WorldCat Identities

Parry, Ian W. H. (Ian William Holmes) 1965-

Works: 133 works in 313 publications in 1 language and 5,795 library holdings
Roles: Author, Editor, Other, Honoree
Classifications: HJ5321, 363.7387460973
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Ian W. H Parry
Fiscal policy to mitigate climate change : a guide for policymakers by Ruud A. de Mooij( )

15 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 1,301 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Efforts to control atmospheric accumulations of greenhouse gases that threaten to heat up the planet are in their infancy. Although the IMF is not an environmental organization, environmental issues matter for the organization's mission when they have major implications for macroeconomic performance and fiscal policy. Climate change clearly passes both these tests. This volume provides practical guidelines for the design of fiscal policies (carbon taxes and emissions trading systems with allowance auctions) to reduce greenhouse gases. Not only are these instruments potentially the most effective at exploiting emission reduction opportunities in the near and longer term, but they can also generate for many countries a valuable new source of government revenue. The chapters, written by leading experts, explain the case for fiscal policies over other approaches; how these policies can be implemented; reasonable levels for emissions prices; policies for the forest sector; appropriate policy for developing countries; the most promising fiscal instruments for climate finance; and lessons to be drawn from prior policy experience. This is essential reading for policymakers in finance and environment ministries in developed and developing countries alike, and others grappling with balancing environmental and development concerns
Getting energy prices right : from principle to practice by Ian W. H Parry( )

11 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 868 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Energy taxes can produce substantial environmental and revenue benefits and are an important component of countriesà‚?? fiscal systems. Although the principle that these taxes should reflect global warming, air pollution, road congestion, and other adverse environmental impacts of energy use is well established, there has been little previous work providing guidance on how countries can put this principle into practice. This book develops a practical methodology, and associated tools, to show how the major environmental damages from energy can be quantified for different countries and used to d
Environmental Tax Reform: Principles from Theory and Practice to Date by Dirk Heine( )

6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 597 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper recommends a system of upstream taxes on fossil fuels, combined with refunds for downstream emissions capture, to reduce carbon and local pollution emissions. Motor fuel taxes should also account for congestion and other externalities associated with vehicle use, at least until mileage-based taxes are widely introduced. An examination of existing energy/environmental tax systems in Germany, Sweden, Turkey, and Vietnam suggests that there is substantial scope for policy reform. This includes harmonizing taxes for pollution content across different fuels and end-users, better aligning tax rates with values for externalities, and scaling back taxes on vehicle ownership and electricity use that are redundant (on environmental grounds) in the presence of more targeted taxes
Reforming Energy Policy in India by Ian W. H Parry( )

4 editions published in 2017 in English and Undetermined and held by 527 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Spreadsheet models are used to assess the environmental, fiscal, economic, and incidence effects of a wide range of options for reducing fossil fuel use in India. Among the most effective options is ramping up the existing coal tax. Annually increasing the tax by INR 150 (
Issues of the day : 100 commentaries on climate, energy, the environment, transportation, and public health policy by Ian W. H Parry( )

8 editions published between 2010 and 2012 in English and held by 500 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Some of the topics covered include air pollution, hazardous waste, voluntary environmental programs, domestic (U.S.) and global climate policy design, fishery management, water quality, endangered species, forest fires, oil security, solar power, road and airport, fuel taxes and fuel economy standards, alternative fuel vehicles, health and longevity, smoking, malaria, tuberculosis, and the environment and development. The objective is to disseminate the findings of sound, objective research on the costs, benefits, and appropriate reform of public policies."--Publisher
Environmental Tax Reform by Ian W. H Parry( )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 351 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper recommends a system of upstream taxes on fossil fuels, combined with refunds for downstream emissions capture, to reduce carbon and local pollution emissions. Motor fuel taxes should also account for congestion and other externalities associated with vehicle use, at least until mileage-based taxes are widely introduced. An examination of existing energy/environmental tax systems in Germany, Sweden, Turkey, and Vietnam suggests that there is substantial scope for policy reform. This includes harmonizing taxes for pollution content across different fuels and end-users, better aligning
Implementing a US carbon tax : challenges and debates by Ian W. H Parry( Book )

11 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 241 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although the future extent and effects of global climate change remain uncertain, the expected damages are not zero, and risks of serious environmental and macroeconomic consequences rise with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Despite the uncertainties, reducing emissions now makes sense, and a carbon tax is the simplest, most effective, and least costly way to do this. At the same time, a carbon tax would provide substantial new revenues which may be badly needed, given historically high debt-to-GDP levels, pressures on social security and medical budgets, and calls to reform taxes on personal and corporate income. This book is about the practicalities of introducing a carbon tax, set against the broader fiscal context. It consists of thirteen chapters, written by leading experts, covering the full range of issues policymakers would need to understand, such as the revenue potential of a carbon tax, how the tax can be administered, the advantages of carbon taxes over other mitigation instruments and the environmental and macroeconomic impacts of the tax. A carbon tax can work in the United States. This volume shows how, by laying out sound design principles, opportunities for broader policy reforms, and feasible solutions to specific implementation challenges.--
Revenue-raising vs. other approaches to environmental protection : the critical significance of pre-existing tax distortions by Lawrence H Goulder( Book )

14 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This paper examines the choice between revenue-raising and non-revenue-raising instruments for environmental protection in a second-best setting with pre- existing factor taxes. We find that interactions with pre-existing taxes influence the costs of regulation and seriously militate against pollution abatement policies that do not raise revenue. If the marginal environmental benefits from pollution reductions are below a certain threshold value, any amount of pollution abatement through non-revenue-raising (NRR) policies like emissions quotas is efficiency-reducing. Under conditions approximating S02 emissions from electric power plants in the U.S., efficiency gains vanish if marginal environmental benefits are below $109 per ton and an NRR policy is employed. These results are largely independent of the size of the regulated sector relative to the overall economy and stem from two underlying effects. The tax-interaction effect is the adverse impact in factor markets arising from reductions in after-tax returns to factors associated with the higher production costs caused by environmental regulation. This effect leads to significantly higher efficiency costs than what would apply in a first-best world with no pre-existing taxes. Revenue-raising regulations (taxes) enjoy a revenue-recycling effect that offsets much of the tax-interaction effect, but non-revenue-raising regulations (quotas) enjoy no such offset. For any target level of emissions reduction, the gross efficiency costs of quotas are higher than those of revenue-raising policies. To the extent that government regulations of international trade or agricultural production raise the costs of output and thus reduce real factor returns, they generate much higher social costs than indicated by partial equilibrium analyses"--NBER website
Tax deductions, environmental policy, and the "double dividend" hypothesis by Ian W. H Parry( )

10 editions published in 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

May 1999 Recent studies find that environmental tax swaps typically exacerbate the costs of the tax system and therefore do not produce a double dividend. This paper extends previous models by incorporating tax-favored consumption goods. In this setting, the efficiency gains from recycling environmental tax revenues are larger because preexisting taxes distort the consumption bundle, in addition to factor markets. A genuine double dividend is then found. Parry and Bento find that incorporating tax-favored consumption in models of environmental tax swaps may overturn key results from earlier studies. In particular, a revenue-neutral pollution tax (or auctioned permits) can produce a substantial double dividend by reducing both pollution and the costs of the tax system. The second dividend arises because the welfare gain from using environmental tax revenues to cut labor taxes is much larger when labor taxes also distort the choice among consumption goods. Indeed (ignoring environmental benefits), the overall costs of a revenue-neutral pollution tax are negative in the benchmark simulations, at least for pollution reductions up to 17 percent, and possibly up to 42 percent. In addition, Parry and Bento show that the presence of tax-favored consumption may drastically increase the efficiency gain from using (revenue-neutral) emissions taxes (or auctioned emissions permits) rather than grandfathered emissions permits. This paper-a product of Infrastructure and Environment, Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study regulatory policies in a second-best setting. The authors may be contacted at or
Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing by Ian W. H Parry( )

12 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 113 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

St-Effectiveness of Alternative Transport Policies (RPO 683-39). Copies of this paper are available free. Please contact Roula Yazigi, email address The authors may be contacted at or
When can carbon abatement policies increase welfare? : the fundamental role of distorted factor markets by Ian W. H Parry( Book )

12 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 110 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to assess the efficiency impacts of two policies to reduce U.S. carbon emissions -- a carbon tax and a carbon quota -- taking into account the inter- actions between these policies and pre-existing tax distortions in factor markets. We show that tax interactions significantly raise the costs of both policies relative to what they would be in a first-best setting. In addition, we show that these interactions put the carbon quota at a signficant efficiency disadvantage relative to the carbon tax: the costs of reducing emissions by 10 % are more than three times higher under the carbon quota than than under the carbon tax. This disadvantage reflects the inability of the quota policy to generate revenue that can be used to reduce pre-existing dis- tortionary taxes. Indeed, second-best considerations severely limit the potential of a carbon quota to general overall efficiency gains. Under our central estimates, a non-auctioned carbon quota (or set of grandfathered carbon emissions permits) cannot increase efficiency unless the marginal benefits from avoided future climate change are at least $25 per ton of carbon abatement. Most estimates of these marginal environmental benefits are well below $25 per ton. Thus, our analysis suggests that any carbon abatement by way of a non-auctioned quota will be efficiency-reducing. In contrast, a revenue-neutral carbon tax is found to be efficiency-improving so long as marginal environmental benefits are positive
How much carbon pricing is in countries' own interests? : the critical role of co-benefits by Ian W. H Parry( )

11 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 84 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper calculates, for the top twenty emitting countries, how much pricing of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is in their own national interests due to domestic co-benefits (leaving aside the global climate benefits). On average, nationally efficient prices are substantial, $57.5 per ton of CO2 (for year 2010), reflecting primarily health co-benefits from reduced air pollution at coal plants and, in some cases, reductions in automobile externalities (net of fuel taxes/subsidies). Pricing co-benefits reduces CO2 emissions from the top twenty emitters by 13.5 percent (a 10.8 percent reduction in global emissions). However, co-benefits vary dramatically across countries (e.g., with population exposure to pollution) and differentiated pricing of CO2 emissions therefore yields higher net benefits (by 23 percent) than uniform pricing. Importantly, the efficiency case for pricing carbon's co-benefits hinges critically on (i) weak prospects for internalizing other externalities through other pricing instruments and (ii) productive use of carbon pricing revenues.--Abstract
The incidence of pollution control policies by Ian W. H Parry( Book )

11 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper reviews theoretical and empirical literature on the household distribution of the costs and benefits of pollution control policies, and ways of integrating distributional issues into environmental cost/benefit analysis. Most studies find that policy costs fall disproportionately on poorer groups, though this is less pronounced when lifetime income is used, and policies affect prices of inputs used pervasively across the economy. The policy instrument itself is also critical; freely allocated emission permits may hurt the poor the most, as they transfer income to shareholders via scarcity rents created by higher prices, while emissions taxes offer opportunities for progressive revenue recycling. And although low-income households appear to bear a disproportionate share of environmental risks, policies that reduce risks are not always progressive, for example, they may alter property values in ways that benefit the wealthy. The review concludes by noting a number of areas where future research is badly needed
Energy tax and regulatory policy in Europe : reform priorities( Book )

6 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Concise introductions to the main issues in energy policy and their interaction with environmental policies in the EU. The European Union (EU) faces critical challenges in energy policy making, the most pressing of which are how to achieve the deep greenhouse gas reductions promised at the December 2015 UN Conference of the Parties in Paris, and how this effort can be coordinated with already existing policies. Energy policy is primarily a member state responsibility, and policy makers need an overarching view of the main issues in energy policy and their interaction with environmental policies. This volume aims to fill this need, offering concise introductions to some of the major issues as well as practical suggestions for policy making. The contributors discuss reforms to the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), the world's largest carbon market; ways to improve the operation and integration of the EU's power grids, in terms of both supply and demand; changes to the EU's Energy Tax Directive, which sets tax floors for fuels outside the ETS; the coordination of climate policies with policies to promote renewables and energy efficiency; research into clean technology; challenges to shale gas development; and transportation policy and the need for action on such externalities as traffic congestion. Finally, contributors consider obstacles to reform, including its potential effects on vulnerable households and energy-intensive industries. ContributorsMikael Skou Andersen, Niels Anger, Bruno De Borger, Antoine Dechezlepretre, Jos Delbeke, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christian Flachsland, Beatriz Gaitan, Polona Gregorin, Cameron Hepburn, Alan Krupnick, Andreas Loschel, Claudio Marcantonini, Felix Christian Matthes, Paul Nahmmacher, Ian Parry, Karen Pittel, David Popp, Stef Proost, Christina Roolfs, Bert Saveyn, Oliver Schenker, Stephen Smith, Alexander Teytelboym, Kurt Van Dender, Herman Vollebergh, Nils-Henrik M. von der Fehr, Zhongmin Wang, Georg Zachmann
What are the costs of meeting distributional objectives for climate policy? by Ian W. H Parry( )

7 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper develops an analytical model to quantify the costs and distributional effects of various fiscal options for allocating the (large) rents created under prospective cap-and-trade programs to reduce domestic, energy-related CO2 emissions. The trade-off between cost effectiveness and distribution is striking. The welfare costs of different policies, accounting for linkages with the broader fiscal system, range from negative $6 billion/year to $53 billion/year in 2020, or between minus $12 to almost $100 per ton of CO2 reductions! The least costly policy involves auctioning all allowances with revenues used to cut proportional income taxes, while the most costly policies involve recycling revenues in lump-sum dividends or grandfathering emissions allowances. The least costly policy is regressive, however, while the dividend policy is progressive, and grandfathering permits is both costly and regressive. A distribution-neutral policy entails costs of $18 to $42 per ton of CO2 reductions
Pricing externalities from passenger transportation in Mexico City by Ian W. H Parry( )

6 editions published between 2009 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been suffering severely from transportation externalities such as accidents, air pollution, and traffic congestion. This study examines pricing instruments to reduce these externalities using an analytical and numerical model. The study shows that the optimal levels of a gasoline tax and a congestion toll on automobiles could generate social benefits, measured in terms of welfare gain, of US$132 and US$109 per capita, respectively, through the reduction of externalities. The largest component of the welfare gains comes from reduced congestion, followed by local air pollution reduction. The optimal toll and tax would, however, double the cost of driving and could be politically sensitive. Still, more than half of those welfare gains could be obtained through a more modest tax or toll, equivalent to $1 per gallon of gasoline. The welfare gains from reforming the pricing of public transportation are small relative to those from reforming the taxation of automobiles. Although the choice among travel modes depends on specific circumstances, in the absence of road travel pricing that accounts for externalities, there will be potential for higher investment in roads relative to mass transit. Given the rapidly increasing demand for transportation infrastructure in Mexico City, careful efforts should be made to include the full social costs of travel in evaluating alternative infrastructure investments
Demand Side Instruments to Reduce Road Transportation Externalities in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area by Ian W. H Parry( )

6 editions published between 2012 and 2014 in English and Undetermined and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Economically efficient prices for the passenger transportation system in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area would account for broader societal costs of traffic congestion and accidents, and local and global pollution. A
International Fuel Tax Assessment: An Application to Chile by Ian W. H Parry( )

4 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 54 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Gasoline and diesel fuel are heavily taxed in many developed and some emerging and developing countries. Outside of the United States and Europe, however, there has been little attempt to quantify the external costs of vehicle use, so policymakers lack guidance on whether prevailing tax rates are economically efficient. This paper develops a general approach for estimating motor vehicle externalities, and hence corrective taxes on gasoline and diesel, based on pooling local data with extrapolations from U.S.evidence. The analysis is illustrated for the case of Chile, though it could be applied to other countries
Reforming the Tax System to Promote Environmental Objectives: An Application to Mauritius by Ian W. H Parry( )

5 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 52 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Fiscal instruments are potentially among the most effective, and cost-effective, options for addressing externalities related to poor air quality, urban road congestion, and greenhouse gases. This paper takes a case study, focused on Mauritius (a pioneer in the use of green taxes) to illustrate how existing taxes, especially on fuels and vehicles, could be reformed to better address these externalities. We discuss, in particular, an explicit carbon tax; a variety of options for reforming vehicle taxes to meet environmental, equity, and revenue objectives; and a progressive transition to usage-based vehicle taxes to address congestion
Climate mitigation in China : which policies are most effective by Ian W. H Parry( )

3 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

For the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, China pledged to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) intensity of GDP by 60--65 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. This paper develops a practical spreadsheet tool for evaluating a wide range of national level fiscal and regulatory policy options for reducing CO2 emissions in China in terms of their impacts on emissions, revenue, premature deaths from local air pollution, household and industry groups, and overall economic welfare. By far, carbon and coal taxes are the most effective policies for meeting environmental and fiscal objectives as they comprehensively cover emissions and have the largest tax base
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Issues of the day : 100 commentaries on climate, energy, the environment, transportation, and public health policy
Alternative Names
Holmes Parry, Ian W. 1965-

Holmes Parry, Ian William 1965-

Ian Parry British photojournalist

Ian Parry britisk fotograf

Ian Parry Brits fotograaf (1965-1989)

Ian Parry brittisk fotograf

Parry, I. 1965-

Parry, I. W. H. 1965-

Parry, Ian 1965-

Parry, Ian W. 1965-

Parry, Ian W. H.

Parry, Ian W.H. 1965-

Parry, Ian William Holmes 1965-

English (164)