WorldCat Identities

Schott, Peter K.

Works: 73 works in 426 publications in 1 language and 2,175 library holdings
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330.072
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Peter K Schott
Distance, skill deepening and development : will peripheral countries ever get rich? by Stephen Redding( Book )

20 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 79 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper models the relationship between countries' distance from global economic activity, endogenous investments in education, and economic development. Firms in remote locations pay greater trade costs on both exports and intermediate imports, reducing the amount of value added left to remunerate domestic factors of production. If skill-intensive sectors have higher trade costs, more pervasive input-output linkages, or stronger increasing returns to scale, we show theoretically that remoteness depresses the skill premium and therefore incentives for human capital accumulation. Empirically, we exploit structural relationships from the model to demonstrate that countries with lower market access have lower levels of educational attainment. We also show that the world's most peripheral countries are becoming increasingly remote over time
Product choice and product switching by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

20 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper develops a model of endogenous product selection by firms. The theory is motivated by new evidence we present on the importance of product switching by U.S. manufacturers. Two-thirds of continuing firms change their product mix every five years, and product switches involve more than 40% of firm output and almost half of existing products. The theoretical model incorporates heterogeneous firms, heterogeneous products, and ongoing entry and exit. In equilibrium, firm productivity is correlated with product fixed costs, with the most productive firms choosing to make the products with the highest fixed costs. Changes in market structure result in systematic patterns of firm entry/exit and product switching
Factor price equality and the economies of the United States by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

21 editions published between 2000 and 2005 in English and held by 69 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We develop a methodology for identifying departures from relative factor price equality across regions that is valid under general assumptions about production, markets and factors. Application of this methodology to the United States reveals substantial and increasing deviations in relative skilled wages across labor markets in both 1972 and 1992 . These deviations vary systematically with labor markets' industry structure both in cross section and over time
Survival of the best fit : competition from low wage countries and the uneven growth of US manufacturing plants by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

19 editions published between 2002 and 2005 in English and held by 61 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We examine the relationship between import competition from low wage countries and the reallocation of US manufacturing from 1977 to 1997. Both employment and output growth are slower for plants that face higher levels of low wage import competition in their industry. As a result, US manufacturing is reallocated over time towards industries that are more capital and skill intensive. Differential growth is driven by a combination of increased plant failure rates and slower growth of surviving plants. Within industries, low wage import competition has the strongest effects on the least capital and skill intensive plants. Surviving plants that switch industries move into more capital and skill intensive sectors when they face low wage competition
Comparative advantage and heterogeneous firms by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

17 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper presents a model of international trade that features heterogeneous firms, relative endowment differences across countries, and consumer taste for variety. The paper demonstrates that firm reactions to trade liberalization generate endogenous Ricardian productivity responses at the industry level that magnify countries' comparative advantage. Focusing on the wide range of firm-level reactions to falling trade costs, the model also shows that, as trade costs fall, firms in comparative advantage industries are more likely to export, that relative firm size and the relative number of firms increases more in comparative advantage industries and that job turnover is higher in comparative advantage industries than in comparative disadvantage industries
Falling trade costs, heterogeneous firms, and industry dynamics by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

17 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 55 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the response of industries and firms to changes in trade costs. Several new firm-level models of international trade with heterogeneous firms predict that industry productivity will rise as trade costs fall due to the reallocation of activity across plants within an industry. Using disaggregated U.S. import data, we create a new measure of trade costs over time and industries. As the models predict, productivity growth is faster in industries with falling trade costs. We also find evidence supporting the major hypotheses of the heterogenous-firm models. Plants in industries with falling trade costs are more likely to die or become exporters. Existing exporters increase their shipments abroad. The results do not apply equally across all sectors but are strongest for industries most likely to be producing horizontally-differentiated tradeable goods
One size fits all? : Heckscher-Ohlin specialization in global production by Peter K Schott( Book )

12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 54 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many previous tests of Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory have found underwhelming support for the idea that countries' endowments determine their production and trade. This paper demonstrates that those efforts suffer from their focus on the narrower of the model's two potential equilibria, which assumes that all countries produce all goods. In this paper we introduce a more general technique for testing the model that allows for the possibility that countries with sufficiently disparate endowments specialize in unique subsets of goods. Results using this technique indicate strong support for Heckscher-Ohlin specialization versus one-size-fits-all homogeneity. Our results also demonstrate that the empirical evaluation of trade models has been hampered by the coarse aggregation of output inherent in existing datasets. Indeed, we show that traditional categorizations of goods hide a substantial degree of cross-country price and input intensity heterogeneity, violating the assumptions of the factor proportions framework and rendering previous estimation results difficult to interpret. To overcome this problem, we introduce a methodology for aggregating goods that corrects for underlying product variation. Estimation of the model using corrected aggregates reveals even stronger support for Heckscher-Ohlin specialization. The importance of specialization for the evolution of developed country wage inequality is also discussed
Do rich and poor countries specialize in a different mix of goods? : evidence from product-level US trade data by Peter K Schott( Book )

12 editions published in 2001 in English and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Unit values of US imports at the product level reveal a substantial degree of vertical product differentiation among countries exporting to the US. This specialization is not apparent by looking solely at trade flows. Two trends stand out. First, the portion of US import products originating in either rich or poor countries exclusively has fallen dramatically as US trade barriers have fallen, from 41% in 1972 to 17% in 1994. Indeed, by 1994, nearly three quarters the products imported into the US were sourced simultaneously from rich and poor countries. Second, within-product unit value dispersion is positively and significantly correlated with source country income: men's shirts imported from Japan in 1994, for example, are about thirty times as expensive as shirts originating in the Philippines. These unit value premia, and their increase over time, are consistent with the factor proportions framework but convey a stark warning: industry trade flow data alone are too coarse to meet the assumptions underlying most tests of trade theory
Products and productivity by Peter K Schott( Book )

18 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Firms' decisions about which goods to produce are often made at a more disaggregate level than the data observed by empirical researchers. When products differ according to production technique or the way in which they enter demand, this data aggregation problem introduces a bias into standard measures of firm productivity. We develop a theoretical model of heterogeneous firms endogenously self-selecting into heterogeneous products. We characterize the bias introduced by unobserved variation in product mix across firms, and the implications of this bias for identifying firm and industry responses to exogenous policy shocks such as deregulation. More generally, we demonstrate that product switching gives rise to a richer set of industry-level dynamics than models where firm product mix remains fixed"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
U.S. imports, exports and tariff data, 1989-2001 by Robert C Feenstra( Book )

10 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: This paper describes the updating of the NBER trade dataset, which now provides U.S. import and export values to the year 2001, disaggregated by Harmonized System (HS), Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), and the U.S. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) categories. In addition, U.S. tariff data at the HS level have been added for the years 1989-2001. Earlier CD-ROMs distributed by the NBER described data on U.S. imports and exports from 1972-1994, and these values have been slightly modified for 1989-1994 and then updated to 2001. Together with the earlier data, there are now 30 years of disaggregate U.S. trade data available to researchers. These data, along with the tariff information for 1989-2001, are all available over the internet at
Multi-product firms and product switching by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

17 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the frequency, pervasiveness and determinants of product switching among U.S. manufacturing firms. We find that two-thirds of firms alter their mix of five-digit SIC products every five years, that one-third of the increase in real U.S. manufacturing shipments between 1972 and 1997 is due to the net adding and dropping of products by survivors, and that firms are more likely to drop products which are younger and have smaller production volumes relative to other firms producing the same product. The product-switching behavior we observe is consistent with an extended model of industry dynamics emphasizing firm heterogeneity and self-selection into individual product markets. Our findings suggest that product switching contributes towards a reallocation of economic activity within firms towards more productive uses
Is Mexico a lumpy country? by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

11 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 38 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mexico's experience before and after trade liberalization presents a challenge to neoclassical trade theory. Though labor abundant, it nevertheless exported skill-intensive goods and protected labor-intensive sectors prior to liberalization. Post-liberalization, the relative wage of skilled workers rose. Courant and Deardorff (1992) have shown theoretically that an extremely uneven distribution of factors within a country can induce behavior at odds with overall comparative advantage. We demonstrate the importance of this insight for developing countries. We show that Mexican regions exhibit substantial variation in skill abundance, offer significantly different relative factor rewards, and produce disjoint sets of industries. This heterogeneity helps to both undermine Mexico's aggregate labor abundance and motivate behavior that is more consistent with relative skill abundance
Importers, exporters, and multinationals : a portrait of firms in the U.S. that trade goods by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

15 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 37 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper provides an integrated view of globally engaged U.S. firms by exploring a newly developed dataset that links U.S. international trade transactions to longitudinal data on U.S. enterprises. These data permit examination of a number of new dimensions of firm activity, including how many products firms trade, how many countries firms trade with, the characteristics of those countries, the concentration of trade across firms, whether firms transact at arms length or with related parties, and whether firms import as well as export. Firms that trade goods play an important role in the U.S., employing more than a third of the U.S. workforce. We find that the most globally engaged U.S. firms, i.e. those that both export to and import from related parties, dominate U.S. trade flows and employment at trading firms. We also find that firms that begin trading between 1993 and 2000 experience especially rapid employment growth and are a major force in overall job creation
A note on the empirical implementation of lens condition by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

10 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Deardorff [Journal of International Economics 36 (1994) 167-175] offers an intuitively appealing test for factor price equality (FPE). He demonstrates that FPE is impossible if the set (i.e., lens) of points defined by regional factor abundance vectors does not lie within the set of points defined by goods' input intensities. This note demonstrates that empirical implementation of the lens condition is problematic if the "true" number of either goods or regions is unknown. We show that satisfaction of the lens condition is more likely when goods are relatively disaggregate compared to regions"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Transfer pricing by U.S. based multinational firms by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines how prices set by multinational firms vary across arm's-length and related-party customers. Comparing prices within firms, products, destination countries, modes of transport and month, we find that the prices U.S. exporters set for their arm's-length customers are substantially larger than the prices recorded for related-parties. This price wedge is smaller for commodities than for differentiated goods, is increasing in firm size and firm export share, and is greater for goods sent to countries with lower corporate tax rates and higher tariffs. We also find that changes in exchange rates have differential effects on arm's-length and related-party prices; an appreciation of the dollar reduces the difference between the prices
Multi-product firms and trade liberalization by Andrew B Bernard( Book )

14 editions published between 2006 and 2009 in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper develops a general equilibrium model of multi-product firms and analyzes their behavior during trade liberalization. Firm productivity in a given product is modeled as a combination of firm-level "ability" and firm-product-level "expertise", both of which are stochastic and unknown prior to the firm's payment of a sunk cost of entry. Higher firm-level ability raises a firm's productivity across all products, which induces a positive correlation between a firm's intensive (output per product) and extensive (number of products) margins. Trade liberalization fosters productivity growth within and across firms and in aggregate by inducing firms to shed marginally productive products and forcing the lowest-productivity firms to exit. Though exporters produce a smaller range of products after liberalization, they increase the share of products sold abroad as well as exports per product. All of these adjustments are shown to be relatively more pronounced in countries' comparative advantage industries
The relative sophistication of Chinese exports by Peter K Schott( Book )

10 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 25 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the relative "sophistication" of China's exports to the United States along two dimensions. First, I compare China's export bundle to those of the relatively skill- and capital-abundant members of the OECD as well as to similarly endowed U.S. trading partners. Second, I examine prices within product categories to determine if China's varieties command a premium relative to its level of development
Trade liberalization and embedded institutional reform : evidence from Chinese exporters by Amit Khandelwal( Book )

12 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

If trade barriers are managed by inefficient institutions, trade liberalization can lead to greater-than-expected gains. We examine Chinese textile and clothing exports before and after the removal of externally imposed quotas. Both the surge in export volumes and the decline in prices after the quota removal are driven by net entry, implying that the pre-liberalization quota allocation is not based on firm productivity. Removing this misallocation accounts for a substantial share of the overall productivity gains associated with the quota removal
The surprisingly swift decline of U.S. manufacturing employment by Justin Pierce( Book )

12 editions published between 2012 and 2014 in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper finds a link between the sharp drop in U.S. manufacturing employment beginning in 2001 and a change in U.S. trade policy that eliminated potential tariff increases on Chinese imports. Industries where the threat of tariff hikes declines the most experience more severe employment losses along with larger increases in the value of imports from China and the number of firms engaged in China-U.S. trade. These results are robust to other potential explanations of the employment loss, and we show that the U.S. employment trends differ from those in the EU, where there was no change in policy
Assessing the impact of trade liberalization on import-competing industries in the Appalachian Region by Andrew B Bernard( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Alternative Names
Schott, Peter

English (277)