WorldCat Identities

Meara, Ellen

Overview
Works: 18 works in 135 publications in 1 language and 962 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Ellen Meara
The medical costs of the young and old : a forty year perspective by David M Cutler( Book )

15 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 88 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, we examine the growth in medical care spending by age over the past 40 years. We show that between 1953 and 1987, medical spending increased disproportionately for infants, those under 1 year, and the elderly, those 65 and older. Annual spending growth for infants was 9.8 percent and growth for the elderly was 8.0 percent compared to 4.7 percent for people aged 1-64. Within the infant and the elderly population, excess spending growth was largely driven by more rapid growth of spending at the top of the medical spending distribution. Aggregate changes in outcomes for infants and the elderly are consistent with these changes in spending growth, but we do not present any causal evidence on this point
The concentration of medical spending : an update by David M Cutler( Book )

11 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the last two decades, Medicare spending has doubled in real terms despite the fact that the health of Medicare beneficiaries improved over this period. The goals of this paper are to document how trends in spending by age have changed among elderly Medicare beneficiaries in the last decade and to reconcile the decline in disability rates with rapid increases in spending among the elderly. First, we conclude that the trend of disproportionate spending growth among the oldest old has continued between 1985 and 1995. Spending among the younger elderly, those 65-69 rose by two percent annually in real per person terms. In contrast, spending for those over age 85 rose by four percent. Second we show that the reasons for the large increase in spending on the oldest elderly relative to the younger elderly is the rapid increase in the use of post-acute services such as home health care and skilled nursing care. Spending on post-acute care for the very old has risen 20 percent per year in the last decade
The technology of birth : is it worth it? by David M Cutler( Book )

11 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We evaluate the costs and benefits of increased medical spending for low birth weight infants. Lifetime spending on low birth weight babies increased by roughly $40,000 per birth between 1950 and 1990. The health improvements resulting from this have been substantial. Infant mortality rates fell by 72 percent over this time period, largely due to improved care for premature births. Considering both length and quality of life, we estimate the rate of return for care of low birth weight infants at over 500 percent. Although prenatal care and influenza shots are more cost effective than neonatal care, this is significantly more cost effective than other recent innovations such as coronary artery bypass surgery, treatment of severe hypertension, or routine pap smears for women aged 20-74. We conclude that the answer to the question posed in this paper is a resounding 'Yes'
Changes in the age distribution of mortality over the 20th century by David M Cutler( Book )

14 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 64 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using historical data on death by age and cause, this paper describes the characteristics of mortality decline over the 20th century
Why is health related to socioeconomic status? : the case of pregnancy and low birth weight by Ellen Meara( Book )

12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 62 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

There are striking disparities in morbidity and mortality by socioeconomic status (SES) within the United States. I examine pregnancy and health at birth to investigate possible mechanisms linking SES and health. I find that a limited set of maternal health habits during pregnancy, particularly smoking habits, can explain about half (one third) of the correlation between SES and low birth weight among white (black) mothers. I show evidence on three hypotheses to explain why health habits vary by SES. First, differences in knowledge by SES create only modest differences in health behaviors by SES, explaining about 10 percent of differential smoking by education. Second, women respond to common knowledge differentially by SES, so that knowledge and its use combined explain up to one third of differential smoking by education. Third, the most important determinants of differential health behavior are 'third variables, ' or variables that can simultaneously determine health habits and SES. Finally, I show evidence that network effects at the family level exacerbate differences in behavior regardless of the source
The effect of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement on prenatal smoking by Douglas E Levy( Book )

12 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: The Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between the major tobacco companies and 46 states created an abrupt 45 cent (21%) increase in cigarette prices in November, 1998. Earlier estimates of the elasticity of prenatal smoking implied that the price rise would reduce prenatal cigarette smoking by 7% to 21%. Using birth records on 10 million U.S. births between January 1996 and February 2000, we examined the change in smoking during pregnancy and conditional smoking intensity in response to the MSA. Overall, adjusting for secular trends in smoking, prenatal smoking declined much less than predicted in response to the MSA
Welfare reform, work requirements, and employment barriers by Ellen Meara( Book )

9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act imposed work requirements on welfare recipients. Using 1999-2001 data from Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we compared the labor market and welfare experience of women with four employment barriers: poor mental health, moderate to heavy drug and alcohol use, a child with a behavior problem, and a child under the age of 3. Women with poor mental health and drug and alcohol users were much less likely to move into work than other groups, and more likely to be sanctioned for noncompliance with welfare requirements in 2000-2001 as federal work participation requirements increased"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Health and labor market consequences of eliminating federal disability benefits for substance abusers by Pinka Chatterji( Book )

10 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using annual, repeated cross-sections from national household survey data, we estimate how the January 1997 termination of federal disability benefits for those with Drug Addiction and Alcoholism affected labor market outcomes, health insurance, health care utilization, and arrests among individuals targeted by the legislation. We employ propensity score methods and a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach to mitigate potential omitted variables bias. Declines in SSI receipt accompanied increases in labor force participation and current employment, but had little measurable effect on insurance and utilization. In the long-run, (1999-2002), rates of SSI receipt rebounded somewhat, and short-run gains in labor market outcomes waned
State and federal approaches to health reform : what works for the working poor? by Ellen Meara( Book )

8 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 24 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We compare and contrast the labor market and distributional impact of three common approaches to state and federal health insurance expansion: public insurance expansions, refundable tax credits for low income people, and employer and individual mandates. We draw on existing estimates from the literature and individual-level data on the non-institutionalized population aged 64 and younger from the 2005 Current Population Survey to estimate how each approach affects (1) the number of people insured; (2) private and public health spending; (3) employment and wages; and (4) the distribution of subsidies across families based on income in relation to the federal poverty level and work status of adult family members. Employer mandates expand coverage to the largest number of previously insured relative to public insurance expansions and individual tax credits, but with potentially negative labor market consequences. Medicaid expansions could achieve moderate reductions in the share of the uninsured with neutral labor market consequences, and by definition, they expand coverage to the poorest groups regardless of work status. Tax credits extend coverage to relatively few uninsured, but with neutral effects on the labor market. Both Medicaid expansions and tax credits offer moderate redistribution to previously insured individuals who are poor or near-poor. None of the three policies significantly expand insurance coverage among poor working families. Our findings suggest that no single approach helps the working poor in exactly the ways policy makers might hope. To the extent that states are motivated to help the uninsured in poor working families, health reforms must find ways to include those unlikely to take up optional policies, and states must address the challenge of the many uninsured likely to be excluded from policies based on part-time work status, firm size, or immigration status
Induced innovation and social inequality : evidence from infant medical care by David M Cutler( Book )

8 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We develop a model of induced innovation where research effort is a function of the death rate, and thus the potential to reduce deaths in the population. We also consider potential social consequences that arise from this form of induced innovation based on differences in disease prevalence across population subgroups (i.e. race). Our model yields three empirical predictions. First, initial death rates and subsequent research effort should be positively correlated. Second, research effort should be associated with more rapid mortality declines. Third, as a byproduct of targeting the most common conditions in the population as a whole, induced innovation leads to growth in mortality disparities between minority and majority groups. Using information on infant deaths in the U.S. between 1983 and 1998, we find support for all three empirical predictions. We estimate that induced innovation predicts about 20 percent of declines in infant mortality over this period. At the same time, innovation that occurred in response to the most common causes of death favored the majority racial group in the U.S., whites. We estimate that induced innovation contributed about one third of the rise in the black-white infant mortality ratio during our period of study
The effect of maternal depression and substance abuse on child human capital development by Richard G Frank( Book )

8 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent models of human capital formation represent a synthesis of the human capital approach and a life cycle view of human development that is grounded in neuroscience (Heckman 2007). This model of human development, the stability of the home and parental mental health can have notable impacts on skill development in children that may affect the stock of human capital in adults (Knudsen, Heckman et al. 2006; Heckman 2007). We study effects of maternal depression and substance abuse on children born to mothers in the initial cohort of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a national household survey of high school students aged 14-22 in 1979. We follow 1587 children aged 1-5 in 1987, observing them throughout childhood and into high school. We employ a variety of methods to identify the effect of maternal depression and substance abuse on child behavioral, cognitive, and educational related outcomes. We find no evidence that maternal symptoms of depression affect contemporaneous cognitive scores in children. However, maternal depression symptoms have a moderately large effect on child behavioral problems. These findings suggest that the social benefits of effective behavioral health interventions may be understated. Based on evidence linking early life outcomes to later well-being, efforts to prevent and/or treat mental and addictive disorders in mothers and other women of childbearing age have the potential to improve outcomes of their children not only early in life, but throughout the life cycle
The FDA and ABCs : the unintended consequences of antidepressant warnings on human capital by Susan H Busch( Book )

6 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using annual cross-sectional data on over 100,000 adolescents aged 12-17, we studied academic and behavioral outcomes among those who were and were not likely affected by FDA warnings regarding the safety of antidepressants. Just before the FDA warnings, adolescents with probable depression had grade point averages 0.14 points higher than adolescents with depression just after the warnings. The FDA warnings also coincided with increased delinquency, use of tobacco and illicit drugs. Together, our results stress the importance of mental health and its treatment as an input into cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of human capital -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Explaining the Rise in Educational Gradients in Mortality. Nber WorkingPaper No. 15678 by David M Cutler( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The long-standing inverse relationship between education and mortality strengthened substantially later in the 20th century. This paper examines the reasons for this increase. We show that behavioral risk factors are not of primary importance. Smoking has declined more for the better educated, but not enough to explain the trend. Obesity has risen at similar rates across education groups, and control of blood pressure and cholesterol has increased fairly uniformly as well. Rather, our results show that the mortality returns to risk factors, and conditional on risk factors, the return to education, have grown over time
Comparing the effects of health insurance reform proposals : employer mandates, Medicaid expansions, and tax credits by Ellen Meara( Book )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Economic conditions and children's mental health by Ezra Golberstein( Book )

5 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Research linking economic conditions and health largely ignores children's mental health problems, which are the most common and consequential health issues for children and adolescents. We examine the effects of unemployment rates and housing prices on child and adolescent mental health and use of special education services for emotional problems in the 2001-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Mental health status declines as economic conditions deteriorate, and this result is pervasive across nearly every subgroup we examine, including families least likely to experience job loss. The use of special education services for emotional problems also rises when economic conditions worsen
Economic analyses of medicare HMOs by Amber Sophia Batata( )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Tradable deficit permits : efficient implementation of the stability pact in the european monetary union by David M Cutler( Book )

1 edition published in 1999 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Explaining the rise in educational gradients in mortality by David M Cutler( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: The long-standing inverse relationship between education and mortality strengthened substantially later in the 20th century. This paper examines the reasons for this increase. We show that behavioral risk factors are not of primary importance. Smoking has declined more for the better educated, but not enough to explain the trend. Obesity has risen at similar rates across education groups, and control of blood pressure and cholesterol has increased fairly uniformly as well. Rather, our results show that the mortality returns to risk factors, and conditional on risk factors, the return to education, have grown over time
 
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Languages
English (135)