WorldCat Identities

Princeton University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Works: 81 works in 81 publications in 1 language and 332 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses  Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Researcher
Classifications: QH541.5.M3,
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works about Princeton University
Most widely held works by Princeton University
Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations by Minghui Diao( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Water vapor, clouds and aerosols are three major components in the atmosphere that largely influence the Earth's climate and weather systems. However, there is still a lack of understanding on the distribution and interaction of these components. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and direction of the aerosol indirect effect on cloud radiative forcing, which potentially can either double or cancel out all anthropogenic greenhouse gas effect. In particular, a small variation in water vapor mixing ratio and cloud distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) can generate large impacts on the Earth's surface temperature. Yet the understanding of water vapor and clouds in the UT/LS is still limited due to difficulties in observations. To improve our understanding of these components, observations are needed from the microscale (~100 m) to the global scale. The first part of my PhD work is to provide quality-controlled, high resolution (~200 m), in situ water vapor observations using an open-path, aircraft-based laser hygrometer. The laboratory calibrations of the laser hygrometer were conducted using complementary experimental systems. The second part is to compare the NASA AIRS/AMSU-A water vapor and temperature retrievals with aircraft-based observations from the surface to the UT/LS at 87°N-67°S in order to understand the accuracy and uncertainties in remote sensing measurements. The third part of my research analyzes the spatial characteristics and formation condition of ice supersaturation (ISS), the birthplace of cirrus clouds, and shows that water vapor horizontal heterogeneities play a key role in determining the spatial distribution of ISS. The fourth part is to understand the formation and evolution of ice crystal regions (ICRs) in a quasi-Lagrangian view. Finally, to help estimate the hemispheric differences in ice nucleation, the ISS distribution and ICR evolution are compared between the two hemispheres. Overall, these analyses provided a microphysical scale yet global perspective of the formation of ISS and cirrus clouds. Ultimately, these efforts will help to improve the understanding of human activities' influences on clouds, water vapor and relative humidity in the UT/LS and provide more accurate representations of these components in future climate prediction
Summertime convective rainfall in the New York City-New Jersey metropolitan region by June K Yeung( Book )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this thesis, we examine the rainfall climatology of the New York City-New Jersey metropolitan region and investigate how urbanization, land-water boundaries, and complex terrain impact storm evolution. We develop long-term, high-resolution (1 km, 15 minutes) radar rainfall fields for the study region using the Hydro-NEXRAD algorithms and use these as a central tool for characterizing the regional rainfall climatology. We perform regional climate model simulations and sensitivity analyses using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to examine the role of land surface processes in controlling spatial heterogeneities in the regional rainfall climatology. WRF simulations were performed for 5 warm seasons and also in case-study mode for severe thunderstorm systems that produce heavy rainfall over the New York City metropolitan region. We focus on severe thunderstorms that produce heavy rainfall through rainfall and lightning analyses for the 50 days with largest cloud-to-ground (CG) flash densities over the study region. A storm-tracking system is used with 3-D radar reflectivity fields for Lagrangian analyses of storm structure, motion, and evolution for the 50 severe thunderstorm days. Model and observational studies show that the NYC region is a hotspot for intense convection and heavy rainfall. These features are diminished for mean rainfall. Severe storms tend to propagate from southwest to northeast, along the axis of the Appalachian Mountains. For major thunderstorm systems, there is no evidence that storm elements split as they approach NYC, as suggested in previous studies for weaker storms. There is a systematic increase in storm area and, oftentimes, in measures of convective intensity as storms pass over NYC. These properties decrease as storm cells pass over the more stable, marine environment. It is difficult to separate the effects of urbanization and land-water boundaries on storm evolution. We also examine the regional climatology of latent and sensible heat fluxes over the Princeton campus through analyses using long-term eddy covariance measurements and the Noah land-surface model (LSM). These analyses point to the critical role of heterogeneous surface fluxes on the regional water cycle, including the regional rainfall climatology
Advances in understanding the causes and impacts of droughts in North America under current and future climates by Julio Enrique Herrera Estrada( Book )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Droughts reduce water resources necessary for human survival, economic development, and to sustain healthy ecosystems. Our ability to monitor and forecast droughts has grown dramatically in the past decades due to improved hydrological modeling made possible by satellite data and high computing power. However, there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding the mechanisms behind drought onset, development, and recovery. This gap prevents us from being able to forecast every severe drought and from being more confident about the effects of climate change. This thesis proposes a paradigm shift from droughts as local events to droughts as dynamic hazards that can travel in space. In this framework, droughts become the frame of reference, opening new possibilities for drought assessment and forecasting. Here, droughts are shown to have traveled across continents between 1979--2009. Patterns of frequent and common directions of displacement are identified. Precipitation recycling is proposed as an important mechanism behind these observed dynamics, and a detailed study of moisture sources over North America from 1980--2016 is carried out. This work shows that drought conditions can propagate downwind, especially from the U.S. Southwest to the U.S. Midwest, and from the northwest of Mexico and Central America to the center and south of Mexico. The effect of local precipitation recycling on drought intensification is quantified and shown to be highest in the north of Mexico and the U.S. Southwest. In a study of climate change's impacts on droughts, large biases are found in the climate models' representation of the hydrologic cycle and land-atmospheric coupling. This is shown to affect the models' drought projections by the end of the twenty-first century. Finally, this thesis includes a study of drought impacts on electricity generation and on CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions from the power sector in the American West under current and future climates. This work advances the understanding of how droughts propagate through the hydrologic cycle locally and across continents, opening new opportunities for seasonal forecasting. It also includes a rigorous drought impact study on the electricity sector that provides useful information to stakeholders and decision makers
Characterization of polyester-rope suspended footbridges by Edward Matthew Segal( Book )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Multi-objective optimization is utilized to find minimum volume polyester-rope and steel-rope suspended footbridge designs across the medium span range when subject to in-plane static and dynamic strength and serviceability constraints. The optimization problems are evaluated with a novel methodology that combines a genetic algorithm with static, natural frequency, and pedestrian excitation analyses. The impact of cross-sectional area, material stiffness, prestress, damping, mass, and stiffening stay elements on rope volume requirements for these bridges are investigated. Minimum volume results are presented graphically as functions of span to provide visual design aids that can be included in future bridge guidelines to facilitate comparisons between different systems under a range of constraint combinations
Water for food: Evolution and projections of water transfers through international and domestic agricultural trade by Carole Dalin( Book )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Chapter 1 describes the evolution of international food trade and associated water resources transfers, and provides an assessment of key impacts of policy, economic and biophysical factors on this global system. Chapter 2 develops a fitness model that determines which variables control the global virtual water trade network's structure and temporal evolution, and estimates changes in the network under future scenarios. Chapter 3 presents the construction and analysis of China's inter-provincial and foreign virtual water trade. The connectivity and flow structure of this network, as well as the efficiency of the system in terms of water resources, are quantified and analyzed. In addition, we identify provinces and commodities that could be targeted for improved efficiency. In Chapter 4, specific agricultural policy scenarios in China are considered, and their impacts on domestic and foreign virtual water trade are analyzed
Reduction and Re-oxidation of Soils During and After Uranium Bioremediation; Implications for Long Term Uraninite Stability and Bioremediation Scheme Implementation( )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This research focuses on the conditions and rates under which uranium will be remobilized via oxidation after it has been reduced and precipitated biologically, and what factors can contribute to increasing its long-term stability in groundwater after the injection of an electron donor has been discontinued
Simulation-based seismic reliability assessment of complex structural systems by Mark Evan Dobossy( Book )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An investigation into the coupled dynamics of rainfall climatology, ecosystem structure, and biophysical functionality by Stephen Paul Good( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This dissertation is an investigation into the coupled dynamics of rainfall climatology, ecosystem structure, and biophysical functionality. The interconnected nature of the water, carbon, and energy cycles presents fundamental questions of how climate change will alter ecosystems, and how these alterations in ecosystems structure and function will feedback into global cycles. In chapter 1, climate change is introduced and the inability of current global climate models to accurately reproduce the observed frequency and intensity of rainfall events is demonstrated. Patterns of satellite derived rainfall and forest cover are used in chapter 2 to show that the frequency and intensity of rainfall are the key determinates of ecosystem structure. Given that rainfall climatology determines ecosystem structure, a new modeling framework able to represent the complex three-dimensional nature of ecosystems is presented in chapter 3. The accurate representation of canopy allometry, species density, landscape dispersion, and size distributions are shown to provided improved estimates of the biophysical functions of photosynthesis and transpiration. In order to validate models of ecosystem functionality, detailed measurements of hydrologic fluxes, particularly the separate fluxes of evaporation and transpiration, are required. No standard methods exist for the partitioning of evapotranspiration and information beyond the bulk flux is required to attribute evapotranspiration components. The stable isotopes of water fill this observational need, and chapter 4 is a study of the measurement of the isotopic composition of evapotranspiration and its associated uncertainties. Isotope flux composition is used in chapter 5 to partition evapotranspiration fluxes and attribute the partitioning to biophysical and micro-meterological conditions. Finally, in chapter 6, partitioned evapotranspiration flux over a multi-year record shows how vegetation structure and rainfall climatology alter the partitioning of evapotranspiration, and shape the dynamics of moisture feedback into the global hydrologic cycle
Investigations in upscaling transport and geochemistry in porous media: Modeling carbon dioxide sequestration at the pore, continuum and reservoir scales by Juan Pablo Nogues( Book )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Geological Carbon Sequestration has been identified as one of the most promising technologies to bridge the gap between energy security and climate change mitigation. However, many questions arise about the ability to safely keep the injected CO2 in deep formations. In order to answer these questions and provide practical guidance for engineers and policymakers the use of computational models is employed on a daily basis. These models strive to accurately represent physical and chemical phenomena using functional relationships at scales much larger than the scales at which they have been originally derived. It is the intention of this dissertation to present several new methods and techniques in order to accurately represent physical and geochemical phenomena at different spatial and temporal scales. In Chapter 2 a new average pressure definition, herein called the first-order macro-scale pressure, is used to numerically upscale capillary pressure and relative permeability. The results from Chapter 2 show that the first-order marco-scale pressure does a much better job at developing unique and well-behaved upscaled curves than the commonly used intrinsic phase pressure definition. In Chapter 3 a new method to upscale mass transfer between two phases, which relies on the assumption of capillary equilibrium, is explored. The new method for upscaling mass transfer across phases is shown to do much better at representing the actual evolution of mass transfer across phases than assuming equilibrium flash calculations at larger scales. In Chapter 4 a methodology to upscale geochemical changes at the pore-scale is introduced in order to account for changes in porosity and intrinsic permeability at the continuum-scale. The methodology is used to find upscale porosity vs. permeability curves and show how they change depending on different inflowing pH conditions, pressure boundary condition and boundary mixing conditions. Ultimately, the curves found and presented in this chapter are derived for their use in continuum scale models. A detailed analysis of how each scenario produces different evolution is presented. In Chapter 5 a reservoir scale model, which relies on multi-scale assumptions to model certain physical phenomena at larger scales, is used to assess the risk of leakage in a potential geological site with abandoned wells. The results of Chapter 5 are used to derive policy recommendations that try to bridge the gap between uncertainty in leakage scenarios and practical rule making. At the end of Chapter 5 a list of recommendation to policy makers based on the computational results. Finally, in Chapter 6 an extension of the work presented in Chapter 5 is done by exploring the possible benefits and limitations of using pressure-monitoring wells to detect potential leakage events. It is shown that monitoring for pressure perturbations compared to monitoring for CO2 plumes provide a better option for leakage detection
Water for biodiversity and food: Neutral model, network analysis, and predictions under change by Megan Konar( Book )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The first theme of my dissertation explores the intersection between ecology and hydrology. In particular, I focus on links between species diversity and freshwater resources. First, I explore the relationship between freshwater resources and tree diversity using a neutral model. I then present a synthesis of the key hydrologic drivers of biological diversity. My work on hydrology and biodiversity is presented in Chapters 2-3
Quantifying Past and Future Climate Extremes: Characteristics, Uncertainties and Improvements by Wang Zhan( Book )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In recent years, it has been widely recognized that a potential change in climate extreme events will occur under a warming climate. Understanding present and future changes in weather and climate extremes is critical to manage disaster risk and advance climate change adaptation. To date, certain aspects of extreme precipitation and temperature events have been analyzed in previous studies, such as increasing frequency of hot days with extreme high temperatures, reduced frequency of extreme cold days and increases in intense precipitation events. However, a large part remains unknown, especially over some sparsely observed regions, e.g. Africa due to complexity of the problem, making it difficult to interpret the spatiotemporal evolvement of extreme events. This dissertation aims to advance fundamental understandings on the depiction skills of past and future climate extremes in observations, reanalyses and climate projections as well as potential improvements via data assimilation techniques. In Chapter 2, five reanalyses precipitation datasets are assessed on their reconstruction of drought properties over Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1979 to 2012. Skills in depicting the spatiotemporal characteristics of droughts are quantified for reanalyses products. Chapter 3 builds on the evaluation of reanalyses precipitation datasets and includes real-time satellite rainfall products. The depiction of global drought events by four reanalyses and three satellite precipitation estimates are compared against an observational reference dataset, Princeton Global Forcing (PGF) data. Chapter 4 analyzes projected changes in the characteristic of extreme temperature and precipitation events including frequency, seasonal timing, maximum spatial and temporal extent as well as severity based on a suite of 37 climate models archived in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Chapter 5 presents a Monte Carlo based assimilation procedure to integrate soil moisture information into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model to improve real-time, satellite precipitation estimates. In the context of weather and climate extremes, the results of this dissertation show a path towards evaluating spatiotemporal characteristic of extreme events. This work also demonstrates potential improvements to real-time hydrologic states and fluxes estimates through data assimilation
Mapping Sub-Saharan African agriculture in high-resolution satellite imagery with computer vision & machine learning by Stephanie Renee Debats( Book )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis furthers the goal of providing accurate agricultural landcover maps, at a scale that is relevant for the dominant smallholder class. Accurate maps are crucial for monitoring and promoting agricultural production. Furthermore, improved agricultural landcover maps will aid a host of other applications, including landcover change assessments, cadastral surveys to strengthen smallholder land rights, and constraints for crop modeling and famine prediction
CO2, methane, and brine leakage through subsurface pathways : exploring modeling, measurement, and policy options by Mary Kang( Book )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To estimate leakage rates and the associated pressure effects on adjacent aquifers, analytical models representing fluid flow in the vicinity of leaky faults are developed in Chapter 2. The incorporation of this kind of fault model in larger basin-wide multi-scale models allows sub-grid-scale effects due to leakage through faults to be captured with improved efficiency. The corresponding multi-scale framework that accounts for vertical leakage to the overlying aquifer, and horizontal flows perpendicular and parallel to a fault within a grid block, is presented in Chapter 3
Surface-atmosphere interaction: The impact of buoyancy and heterogeneity by Dan Li( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Surface-atmosphere interaction has significant impacts on atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and weather and climate variability. In this thesis, the effect of buoyancy and heterogeneity on surface-atmosphere interaction is examined using a combination of analytical, numerical and experimental approaches. The thesis is broadly separated into two parts: the first part focuses on the buoyancy effect (Chapters 2, 3 and 4) and the second part focuses on the heterogeneity effect (Chapters 5, 6, 7)
Geologic carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers: Brine acidification and geochemical alterations of reactive leakage pathways by Brian Robert Ellis( Book )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Of all geologic storage options, CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers offers the largest potential storage opportunity, as these formations are nearly ubiquitous throughout the globe and have little to no economic value. However, CO2 dissolution into formation brines will lead to acidification, which may promote acid-catalyzed mineral dissolution in both the injection formation and, more importantly, along reactive leakage pathways in overlying low permeability caprock formations. Understanding the extent of brine acidification likely to occur in these formations and its impact on caprock seal integrity is a necessary first step in evaluating leakage risk associated with geologic carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers
An investigation on the effects of herbaceous plants on the biogeochemistry of wetland sediments by Shangping Xu( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Seasonal Predictability of Drought and the Importance of Land-Atmosphere Interactions by Joshua K Roundy( Book )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Hydrologic extremes in the form of flood and drought have large impacts on society. The ability to predict such extreme events at seasonal timescale allows for preparations that can reduce the risk of these events. However, seasonal prediction skill of global climate models varies seasonally and spatially, which severely limits their practical use. In this thesis a framework for assessing and attributing the seasonal predictability through a probabilistic predictability metric based on model skill across temporal and spatial scales; i.e. for the canonical events was developed and demonstrated. The attribution of predictability specific to land-atmosphere interactions and drought is also developed through a new classification of land-atmosphere interactions that includes the Coupling Drought Index (CDI). The CDI was used to understand the current predictability in NCEPs Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) and the new classification of coupling is used to develop statistical models to isolate attributes of predictability relevant to land-atmosphere interactions and drought. The results show clear seasonal and spatial patterns of predictability that vary with each forecast variable and provide a better understanding of when and where to have confidence in model predictions. The new classification of coupling indicates strong persistence and the CDI shows good agreement with the temporal and spatial variability of drought and highlights the role of coupling in drought recovery. The CDI in the CFSv2 forecasts indicates climatological bias toward the wet coupling regime that precludes the forecast model from consistently predicting and maintaining drought over the continental US. The attribution of the CFSv2 forecasts skill in the summer indicates that the local persistence of initial conditions provides some predictability over the hindcast period and for specific drought events, however the skill is greatly enhanced by the inclusion of spatial interactions. Furthermore, the statistical model based on correcting coupling bias in CFSv2 provides an unbiased prediction and maintained a similar level of skill and provided better precipitation predictions during the 1988 drought. This argues that the wet bias in the coupling limits the precipitation predictability during drought events. The synthesis and extension of the results is also discussed
An Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneities in the Carbon and Water Cycles of Savanna Ecosystems by Frances C O'Donnell( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Carbon cycling in dryland ecosystems is complicated by three interrelated factors that pose challenges in characterizing current dynamics and predicting future change: 1) large pulses of ecosystem respiration occur when dry soils are rewetted, 2) a patchy distribution of vegetation leads to spatial heterogeneity in carbon stocks and fluxes, and 3) a large fraction of carbon is stored in belowground pools making it inherently more difficult to study. In this dissertation, I seek to address these issues through the development and application of landscape-scale ecosystem models, as well as field experiments and field observations from the Kalahari savannas of Southern Africa. In Chapter 2, I use new measurement techniques to characterize spatial and temporal variability. I compare the spatial pattern of soil carbon, woody plant canopies and root systems, which I mapped using ground penetrating radar, and use continuous in situ measurements of soil CO2 concentrations during experimental wetting treatments to determine the relationship between soil moisture and soil respiration at a fine temporal scale. Woody plant roots are the primary determinant of the spatial distribution of soil carbon, and soil respiration responds to fluctuations in soil moisture in a way that most large-scale models are unable to account for. To account for these factors I develop in Chapter 3 a steady-state, semi-analytical model of soil carbon stocks that uses a probabilistic description of vegetation structure and a multiplicative noise approximation of decomposition dynamics. The model results are sensitive to the parameters describing the spatial extent of woody plant root systems. I present the results of the excavation and mapping of complete root systems in Chapter 4 that better characterize rooting structure for modeling applications. I observed a high degree of species-level diversity that is not accounted for in the previously presented modeling framework. I conclude in Chapter 5 by developing a stochastic above- and belowground model of the abundance and distribution of biomass that incorporates these new results. It provides a framework for the future development of models of dryland carbon, water, and energy balance
Teaching and scholarship in the grand tradition of modern engineering : a Symposium in Honor of David P. Billington at seventy-five and forty-five years of teaching at Princeton University : May 2-3, 2003 by Symposium on Honor of David P. Billington( Book )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Influence of hydrophytic vegetation on biogeochemical processes within contaminated wetland systems by Jeffery S Paull( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The body of research contained within this dissertation serves to shed light onto the influence hydrophyte communities exhibit on biogeochemical processes and subsequently on metal mobility within wetland systems. The focus of the first thesis is centered on the role macrophytes play in enhancing the sequestrative processes for contaminates within constructed wetlands receiving nonpoint source pollution. Vegetated and unvegetated plugflow microcosms were constructed and operated such that an enhanced understanding of the governing redox process and newly observed diurnal biogeochemical process manipulation was uncovered. These findings are directly applicable to newly published stormwater regulations and thus provide direct benefit to the larger body of knowledge relating to stormwater management requirements. In an effort to better understand seasonal and hydrologic variability, and the associated impact on redox governing processes within the rhizosphere environment, a new semi-permanent dialysis porewater sampler was designed, constructed and field tested with positive results validated by extensive seasonal data. These new samplers, and the information gleaned in support of the associated theses, allow for an enhanced understanding of the biogeochemical processes within the rhizosphere as well observe the impacts of redox shaping controls on metal mobility within wetland systems. A duel pronged approach was completed with enhanced sampler deployments within natural and constructed wetland systems. Experimental sequence captured monthly data sets, inclusive of iron, sulfur, lead, arsenic, chromium and organic carbon, over one full season for three separate locations. Lastly, a robust experimental wetland system was constructed and operated under varying hydrologic conditions uncovering not only details pertaining to the reductive interaction of iron, sulfur and chromium within but highlighting the sequestrative potential an enhanced wetland system can provide in managing contaminates within the rhizosphere
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Alternative Names

controlled identityPrinceton University

controlled identityPrinceton University. Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

Princeton University. Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

English (21)