicts that while cheaper offshoring reduces the share of natives among less skilled workers, cheaper immigration does not, but rather reduces the share of offshored jobs instead. Moreover, since both phenomena have a positive "cost-savings" effect they may leave unaffected, or even increase, total native employment of less skilled workers. Our model also predicts that offshoring will push natives toward jobs that are more intensive in communication-interactive skills and away from those that are manual and routine intensive. We test the predictions of the model on data for 58 U.S. manufacturing industries over the period 2000-2007 and find evidence in favor of a positive productivity effect such that immigration has a positive net effect on native employment while offshoring has no effect on it. We also find some evidence that offshoring has pushed natives toward more communication-intensive tasks while it has pushed immigrants away from them. -- Employment ; Production tasks ; Immigrants ; Offshoring
Immigration, trade and productivity in services : evidence from U.K. firms by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

11 editions published between 2015 and 2016 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper explores the impact of immigrants on the imports, exports and productivity of service-producing firms in the U.K. Immigrants may substitute for imported intermediate inputs (offshore production) and they may impact the productivity of the firm as well as its export behavior. The first effect can be understood as the re-assignment of offshore productive tasks to immigrant workers. The second can be seen as a productivity or cost cutting effect due to immigration, and the third as the effect of immigrants on specific bilateral trade costs. We test the predictions of our model using differences in immigrant inflows across U.K. labor markets, instrumented with an enclave-based instrument that distinguishes between aggregate and bilateral immigration, as well as immigrant diversity. We find that immigrants increase overall productivity in service-producing firms, revealing a cost cutting impact on these firms. Immigrants also reduce the extent of country-specific offshoring, consistent with a reallocation of tasks and, finally, they increase country-specific exports, implying an important role in reducing communication and trade costs for services
Firm heterogeneity, endogenous entry, and the business cycle by Gianmarco I. P Ottaviano( Book )

6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper investigates the role that the entry and exit of heterogeneous firms plays in shaping aggregate fluctuations in economic activity. In so doing, it develops a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which procyclical entry and countercyclical exit along a real business cycle lead to endogenous cyclical movements in average firm productivity. These movements stem from a composition effect due to the reallocation of market shares among firms with different levels of efficiency and affect the propagation of exogenous technological shocks. Numerical analysis suggests that existing models with representative firms may overstate the actual role of procyclical entry and exit in imperfectly competitive markets as a propagation mechanism of exogenous technology shocks. The reason is that procyclical entry and countercyclical exit disproportionately involve less efficiency firms whose impact on aggregate economic activity is hampered by their smaller size
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Audience level: 0.76 (from 0.08 for Economic g ... to 0.86 for Agglomerat ...)

Economic geography and public policy
Alternative Names
Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano economist (London School of Economics (LSE); Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR))

Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano Wirtschaftswissenschaftler (Tätig an der Bocconi University DEEB-KITeS (Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies))

Ottaviano, G.

Ottaviano, G. I. P.

Ottaviano, Giancarlo I. P.

Ottaviano , Gianmarco

Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P.

Ottaviano , Gianmarco Ireo Paolo

Ottaviono, Gianmarco I. P.

Otttaviano, Gianmarco I. P.

English (310)

Italian (1)