WorldCat Identities

Hecker, JayEtta Z.

Overview
Works: 122 works in 256 publications in 1 language and 15,264 library holdings
Genres: Rules 
Roles: Author, Editor
Classifications: HD9502.U52, 353.9882439
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by JayEtta Z Hecker
Homeland security : intergovernmental coordination and partnership will be critical to success by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

6 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This testimony focuses on the challenges facing the federal government in (1) establishing a leadership structure for homeland security, (2) defining the roles of different levels of government, (3) developing performance goals and measures, and (4) deploying appropriate tools to best achieve and sustain national goals
Airline competition : issues raised by consolidation proposals : statement of JayEtta Hecker, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues : testimony before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

6 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We appreciate the opportunity to testify on the potential implications of merger proposals recently announced by major airlines. In May 2000, United Airlines (United) proposed to acquire US Airways and divest part of those assets to create a new airline to be called DC Air. More recently, American Airlines (American) has proposed to purchase Trans World Airlines (TWA), along with certain assets from United. These proposals have raised questions about how such consolidation within the airline industry could affect competition in general and consumers in particular. Extensive research and the experience of millions of Americans underscore the benefits that have flowed to most consumers from the 1978 deregulation of the airline industry, including dramatic reductions in fares and expansion of service. These benefits are largely attributable to increased competition--by the entry of both new airlines into the industry and established airlines into new markets. At the same time, however, airline deregulation has not benefited everyone; some communities have suffered from relatively high airfares and a loss of service due in part to a lack of competition. GAO has been analyzing aviation competition issues since enactment of the Airline Deregulation Act. Our work over the last decade has focused on challenges to competition and industry performance, including various mergers, the Department of Transportation's (DOT) role, concentration in select airports, key airline operating and marketing practices, barriers to entry, small community service, and fares in dominated markets
Highway projects : extent of unobligated balances for demonstration projects by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Telecommunications : preliminary information on media ownership by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Various laws and regulations constrain the ownership of television and radio stations. Five restrictions on the ownership of television and radio stations follow: (1) National television ownership cap - A single entity can own any number of television stations nationwide as long as the stations collectively reach no more than 39 percent of national television households. (2) Local television ownership limit - A single entity can own two television stations in the same DMA if (1) the "Grade B" contours of the stations do not overlap or (2) at least one of the stations is not ranked among the top four stations in terms of audience share and at least eight independently owned and operating full-power commercial and noncommercial television stations would remain in the DMA. (3) Local radio ownership limit - A single entity can own up to 5 commercial radio stations, not more than 3 of which are in the same service (that is, AM or FM), in a market with 14 or fewer radio stations; up to 6 commercial radio stations, not more than 4 of which are in the same service, in a market with 15 to 29 radio stations; up to 7 commercial radio stations, not more than 4 of which are in the same service, in a market with 30 to 44 radio stations; and up to 8 commercial radio stations, not more than 5 of which are in the same service, in a market with 45 or more radio stations; except that an entity can not own, operate, or control more than 50 percent of the stations in a market. (4) Newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership ban - A single entity cannot have common ownership of a full-service television or radio station and a daily newspaper if the television station's "Grade A" contour or the radio station's principal community service area completely encompass the newspaper's city of publication. (5) Television-radio cross-ownership limit - A single entity can own up to 2 television stations (if permitted under the Local Television Multiple Ownership Cap) and up to 6 radio stations (if permitted under the Local Radio Multiple Ownership Cap) or 1 television station and 7 radio stations in a market with at least 20 independently owned media voices remaining post merger; up to 2 television stations and up to 4 radio stations in a market with at least 10 independently owned media voices remaining post merger; and 1 television station and 1 radio station regardless of the number of independently owned media voices. In the 1996 Act, the Congress required FCC to conduct a biennial review of its media ownership rules to determine "whether any such rules are necessary in the public interest as the result of competition" and to "repeal or modify any regulation it determines to be no longer in the public interest." The numbers of media outlets and owners of media outlets generally increase with the size of the market, although operating agreements may reduce the effective number of independent outlets. Markets with large populations have more television and radio stations and newspapers than less-populated markets. For example, in New York City, the nation's largest market, we identified 21 television stations and 73 radio stations. In contrast, we found 2 television stations and 16 radio stations in Harrisonburg, Virginia, the smallest market in our review. In more diverse markets, we also observed more radio and television stations and newspapers operating in languages other than English, which contributed to a greater number of outlets. While we focused on media outlets located in specific markets, residents, in some instances, may be able to receive television and radio signals from stations located in adjacent markets. Some companies participate in agreements to share content or agreements that allow one company to produce programming or sell advertising through two outlets, among other agreements. In our review, these agreements were prevalent in a variety of markets but not in the top three markets, suggesting that market size may influence the benefits that companies realize through such agreements. To some degree, these agreements may suggest that the number of independently owned media outlets in a market might not always be a good indicator of how many independently produced local news or other programs are available in a market. Ownership of broadcast outlets by minorities and women appears limited, but comprehensive data are lacking. FCC collects data on the gender, race, and ethnicity of radio and television station owners biennially through its Ownership Report for Commercial Broadcast Stations, or Form 323. However, we found that these data suffer from three weaknesses: (1) exemptions from filing for certain types of broadcast stations, such as noncommercial stations; (2) inadequate data quality procedures; and (3) problems with data storage and retrieval. While reliable government data on the ownership by minorities and women are lacking, available evidence from FCC and nongovernmental reports suggests that ownership of broadcast outlets by these groups is limited. For example, reports by Free Press, a nongovernmental organization, found that women and minorities own about 5 percent and 3 percent of full-power televisions stations, respectively, and about 6 percent and 8 percent of full-power radio stations, respectively
Freight railroads : highlights of GAO report on freight rail industry performance, competition, and capacity by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Presentation to the Surface Transportation Board
Freight railroads : updated information on rates and other industry trends by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Over 25 years ago, Congress transformed federal freight rail transportation policy. At that time, after almost 100 years of economic regulation, the railroad industry was in serious economic decline, with rising costs, losses, and bankruptcies. In response, Congress passed the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 and the Staggers Rail Act of 1980. Together, these pieces of legislation substantially deregulated the railroad industry. In particular, the 1980 act encouraged greater reliance on competition to set rates and gave railroads increased freedom to price their services according to market conditions, including the freedom to use differential pricing--that is, to recover a greater proportion of their costs from rates charged to those shippers with a greater dependency on rail transportation. At the same time, the 1980 act anticipated that some shippers--commonly referred to as "captive shippers"--Might not have competitive alternatives and gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), and later the Surface Transportation Board (STB), the authority to establish a process through which shippers could obtain relief from unreasonably high rates. This process establishes a threshold for rate relief, allowing a rate to be challenged if it produces revenue equal to or greater than 180 percent of the variable cost of transporting a shipment. Since the passage of the Staggers Rail Act of 1980, we have issued several reports on the freight railroad industry. On October 6, 2006, we issued our most recent report, in which we reported that industry rates and the rates for many commodities (e.g., coal and motor vehicles) had generally declined from 1985 through 2004. We also reported that freight railroad companies do not consistently report revenues raised from fuel surcharges. Some railroads report fuel surcharges as part of their general revenues, others categorize the surcharges separately as "miscellaneous revenue," and still others may not report revenue collected from fuel surcharges at all. This inconsistent reporting led us to recommend that STB review its method of data collection to ensure that all freight railroads are consistently and accurately reporting all revenues collected from shippers. Congress asked us to update our October report using 2005 data, which became available after we issued our report. This report provides that update, including changes in industry and commodity rates, other costs to shippers (such as railcar ownership and miscellaneous revenue), and data on traffic traveling at rates equal to or greater than 180 percent revenue to variable cost (R/VC). In 2005, industry rail rates increased 7 percent over their 2004 levels, the largest annual increase over the past 20 years, outpacing the rate of inflation for only the second time in 20 years. Rates also increased for the commodities we reviewed--including such commodities as coal and grain. Freight railroad companies continued a 20-year trend of shifting other costs to shippers, including railcar ownership. Revenues railroads reported as miscellaneous revenue--a category that includes fuel surcharges--nearly tripled from $633 million in 2004 to $1.7 billion in 2005. While it remains difficult to precisely determine how many shippers are captive to a single Class I railroad because available proxy measures can overstate or understate captivity, 2005 data indicate that potentially captive traffic continued to drop. At the same time, traffic traveling at rates significantly above the threshold for rate relief increased in 2005. In 2005, industry rail rates rose 7 percent over their 2004 levels. This represents the largest annual increase in rates during the 20-year period from 1985 through 2005, and outpaced changes to inflation--5 percent in 2005. Despite this increase, rates for 2005 remain below their 1985 levels. While rate increases in 2005 outpaced inflation for just the second time since 1985, over the long term, rate increases have lagged behind inflation rates. Similar to overall industry trends, rates for individual commodities have increased. In 2005, rates increased for all 13 commodities that we reviewed. Despite this increase, 2005 rates for several commodities remain lower than in 1985. In 2005, the largest rate increase exceeded 12 percent, while the smallest increase was about 2 percent. In 2005, freight railroad companies continued a 20-year trend of shifting other costs to shippers. With the addition of the 2005 data, our analysis shows a 20 percent shift in railcar ownership since 1987. In 1987, railcars owned by freight railroad companies moved 60 percent of tons carried. In 2005, they moved 40 percent of tons carried, meaning that freight railroad company railcars no longer carry the majority of tonnage. In 2005, the amount of industry revenue reported as miscellaneous nearly tripled over 2004 levels, rising from about $633 million to over $1.7 billion. STB has proposed to more closely track and otherwise monitor revenues associated with fuel surcharges, but it is too soon to tell whether STB's proposal will affect the reporting and tracking of miscellaneous revenue in the Carload Waybill Sample. It remains difficult to determine precisely how many shippers are captive to one railroad because the proxy measures that provide the best indication can overstate or understate captivity. While traffic traveling at rates over 180 percent R/VC declined in 2005, traffic traveling at rates substantially over the threshold for rate relief increased. In 2005, traffic traveling at rates over 300 percent R/VC increased. This increase followed declines in 2003 and 2004 but continued a general upward trend since 1985. Data for 2005 confirm the trends and findings we reported and support the recommendations we made in October 2006
Summary analysis of federal commercial aviation taxes and fees by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Surface transportation programs : proposals highlight key issues and challenges in restructuring the programs by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Telecommunications : preliminary information on the Federal Communications Commission's spectrum allocation and assignment process by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Highway projects : extent of unobligated balances for demonstration projects as of April 30, 2004 by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Issues relating to foreign investment and control of U.S. airlines by JayEtta Z Hecker( Book )

2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Active commuter rail agency service contracts by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Trends in federal and state capital investment in highways by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Highway projects : extent of unobligated balances for demonstration projects as of March 31, 2002 by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Options to enhance the long-term viability of the Essential Air Service program by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Intercity passenger rail : highlights of GAO report on need for national policy and strategies to maximize public benefits from federal expenditures by JayEtta Z Hecker( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

 
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Languages
English (46)