WorldCat Identities

Adema, Willem

Overview
Works: 81 works in 252 publications in 2 languages and 2,097 library holdings
Genres: Cross-cultural studies 
Roles: Author, Other, Recipient, Creator, Correspondent, Redactor, Editor
Classifications: HD4904.25, 331.25
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Willem Adema
Net social expenditure by Willem Adema( )

27 editions published between 1999 and 2001 in English and held by 244 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This document is the 2nd edition of the Net Social Expenditure paper published in 1999 (Adema, 1999). It contains an overview of net (after tax) public and private social expenditure indicators. These indicators have been developed to supplement available historical information on gross social expenditure trends by accounting for the varying impact of the tax system across countries. Tax systems can affect social spending in three ways:Governments levy direct taxes and social security contributions on cash transfers. Governments levy indirect taxes on goods and services bought by benefit recipients. Governments may award tax advantages similar to cash benefits and/or grant tax concessions aiming to stimulate the provision of private social benefits. The document summarises the methodological framework as previously developed, but extends coverage to eighteen countries for which information for 1997 is now available: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech
Babies and bosses : reconciling work and family life by Willem Adema( )

8 editions published between 2003 and 2007 in English and held by 219 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Finding a suitable work/family life balance is a challenge that all parents face. Some people would like to have (more) children, but do not see how they could match that commitment with their employment situation. Other parents are happy with the number of children in their family, but would like to work more. Yet other parents who are happy with their family situation, may wish to work at different hours, or reduce hours worked to spend more time with their children. This book synthesizes the finding of the 13 individual country reviews published previously and extends the scope to include other OECD countries, examining tax/benefit policies, parental leave systems, child care support, and workplace practices.--Publisher's description
Chile by Willem Adema( )

9 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 180 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report analyzes the implications of recent developments in Chile's labor market and social policy and considers the available policy options from the perspective of OECD countries' experience. The report finds that Chile has experienced rising living standards over two decades of strong economic growth. The incidence of poverty is now much lower and there is better access to adequate housing, education and healthcare. Nevertheless, Chile's income distribution remains disturbingly unequal by OECD standards. This is partly due to a relatively low employment rate, especially for women, but it also reflects a segmented labor market, where much of the recent job creation has occurred in relatively low-productive sectors. Moreover, despite the existence of an internationally renowned pension program, Chile's social protection system as a whole has still a relatively long way to go before reaching the standards of developed countries in terms of effective coverage and capacity to assist needy households. Chilean policy makers have begun to develop and implement a series of ambitious reforms, intended to promote the twin goals of work and equity.--Publisher's description
The growing role of private social benefits by Willem Adema( Book )

13 editions published in 1998 in English and Italian and held by 169 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper contains a first analysis of trends in private social benefits within a comparative framework. There is growing interest in the role of the private sector in the provision of social support in the light of concerns about the high level of public social spending. However, up to now, methodological and measurement problems have hampered the collection of cross-country data on private social benefits. The paper develops an appropriate methodological framework for treating this issue. It presents data on private social benefits for six countries for which such data are currently available: Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Information on trends in public and private social expenditure is drawn together and the pape discusses in more detail spending patterns in two social policy areas where private provision plays an important role: pensions and health. Finally, the impact of the tax system is analysed, and for one year
Oecd reviews of labour market and social policies : Russian Federation, 2011 by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development( )

4 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 146 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The global financial crisis interrupted a protracted period of strong economic growth in the Russian Federation. Despite a large decline in output, job losses and hikes in unemployment remained rather modest, and much of the labour market adjustment took place through reduced working hours and, in particular, real wages. Notwithstanding the recent recovery, the Russian labour market remains characterised by significant structural imbalances resulting in widespread segmentation and large earnings inequalities. To improve the balance between labour market flexibility and the protection of workers, the Russian Federation needs to reinforce its labour market institutions. Poverty and income inequalities remain well above the OECD average. Family policy is focused on increasing birth rates, but is ineffective in reducing poverty as working adults and children make up 60% of the poor. Instead, social policy is focused on the elderly and disabled, and in recent years there has been significant increases in transfer payments to pensioners. Recent reform is likely to "eradicate" poverty among pensioners, as measured by official benchmarks, but raises questions about the long-term financial sustainability of the private pensions system. Rapid population ageing further contributes to the need to raise the low standard pensionable ages in Russia and limit access to early pensions. The challenge for Russia will be to rebalance its social policy towards more effective support for parents to combine work and family life
Israel by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 90 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This review finds that Israel has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, but the benefits of this are being distributed unevenly. Poverty rates are higher than in any OECD country, which reflects the deep social and economic divides in Israeli society. On one side, there is the general Jewish population with poverty and employment rates similar to those of OECD countries. On the other, there are Arabs and ultra-Orthodox Jews, or Haredim, who have large families, poor educational outcomes and low employment rates; just over half of Arab and Haredim families live in poverty. Almost half of all children entering primary school in Israel come from one of these two groups, so profound policy changes are needed to prevent future generations of Arabs and Haredim from being scarred by the disadvantages these population groups face today. Tackling the root causes of such deep inequality would greatly enhance the dynamism of the Israeli economy. Greater investment to help workers improve their skills is urgently needed. Welfare-to-work programs need to be restructured and extended, including by reducing child benefits paid to families who are able to work but do not and by sharply increasing the Earned Income Tax Credit to tackle in-work poverty more effectively. Access to means-tested income supports for the neediest should be improved. Israel has failed to enforce many aspects of its labor legislation, contributing to poor employment conditions for many resident, cross-border and foreign low-income workers. Rules to overcome discrimination against all workers need to be enforced, and the illegal hiring and employment of temporary foreign workers need to be stamped out. Progress has been made in many of these areas. New legislation and initiatives have been introduced. The challenge is how to make reform work in practice. The consequences of not doing so would be devastating.--Publisher's description
Early Maternal Employment and Child Development in Five OECD Countries by Maria del Carmen Huerta( )

8 editions published between 2000 and 2015 in English and held by 76 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report investigates the effects of maternal employment on child development. It compares data from countries with different types of work-family policy - Australia, Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States - using data from national birth cohort studies, including the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) from Canada, the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC), the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) from the UK, and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) from the US. The report compares children's behavioural and cognitive outcomes, the timing and intensity of maternal employment, child care arrangements, and family characteristics. The findings suggests that a return to paid work by mothers within six months after childbirth may have negative effects on child outcomes, but the effects are small and not universally observed. Other factors such as family income, parental education and quality of interaction with children were found to have greater effects on development
Net Public Social Expenditure by Willem Adema( )

16 editions published between 1996 and 1997 in English and Undetermined and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The OECD Social Expenditure data base (SOCX) allows the monitoring of trends in aggregate social expenditure and changes in its composition. But aggregate social expenditure may sometimes fail to reflect the true 'effort' of a country in providing social support. Account needs to be taken of the effects of tax systems and transfers which, although mandatory, are not paid by government. In order to get from a "gross" to a "net" concept of social expenditure various adjustments to raw data are needed. These adjustments concern: methods of benefit payment ("net" or "gross" of tax); the varying extent with which governments use fiscal instruments rather than cash transfers to pursue social policy goals; and the different degree to which government requires other economic agents to provide social expenditures. The analysis also addresses the automatic budget effects related to the stage of the economic cycle. This analysis is a first attempt to capture in a comprehensive manner the effect
Net Social Expenditure, 2005 Edition : More Comprehensive Measures of Social Support by Willem Adema( )

9 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This is the 2005 edition of a Net Social Expenditure paper that contains information on net (after tax) public and private social expenditure. These indicators supplement the detailed historical information on gross (before tax) publicly mandated social expenditure in the OECD Social Expenditure Database by accounting for the varying roles of voluntary private social spending and the tax system on social policy across OECD countries. Government intervention through the tax system affects social spending as governments levy direct taxes and social security contributions on cash transfers, and indirect taxes on goods and services bought by benefit recipients. In addition, governments may award tax advantages similar to cash benefits and/or grant tax concessions aiming to stimulate the provision of private social benefits. Through compulsion and tax relief public policy contributes to private pension plans, and such arrangements are generally considered within the social domain. This document refines the methodological framework previously developed per earlier editions of net social expenditure and presents indicators based on a common questionnaire for twenty-three OECD countries for which information on taxation of benefits in 2001 is now available: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, the Slovak Republic, Sweden, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. Accounting for the impact of the tax system and private social expenditure leads to a greater similarity in social expenditure to GDP ratios across countries and to a reassessment of the magnitude of welfare states. Usually, Denmark and Sweden are seen as the biggest social spenders. After accounting for the impact of taxation social expenditure to GDP ratios appear highest in France, Germany and Sweden
Pension Reform in China : Progress and Prospects by Felix Salditt( )

7 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

China is currently in the process of developing the largest pension system in the world, and it is doing this at a time of unparalleled economic and demographic transition. The central government has followed a step-by-step approach to develop a system that can accommodate a rapidly aging society within a rapidly growing, but still largely underdeveloped economy. This paper analyses how far the process of creating a national old age insurance system had proceeded by the end of 2006. It provides a detailed description of this system and an assessment of to what degree it has so far achieved?its primary goal of social security for more people? (Chinese Government, September 2006)
How Expensive is the Welfare State? : Gross and Net Indicators in the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX) by Willem Adema( )

6 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper first presents information on trends and composition of social expenditure across the OECD. Gross public social expenditure on average across OECD increased from 16% of GDP in 1980 to 21% in 2005, of which public pensions (7% of GDP) and public health expenditure (6% of GDP) are the largest items. This paper then accounts for the effects of the tax system and private social expenditure which leads to a greater similarity in social expenditure-to-GDP ratios across countries and to a reassessment of the magnitude of welfare states. After accounting for the impact of taxation and private benefits, social expenditure (1) amounts to over 30% of GDP at factor cost in Belgium, Germany, and France and (2) ranges within a few percentage points of each other in Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and the United States
What Works Best in Reducing Child Poverty : a Benefit or Work Strategy? by Peter Whiteford( )

7 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Child poverty is firmly on the policy agenda in many OECD countries. One of the main issues in the debate is the appropriate balance between the so-called "benefits strategy" (increasing the adequacy of benefits for low-income families with children) and the so-called "work strategy" (promoting policies to increase employment among poor families). The need to choose between these two apparent alternatives is sometimes seen as a consequence of an unavoidable trade-off between adequacy of benefits, work incentives and the costs of assistance
Social assistance in Germany by Willem Adema( )

7 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper follows the framework developed in past OECD studies for analysis of social assistance programmes that aim to provide low-income clients with adequate financial support while simultaneously promoting their reintegration into labour market and, where necessary, mainstream society. Increasingly, jobless citizens in Germany rely on social assistance: a role for which the programme was never intended. Indeed, there are two other programmes that serve the unemployed in Germany, and this paper discusses social assistance in the context of its relationship to Unemployment Insurance and Assistance benefits. First, this study provides a concise overview of Germany's public social system, and discusses federal relations inasmuch they have a bearing on the delivery of public assistance benefits. The study discusses the nature of benefits available to social assistance clients in general, and related support measures for particular client-groups, for example, lone parent families
Is the European Welfare State Really More Expensive? : Indicators on Social Spending, 1980-2012 ; and a Manual to the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX) by Willem Adema( )

5 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Part I of this paper first presents information on trends and composition of social expenditure as in the OECD Social Expenditure database for the years 1980 - 2007. Over this period, public social expenditure as a percentage of GDP, on average across OECD, increased from 15.6% to 19.2%. Public pension spending (6.4% of GDP) and public health expenditure (5.8% of GDP) are the largest social spending items. Part I also presents social expenditure indicators that account for the effects of the tax system as well as indicators on private social expenditure. Including both of these features alters country rankings by level of social spending and leads to a convergence of spending-to-GDP ratios across countries. Based on this broader measure net total social expenditure as a percent of GDP at factor costs in 2007 was highest in France and Belgium, at 30% of GDP, and between 22 and 28% of GDP in Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. Part II of this paper presents the OECD SOCX Manual. It starts with a discussion of methodological, classification and data issues regarding the gross spending items as in SOCX. It also looks at the methodological aspects of measuring net social expenditure, and presents information on how relevant estimates were derived. Accounting for the effect of the tax system and private social expenditure leads to greater similarity in social expenditure-to-GDP ratios across countries and to a reassessment of the magnitude of welfare states. After accounting for the impact of taxation and private benefits, social expenditure amounts to over 30% of GDP at factor cost in Belgium and France; social expenditure also ranges within a few percentage points of each other in Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States
Social assistance policy development and the provision of a decent level of income in selected OECD countries by Willem Adema( )

7 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The paper starts with a brief look at social expenditure patterns and the importance of different social policy areas, in particular the role of social assistance policy within social protection systems. It then looks at the objectives of social assistance policy and considers payment-rates in terms of adequacy, financial incentives to work, addressing issues as budget standards, indexation methods and the policy approach towards specific client groups. Also, the study briefly highlights Chinese public expenditure issues more generally and presents some key indicators on the dynamics of ageing populations which will have consequences for future social expenditure trends in China
Policies to promote access to good-quality affordable housing in OECD countries by Angelica Salvi Del Pero( )

4 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 36 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many households across OECD countries are overburdened by housing costs. On average nearly 15% of tenants and 10% of mortgage-payers spend over 40% of their disposable income on housing costs in OECD countries. The incidence of housing cost overburden is much higher among low-income households: 39% both for mortgage-payers and private sector tenants. Middle-class households are not immune: on average nearly 9% of mortgaged middle-class homeowners are overburdened by their monthly mortgage payment across OECD countries. Access to housing and housing quality also remain pressing concerns in many OECD countries. Significant numbers of people are homeless: while statistics are difficult to compare, most OECD countries report that 1 to 8 people in every thousand lack regular access to housing. In addition, many households live in low-quality dwellings: 15% of low-income households live in overcrowded dwellings and 14% do not have access to an indoor flushing toilet. Neighbourhood crime and pollution are also problematic for many households throughout the OECD
Canada, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom( )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study covers Canada (in particular the province of Québec), Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It considers how a wide range of policies, including tax/benefit policies, childcare policy, and employment and workplace practices help determine parental labour market outcomes and may impinge on family formation. This volume also includes some options for policy reform towards a better reconciliation of work and family commitments in the four countries in question
Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development : Are They Related? Evidence from Four OECD Countries( )

6 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Previous research has shown that young children with involved fathers have better cognitive and behavioural outcomes than their peers. Research also shows that fathers who take time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not do so. This paper examines whether taking leave around the time of birth is associated with father's involvement in childcare-related activities and whether their involvement translates into positive child outcomes. Using data from countries with different types of work-family policy - Australia, Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States - it compares children's behavioural and cognitive outcomes, the timing and intensity of maternal employment, child care arrangements, and family characteristics. Data is taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) from Canada, the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC), the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) from the United Kingdom, and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) from the United States
Social Assistance Policy Development and the Provision of a Decent Level of Income in Selected OECD Countries by Willem Adema( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 28 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The paper starts with a brief look at social expenditure patterns and the importance of different social policy areas, in particular the role of social assistance policy within social protection systems. It then looks at the objectives of social assistance policy and considers payment-rates in terms of adequacy, financial incentives to work, addressing issues as budget standards, indexation methods and the policy approach towards specific client groups. Also, the study briefly highlights Chinese public expenditure issues more generally and presents some key indicators on the dynamics of ageing populations which will have consequences for future social expenditure trends in China
Effects of reducing gender gaps in education and labour force participation on economic growth in the OECD( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 26 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

 
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Chile
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Chile
Alternative Names
Adema, W.

아데마, 윌렘

아테마, 윌렘

Languages
English (147)

Italian (1)