WorldCat Identities

Gaigné, Carl

Works: 60 works in 93 publications in 2 languages and 165 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Author, Other, Opponent, Editor, Thesis advisor, Redactor
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Carl Gaigné
Supply uncertainty and foreign direct investments in agri-food industry by Mankan M Koné( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 25 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate whether and to what extent agricultural uncertainty drives the location of capital in the food processing industry. We show that when a risk-neutral food company has the possibility of exercising market power as both seller and buyer, the impact of agricultural uncertainty on the decision of producing abroad depends on whether the multinational makes the pricing/production decision before or after uncertainty is revealed. An econometric study is then needed to identify the mechanisms at work. The theoretical implications are tested by using a gravity model on European countries’ and the United States’ outward FDI stock, detailed by destination country in the agri-food industry. Overall, our results suggest that a higher agricultural volatility in the home country triggers investments abroad and that a host country exhibiting low agricultural uncertainty attracts relatively more foreign capital. Moreover, international differences in agricultural uncertainty generate incentives for vertical disintegration by food companies, especially when trade costs are sufficiently low
The gains from preferential tax regimes reconsidered by Carl Gaigné( Book )

5 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The EU policy against harmful tax competition aims at eliminating tax policies targeted at attracting the internationally mobile tax base. We examine this issue by considering two countries which decide their corporate tax rates their tax regimes (discriminatory or non-discriminatory tax policy). Firms produce under imperfect competition and trade between countries is costly. The endogenous spatial allocation of mobile firms depends upon different parameters of the economy while the distribution of immobile firms is exogenous. We show that countries discriminate against immobile firms when trade costs are high. Trade integration makes imposing the same tax on all firms more appealing such that, at low trade costs, the unique Nash equilibrium is characterized by uniform corporate taxes being set by both governments. However, when trade costs reach intermediates values, fiscal competition may lead to tax discrimination while uniform taxation is socially preferred
Aging nations and the future of cities by Carl Gaigné( Book )

6 editions published between 2004 and 2009 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We investigate whether an aging population may challenge the supremacy of large working-cities. To this end, we develop an economic geography model with two types of individuals (workers and retirees) and two sectors (local services and manufacturing). Workers produce and consume; the elderly consume only. As a result, the mobility decision of workers is driven by both the wage gap and the cost-of-living gap, unlike the elderly who react to the differences in the cost of living only. We show that the return of pre-industrial urban system dominated by rentier cities does not seem to be on the agenda. Quite the opposite, the future of large working-cities is still bright, the reason being that todays urban costs act as a strong force that prevents a large share of local services and manufacturing firms from following the rentiers in the elderly-cities, while the supply of differentiated b2c services prevent their complete separation
Is the regulation of the transport sector always detrimental to consumers? by Kristian Behrens( Book )

5 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Agglomeration, city size and crime by Carl Gaigné( Book )

4 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper analyzes the relationship between crime and agglomeration where the land, labor, product, and crime markets are endogenously determined. We show that in bigger cities there is relatively more crime, a standard stylized fact of most cities in the world. We also show that, in the short run when individuals are not mobile, a reduction in commuting costs (or a better access to jobs) decreases crime while, in the long run with free mobility, the effect is ambiguous. Finally, we show that the most efficient way of reducing total crime is to use both a transportation and a crime policy that decreases commuting costs and increases policy resources
Are compact cities environmentally friendly? by Carl Gaigné( Book )

5 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

There is a large consensus among international institutions and national governments to favor urban-containment policies - the compact city - as a way to improve the ecological performance of the urban system. This approach overlooks a fundamental fact: what matters for the ecological outcome of cities is the mix between the level of population density and the global pattern of activities. As expected, when both the intercity and intraurban distributions of activities are given, a higher population density makes cities more environmentally friendly. However, once we account for the fact that cities may be either monocentric or polycentric as well as for the possible relocation of activities between cities, the relationship between population density and the ecological performance of cities appears to be much more involved. Indeed, because changes in population density affect land rents and wages, firms and workers are incited to relocate, thus leading to new commuting and shipping patterns. We show that policies favoring the decentralization of jobs may be more environmentally desirable
How to make the metropolitan area work? : neither big government, nor laissez-faire by Carl Gaigné( Book )

4 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We study how political boundaries and fiscal competition interact with the labor and land markets to determine the economic structure and performance of metropolitan areas. Contrary to general belief, institutional fragmentation need not be welfare-decreasing, and commuting from the suburbs to the central city is not wasteful. Thus, the institutional and economic limits of the central city do not coincide at the social optimum. Under tax competition, the central business district is too small. The dispersion of jobs is increased when suburbanite workers consume the public services supplied by the central city. This indicates the need for some metropolitan governance
Amenities and the social structure of cities by Carl Gaigné( Book )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We develop a new model of a "featureful" city in which locations are differentiated by two attributes, that is, the distance to employment centers and the accessibility to given amenities, and we show how heterogeneous households in income are sorted out across the urban space. Under Stone-Geary preferences, the spatial income distribution is governed by a location-quality index which reflects the interaction between the amenity and commuting cost functions. The residential equilibrium typically involves the spatial separation of households sharing similar incomes. Using data on Dutch cities, we show that there is a causal relationship between the amenity level and consumer income, suggesting that richer households sort themselves into high amenity locations. We do not find strong evidence that employment accessibility leads to income segregation, suggesting that the standard monocentric city model without amenities is a poor predictor of the social structure of cities
Three essays in international trade in the agricultural sector by Wendkouni Jean-Baptiste Zongo( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In standard trade models with constant average cost, the firm's sales in any given market is related to other markets only through price indices which are treated as exogenous in the firm's optimization. With cost convexity, the firm's decision in any given market is directly tied to sales in other markets through an index aggregating the trade cost-adjusted market size of the destinations supplied by the firm. The difference made by increasing costs is that the firm is cognizant that by changing its sales in a given destination it changes its unit cost for all destinations. This in turn triggers extensive and intensive margins adjustments. In the first essay, we develop a theoretical framework to address the incidence of increasing marginal costs and capacity constraints on trade at the extensive and the intensive margins and on export duration. Under convex costs, an increase in productivity may not increase the number of destinations supplied by a firm, making "ins and outs", not just new entries. We generated empirical evidence in support of the aforementioned trade adjustments by assessing the incidence of lagged foregone exports on exports to "fallback markets" and on export survival. Exports to the fallback markets systematically increase in response to foregone sales from terminated trade flows. Similarly, the sum of foregone sales from terminated trade flows make existing trade flows more resilient, less prone to an export failure. A distinguishing feature of our survival models is that they test and correct for the endogeneity of tariffs. Previous studies reported peculiar results about the incidence of tariff on export survival. We too find wrong signs when tariff is treated as an exogenous variable, but we find that higher tariffs increase the likelihood of export failures when tariff endogeneity is addressed. The second essay investigates the dynamic impacts of animal disease outbreak on cattle and beef trade accounting for vertical linkage between cattle and beef. The empirical framework features a multi-sample selection model (MSSM) to investigate how animal-specific diseases affect aggregate trade flows at the extensive and intensive margins of trade in livestock and meat products over time, accounting for constraints imposed by the technological linkages between livestock and meat productions. The spontaneous emergence of foot and mouth disease adversely impacts the extensive and intensive margins of trade in cattle and beef for seven years. Our results show that the extensive margin effects of the disease outbreak are larger than its corresponding intensive margin effects. Regarding cross-species effects, the avian flu and swine fever reduce the probability and the level of trade in cattle and beef. The third essay studies a counterfactual experiment about the elimination of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the foot and mouth diseases (FMD) on beef trade flows. Disease outbreak alerts typically prompt importing countries to impose trade bans. The bans vary a lot across importing countries in terms of product coverage and duration. We rely on a unique balanced panel dataset that covers 4-digit disaggregated beef product over the 1996-2013 period. Previous gravity studies reported only partial trade flow effects. However, a large shock like the complete elimination of BSE and FMD diseases must affect the inward and outward multilateral resistance indices (i.e., the importing countries' barriers on beef imports from all sources and the trade barriers faced by exporting countries in all destinations), factory-gate prices, consumer expenditures and the value of beef production in exporting countries. Our results confirm that the indirect channels through which BSE and FMD impact trade are important when it comes to measuring welfare gains. Interestingly, our counterfactual experiment suggests that Canada would be one of the countries gaining the most from BSE and FMD eradication
Essays on uncertainty and foreign direct investments by Mankan M Koné( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The three essays of this thesis explore the impact of uncertainty on FDI in the food industry by taking into account the specificities of the food value chain. FDI flows and stocks are very unstable and evidence suggests that uncertainty is the main factor causing frequent declines in FDI globally. We want to know whether and to what extent the uncertainty caused by the volatility of demand and supply affects FDI in the food processing industry by using theoretical and empirical models. The first essay empirically studies whether uncertainty related to variables such as volatile market demand, production variability and trade volatility affects the hazard rate of FDI in the food industry. As FDI is irreversible investment, it is likely to be delayed when uncertainty increases. Using a survival analysis model and bilateral FDI data, we find that volatility reduces the hazard rate of FDI. This behavior is observed in the food industry but also in other industries. However, not all sources of variability are relevant. For example, FDI by European and US multinational companies in the food industry is negatively affected by the import volatility of the country of destination. FDI of these countries in the chemical industry is negatively affected by the volatility of production. Export volatility plays a role in attracting foreign capitals in the transport equipment sector of host countries. The second essay provides a theoretical model to explain the choice between export and FDI given the uncertainty about the size of demand. The fact that FDI is delayed when uncertainty increases is explained by the wait-and-see behavior of multinational companies when investing in very uncertain foreign markets. FDI decisions can be considered as real options in which the decision to invest can be postponed to reduce uncertainty. We build a model that relies on the literature of real options. In addition to the uncertainty of demand, we also examine factors such as trade costs and the competitive environment. We find that intense competition, low product differentiation and reduction of trade barriers amplify the wait-and-see behavior of multinational firms. For example, trade liberalization can be harmful for FDI, as it increases the sensitivity of FDI to uncertainty and waiting becomes a more valuable option. In the last essay, we analyze FDI in the food processing industry, given the differences in the volatility of agricultural supply between countries. This analysis allow us to examine the issue of uncertainty in the food processing industry from a supply chain perspective, as we consider uncertainty in the upstream sector. In fact, variations of farm prices or of quantity delivered to processors by farmers are problematic as they are large and unpredictable. Consequently, food processing firms, as they use massively primary agricultural commodities as ingredients, are exposed to an increasing and persistent uncertainty. Our theoretical framework takes into account the market power of processors and horizontal and vertical FDI are discussed. We find that even risk-neutral companies are concerned by the variance of supply. Indeed, in the context of the food industry, the relationship between profit and supply shock is concave given imperfect competition and the timing of the resolution of uncertainty. Our empirical approach (a gravity model) confirms that multinational firms achieve their FDI decisions by considering the difference of supply shocks between countries as the volatility of the agricultural sector deters FDI.We test this prediction using bilateral FDI stocks data in the food processing industry
Inter-regional and international trade : seventy years after Ohlin( Book )

2 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Globalization, tax competition and fiscal equalization by Carl Gaigné( Book )

2 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Économie géographique et dispersion des activités productives : contributions à l'analyse de la localisation industrielle en zone rurale by Carl Gaigné( Book )

3 editions published between 2001 and 2003 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cette thèse vise à analyser les conditions et le caractère socialement souhaitable ou non de la dispersion spatiale des industries à partir de modèles de localisation d'équilibre général en situation de concurrence monopolistique de type Dixit-Stiglitz. Je montre, tout d'abord, de quelle manière le niveau d'activité des zones rurales est lié à l'évolution des valeurs relatives des coûts de transport des biens finaux et des biens intermédiaires ainsi que de l'évolution des technologies de production. A la suite de ces deux investigations théoriques, une analyse économétrique est menée montrant l'existence, pour un nombre important de secteurs, d'un arbitrage entre se localiser dans les zones où le coût du travail est relativement faible et se localiser à proximité des producteurs et demandeurs de biens intermédiaires. Enfin, les conditions pour lesquelles la dispersion des activités doit être favorisée sont déterminées au vu de critères d'efficacité et d'équité
Public quality standards and the food industry's structure in a global economy by Carl Gaigné( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Editorial to the special issue in memory of Jean-Pierre Huiban by Carl Gaigné( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Investissement direct et sous-traitance internationale dans les pays du Sud : le cas de la Tunisie. by Oubeid Rahmouni( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the early eighties, the liberalization of the world economy has led to a rapid evolution of the FDI flows essentially to the developing countries. This growth is the result of a structural change of the economic activity towards an international vertical specialization. Consequently, a new principle of analysis has emerged to arbitrate between the FDI and the international outsourcing.Our work is interested in the case of Tunisia and examines the evolution of the FDI inflows after the signing of the partnership agreement with the EU in 1995. This agreement represents a landmark in the liberalization process of the Tunisian economy meant to strengthen the traditional economic determinants.Our empirical study of the inflows between 1992 and 2008 for the 58 countries originating in the foreign investment in Tunisia shows that these investments have concentrated mainly on the sector of energy and on the textile and clothing industry. The main motivation of the foreign investors remains the search for cheap labour in a logical international division of labour. Furthermore, apart from some privatization operations generating important flows and concentrated in telecommunications and cement, the process of liberalization of the economic activity didn't have the expected effects on the incoming FDI flows
International spillovers and productivity : the French case by Haithem Ben Hassine( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In December 2004, the French public authorities launched the first call for projects kicking off the policy clusters, including Phase 3 launched by the government on 9 January 2013, with particular emphasis on issues of economic spinoffs clusters that should be amplified. The objective of this thesis is to verify the existence of such spinoffs (spillovers) from foreign direct investment (FDI) in the French case. Specifically, we analyze the impact of spillovers on the productivity of firms located in France and we want to know if the decisions to invest in R&D are closely related to the level of spillovers flowing between local firms and foreign firms operating in France. In the first chapter, we aim at verifying the existence of knowledge spilovers through two transmission channels: horizontal and vertical ones. We highlight that the know-how spreads on the one hand, between foreign customers and local supplier in the upstream sector (backward linkages) and on the other hand, between local suppliers and foreign customers in the downstream sector (forward linkages). We suggest that, in the French case, the knowledge spillovers occur primarily through backward spillovers, while spillovers within the same sector (horizontal spillovers) and spillovers diffused from the foreign suppliers to the local customers rather act as a brake on the productivity of firms located in France. In the second chapter, we focus on the incentive of firms to further invest in R&D with respect to the intensity of spillovers resulting from these activities. For this purpose, we build a theoretical model to explain the strategies of firms in terms of R&D based on the technological know-how disseminated by a foreign subsidiary in the host country (international R&D spillovers), know-how issued by a local firm (reverse R&D spillovers) and the know-how that being exchanged between the subsidiary firm and its parent company located in its home country (internal technological transfer). We show that taking into account these different channels of exogenous spillovers refers to the prisoner's dilemma where the diffusion of a high and comparable level of know-how encourages firms to invest in R&D and a low level of spillovers compared to a threshold value (determined based on the intensity of competition) forces them to reduce their R&D investment. In a context of asymmetric spillovers, the firm which more absorbs the technology of its competitor increases its investment in R&D. In the last chapter, we focus on international spillovers and reverse spillovers not only from R&D activities but also from outsourcing activities. We suggest that the effects of international spillovers on the productivity of firms in France are more important than those of reverse spillovers. As far as R&D spillovers are concerned, their effect on a firms' productivity is positive and significant in the upstream and downstream sector, but is more important for backward linkages. Concerning spillovers from outsourcing activities, the effect is only in favor of spillovers diffused by the contractor. These effects depend on the technological level of the sector concerned. The effect of spillovers on the productivity seems to be more important for firms belonging to high-tech sectors than for firms belonging to medium- and low-tech sectors

2 editions published in 2002 in Undetermined and French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Trade costs and international strategy of firms : the role of endogenous product differentiation by Pierre Blanchard( Book )

2 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'alimentation à découvert by J Abecassis( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'alimentation suscite aujourd'hui de multiples interrogations. Cet ouvrage se propose d'en faire le tour en exposant le plus simplement et le plus complètement possible l'état des connaissances scientifiques. Quels sont les déterminants du comportement alimentaire? Comment les comportements alimentaires évoluent-ils au cours d'une vie? Quels en sont les marqueurs culturels? Les évolutions historiques? Comment fabrique-t-on, et a-t-on fabriqué au cours de l'histoire, les aliments? Comment les conserve-t-on? Comment gérer les ressources? Quels sont les différents systèmes alimentaires? Qu'en est-il aujourd'hui des questions de famine? Quelles relations entretiennent la nutrition et la santé? Comment gérer les risques alimentaires dans des filières industrialisées? Quel encadrement juridique pour l'alimentation? Quels liens entre l'alimentation, l'environnement et l'occupation du territoire? C'est à toutes ces questions, et à bien d'autres, que répond cet ouvrage, en 127 chapitres. L'alimentation exige la pluridisciplinarité, aussi les auteurs rassemblés viennent-ils de communautés aussi diverses que les sciences humaines et sociales, les sciences biologiques et médicales, les sciences des aliments, et les sciences environnementales. Un panorama complet pour tout comprendre aux enjeux de l'alimentation au xxie siècle
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Alternative Names
Carl Gaigné wetenschapper

Gaigné, Carl 1972-...

English (44)

French (6)