WorldCat Identities

World Bank Development Research Group Trade

Overview
Works: 481 works in 840 publications in 1 language and 10,883 library holdings
Genres: Commercial treaties 
Classifications: HG3881.5.W57, 382.095
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by World Bank
The east Asian crisis : investigating causes and policy responses by Warwick J McKibbin( Book )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

August 1999 The primary cause of the East Asian crisis was a fundamental reassessment of the profitability of investments in the region. As a policy response, temporary fiscal expansion generally appears preferable to monetary expansion or to permanent fiscal expansion. McKibbin and Martin identify as the primary cause of the East Asian crisis a fundamental reassessment of the profitability of investments in the region. They identify a number of secondary shocks as well, including interest risk premia, monetary expansion, and declines in output brought about by failures of the financial market. Unlike the Latin American crisis of the 1980s, the East Asian crisis did not reflect commodity price shocks, large changes in world interest rates, fiscal imbalances, or inflationary shocks. It involved large-scale borrowing abroad, but by the private sector rather than the government - and for the normally well-regarded purpose of funding capital investment. It seems unlikely that terms of trade shocks or changes in exchange rates due to pegging to the dollar could, alone, have caused an adjustment crisis of this magnitude - although they could have helped trigger the crisis. More important, expectations of future growth in returns to the corporate sector began to fall. Declines in asset valuations caused major shifts in investment portfolios, and the consequences of asset market shocks were compounded by secondary shocks associated with the abrupt shift to floating rates, concerns about the credibility of government policies, weaknesses in financial sectors, and inadequacies in the mechanisms for corporate restructuring and liquidation. McKibbin and Martin use a forward-looking modeling framework to capture some of the major interactions between asset markets, output, and trade in the countries worst hit by the crisis. They find that the model is able to capture the main features of the crisis. This paper - a product of Trade, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to understand the links between trade and growth. Will Martin may be contacted at wmartin1@worldbank.org
Production sharing in East Asia : who does what for whom and why by Francis Ng( Book )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Components have been a dynamic leading sector in East Asian imports and exports. East Asian global exports of parts and components totaled $278 billion in 1996; imports, $12 billion less. Components now account for a fifth of East Asian exports of manufactures
Adjusting to trade policy reform by Steven J Matusz( Book )

3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A survey of more than 50 empirical papers shows that the adjustment costs of trade liberalization are small relative to the benefits. Moreover, manufacturing employment typically increases with trade liberalization. The limited data suggests that trade liberalization reduces poverty
Exchange rate overvaluation and trade protection : lessons from experience by Howard J Shatz( Book )

4 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Lessons from world experience about the consequences of exchange rate overvaluation (the frequent cause of trade crises), the consequences of trying to defend an overvalued exchange rate, and the most appropriate policies for resolving an overvaluation
Financial services and the World Trade Organization : liberalization commitments of the developing and transition economies by Aaditya Mattoo( Book )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

September 1999 Financial services negotiations through the World Trade Organization have helped many developing and transition economies develop more stable and transparent policy regimes, and their commitments in no way compromise their ability to pursue sound macroeconomic and regulatory policies. But the Asian and Latin American participants, especially, held back on commitments to financial liberalization. And there was less emphasis on introducing competition by allowing new entry than on allowing (or maintaining) foreign equity participation and protecting the position of incumbents. Mattoo analyzes the results of the financial services negotiations under the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). He shows that the negotiations have contributed to more stable and transparent policy regimes in many developing and transition economies and that the commitments in no way compromise the countries' ability to pursue sound macroeconomic and regulatory policies. But even though the number of countries that participated in the eventual agreement was impressive, the liberalizing content of commitments was in many cases quite limited. Numerical estimates suggest that in general the African and Eastern European participants made much more liberal commitments than the Asian and Latin American participants. On the whole, the outcome probably reflects how each participant balances the benefit of unilateral commitments against the benefit of retaining bargaining chips for future multisectoral negotiations. Two aspects of the outcome cause concern: There has been less emphasis on introducing competition by allowing new entry than on allowing (or maintaining) foreign equity participation and protecting the position of incumbents. Where it was deemed infeasible to introduce competition immediately, participants have taken little advantage of the GATS to lend credibility to liberalization programs by precommitting to future market access. This paper - a product of Trade, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to advance research on trade in services. The author may be contacted at amattoo@worldbank.org
Who determines Mexican trade policy by Jean-Marie Grether( Book )

4 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During a period of trade liberalization (1985-89), when Mexican manufacturing experienced an important inflow of foreign direct investment, manufacturing sectors with heavy foreign direct investment received greater protection in import-competing sectors. With the move toward greater openness, the influence of industrial and foreign-investor lobbying on policy formation was reduced
The role of special and differential treatment for developing countries in GATT and the World Trade Organization by Constantine Michalopoulos( Book )

3 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Weaknesses in the institutional capacity of many developing countries provide a rationale for continuing special and differential treatment under the World Trade Organization (WTO), but the benefits should be targeted only to low-income developing countries and those that need help becoming integrated with the international trading system. An effective system of graduation should be put in place for higher-income developing countries
India and the multilateral trading system after Seattle : toward a proactive role by Aaditya Mattoo( Book )

4 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mattoo and Subramanian argue that india should engage more actively in the multilateral trading system, to help facilitate and consolidate domestic reform and to gain access to export markets for India's goods and services
Foreign-owned capital and endogenous tariffs by M Olarreaga( Book )

3 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The increase in investment abroad during the past two decades may help explain the simultaneous worldwide rush toward free trade. The entry of foreign capital may change the political game, increasing openness to international trade no matter what form the foreign capital takes (whether entering by acquiring equity in existing domestic firms or by bringing foreign firms into the host economy) or what its trade orientation (whether it enters the export or import-competing sector)
Eliminating excessive tariffs on exports of least developed countries by Bernard M Hoekman( Book )

4 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Average most-favored-nation tariffs in the "Quad" (Canada, the European Union, Japan, and the United States) have fallen to about 5 percent. But tariffs more than three times the average most-favored-nation duty are not uncommon in the Quad and have a disproportionate effect on exports of least developed countries. Giving the poorest countries duty-free access for peak-tariff products would increase their total annual exports by roughly $2.5 billion
Estimating the poverty impacts of trade liberalization by Jeffrey J Reimer( Book )

3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As a new round of World Trade Organization negotiations is being launched with greater emphasis on developing country participation, a body of literature is emerging which quantifies how international trade affects the poor in developing countries. In this survey of the literature, Reimer summarizes and classifies 35 trade and poverty studies into four methodological categories: cross-country regression, partial-equilibrium and cost-of-living analysis, general-equilibrium simulation, and micro-macro synthesis. These categories include a broad range of methodologies in current use. The continuum of approaches is bounded on one end by econometric analysis of household expenditure data, which is the traditional domain of poverty specialists, and sometimes labeled the "bottom-up" approach. On the other end of the continuum are computable general equilibrium models based on national accounts data, or what might be called the "top-down" approach. Another feature of several recent trade and poverty studies--and one of the primary conclusions to emerge from the October 2000 "Conference on Poverty and the International Economy" sponsored by Globkom and the World Bank--is the recognition that factor markets are perhaps the most important link between trade and poverty, since households tend to be much more specialized in income than they are in consumption. Meanwhile, survey data on the income sources of developing-country households has become increasingly available. As a result, this survey gives particular emphasis to the means by which studies address factor market links between trade and poverty. The general conclusion of Reimer's survey is that any analysis of trade and poverty needs to be informed by both the bottom-up and top-down perspectives. Indeed, recent "two-step" micro-macro studies sequentially link these two types of frameworks, such that general equilibrium mechanisms are incorporated along with detailed household survey information. Another methodology in a similar spirit and also increasingly used involves incorporating large numbers of surveyed households into a general-equilibrium simulation model. Although most of these studies have so far been limited to a single region, these approaches can be readily adapted for multi-region modeling so that trade and poverty comparisons can be made across countries within a consistent framework. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to understand the impact of trade reform on poverty. The author may be contacted at reimerj@purdue.edu
Reducing agricultural tariffs versus domestic support what's more important for developing countries? by Bernard M Hoekman( )

6 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 65 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

High levels of protection and domestic support for farmers in industrial countries significantly affect many developing countries, both directly and through the price-depressing effect of agricultural support policies. High tariffs--in both rich and poor countries--and domestic support may also lower the world price of agricultural products, benefiting net importers. Hoekman, Ng, and Olarreaga assess the impact of reducing tariffs and domestic support in a sample of 119 countries. Least developed countries (LDCs) are disproportionately affected by agricultural support policies. More than 18 percent of LDC exports are subject to domestic support in at least one World Trade Organization (WTO) member, as compared to only 9 percent of their imports. For other developing countries the figures are around 4 percent for both their exports and imports. So, the prevailing pattern of trade suggests the world price-reducing effect of agricultural domestic support policies may induce a welfare loss in LDCs. The authors develop a simple partial equilibrium model of global trade in commodities that benefit from domestic support in at least one WTO member. The simulation results suggest there will be large differences between LDCs and other developing economies in terms of the impact of a 50 percent cut in tariffs as compared to a 50 percent cut in domestic support. Developing countries as a group would suffer a welfare loss from a cut in support, while LDCs would experience a small gain. For both groups of countries, tariff reductions by WTO members--including own liberalization--will have a positive effect on welfare. The results show both the importance of focusing on tariffs as well as subsities, and the need for complementary actions to allow a domestic supply response to occur in developing countries if world prices rise. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to analyze the effects of trade-related policies on developing countries
The composition of foreign direct investment and protection of intellectual property rights : evidence from transition economies by Beata K. Smarzynska Javorcik( Book )

3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 63 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

While existing literature has examined the impact of intellectual property protection on the volume of foreign direct investment (FDI), little is known about its effect on the composition of FDI inflows. Smarzynska addresses this question empirically, using a unique firm-level data set from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. She finds that weak protection deters foreign investors in technology-intensive sectors that rely heavily on intellectual property rights. The results also indicate that a weak intellectual property regime encourages investors to undertake projects focusing on distribution rather than local production. The latter effect is present in all sectors, not just those relying heavily on intellectual property protection. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to examine the effects of intellectual property protection on economic activity. The author may be contacted at bsmarzynska@worldbank.org
Vertical price control and parallel imports theory and evidence by Keith E Maskus( )

5 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Parallel imports are genuine products brought into a country without the authorization of the copyright, patent, or trademark owner. Countries vary considerably in their legal treatment of parallel imports, as determined by their choice of exhaustion doctrine. A new model analyzes parallel imports as a response to vertical pricing arrangements between a rights holder ("manufacturer") and a foreign distributor
Foreign direct investment in services and the domestic market for expertise by James R Markusen( )

4 editions published in 2000 in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

How important to welfare and growth in developing countries are restraints on foreign providers of producer services? Limiting such services not only may limit growth but may hurt some of the very people - domestic skilled workers in such service sectors - those restraints are designed to protect
Trade and production fragmentation Central European economies in EU networks of production and marketing by Bartłomiej Kamiński( )

5 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 59 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The unprecedented globalization of the production process, dividing up the value chain, has brought the integration of trade and the disintegration of production, with deep implications for the international division of labor. Have Central European economies been able to readjust their production structures to international markets? Three of them: Estonia, Hungary, and Slovakia have done especially well
Regional integration and industrial growth among developing countries the case of three ASEAN members by Dorsati Madani( )

4 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Has the revival of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the early 1990s affected the industrial growth in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines? Perhaps not in the early years of the revival, primarily because of the countries' long history of intra-regional trade
Regional integration and development in small states by Maurice W Schiff( )

4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Small states should pursue unilateral and multilateral trade liberalization, and members of the African, Caribbean, and Pacifice (ACP) group should expand reciprocal agreements with the European Union (Cotonou Agreement) to the entire OECD. They should intensify South-South regional cooperation in the area of regional public goods
Unrestricted market access for Sub-Saharan Africa how much is it worth and who pays by Elena Ianchovichina( )

6 editions published between 2000 and 2001 in English and held by 58 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The European Union, Japan and the United States have recently announced initiatives to improve market access for the poorest countries. How would these initiatives affect Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world
Liberalizing trade in agriculture Developing countries in Asia and the post-Doha agenda by John S Wilson( )

4 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 56 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Wilson provides an overview and data relevant to the interests of developing countries as they engage in continuing agricultural trade negotiations set forth in the World Trade Organization Ministerial held in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. He examines country performance in agricultural trade, income levels, and population characteristics, with a focus on developing country members of the Asian Development Bank. The author concludes that trends in agricultural trade in the past 10 years are quite heterogeneous across developing regions. Shares of agriculture in GDP are still high in the East Asia and Pacific and South Asia regions. Moreover, data indicate that trade reform in export partners, particularly OECD countries, will affect a significant share of the population in these developing countries, resulting in rural poverty alleviation. Trade liberalization is expected to benefit net exporter countries, particularly those that are highly open to trade. What is also important, but often neglected, is a country's pattern of specialization between domestic supply and exports. The impact of trade reform through the WTO negotiations, particularly reforms undertaken in exporting partners can therefore have important implications in the post-Doha development agenda. This paper--a product of Trade, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to explore the link between standards, development, and trade. The author may be contacted at jswilson@worldbank.org
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.79 (from 0.77 for Foreign di ... to 0.81 for Unrestrict ...)

Alternative Names
World Bank. Development Research Group. Trade Team

Languages
English (81)