WorldCat Identities

Migdalovitz, Carol

Works: 52 works in 193 publications in 1 language and 1,773 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author
Classifications: JK1108,
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Carol Migdalovitz
The Middle East peace talks by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

41 editions published between 1996 and 2006 in English and held by 397 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

After the first Gulf war, in 1991, a new peace process was begun, with Israel and the Palestinians discussing a five-year period of interim self-rule leading to a final settlement. Israel and Syria discussed Israeli withdrawal from the Golan Heights in exchange for peace. Israel and Jordan discussed relations. Israel and Lebanon focused on Israel's withdrawal from its self-declared security zone in south Lebanon and reciprocal Lebanese actions. On September 13, 1993, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) signed a Declaration of Principles (DOP), providing for Palestinian empowerment and some territorial control. Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and King Hussein of Jordan signed a Peace Treaty on October 26, 1994. Israel and the Palestinians signed an Interim Self-Rule in the West Bank/Oslo II accord on September 28, 1995. Israel continued implementing it despite the November 4 assassination of Prime Minister Rabin. Israel suspended talks with Syria after terror attacks in February/March 1996. They resumed in December 1999, but were postponed indefinitely after January 2000. Israel withdrew from south Lebanon on May 24, 2000
Cyprus : status of U.N. negotiations by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

28 editions published between 1999 and 2006 in English and held by 312 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Macedonian recognition : issues for Congress by Julie Kim( Book )

6 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 102 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Israel : background and relations with the United States by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

22 editions published between 2005 and 2010 in English and held by 35 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel declared its independence and was immediately engaged in a war with all of its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments. The Kadima Party placed first in the March 28, 2006, Knesset (parliament) election; Prime Minister Ehud Olmert formed a coalition government. Israel has an advanced industrial, market economy with a large government role. Israel's foreign policy is focused largely on its region, Europe, and the United States. Since 1948, the United States and Israel have developed a close friendship based on common democratic values, religious affinities, and security interests. U.S.-Israeli bilateral relations are multidimensional. The United States is the principal proponent of the Arab-Israeli peace process, but U.S. and Israeli views differ on some issues, such as the Golan Heights, Jerusalem, and settlements. The Bush Administration and Congress supported Israel's 2006 military campaigns against Hezbollah and Hamas as acts of self-defense. The United States and Israel concluded a free-trade agreement in 1985, and the United States is Israel's largest trading partner. Israel is a prominent recipient of U.S. foreign aid. The two countries also have close security relations. Other issues in U.S.-Israeli relations include Israel's military sales to China, inadequate Israeli protection of U.S. intellectual property, and espionage-related cases. This report will be updated as developments warrant. See also CRS Report RL33530, "Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy," and CRS Report RL33222, "U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel."
Western Sahara : status of settlement efforts by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

7 editions published between 2005 and 2008 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the 1970s, Morocco and the independence-seeking Popular Front for the Liberation of Saqiat al Hamra and Rio de Oro (Polisario) have vied for control of the Western Sahara, a former Spanish territory. In 1991, the United Nations arranged a cease-fire and proposed a settlement plan that called for a referendum to allow the people of the Western Sahara to choose between independence and integration into Morocco. A long deadlock on determining the electorate for a referendum ensued. Since 2001, the U.N. has unsuccessfully suggested alternatives to the unfulfilled settlement plan, particularly one formulated by James Baker. Latterly, the U.N. has called on the parties to negotiate. An end to the impasse is not in sight, and it has affected Algerian-Moroccan bilateral relations and wider regional cooperation. The United States supports U.N. efforts and a solution that would not destabilize its ally, Morocco. Congress supports a referendum and is frustrated by delays. This report will be updated if developments warrant. See also CRS Report RS21579, Morocco: Current Issues, and CRS Report RS21532, Algeria: Current Issues
Greece update by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

3 editions published between 2004 and 2007 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Greece : threat of terrorism and security at the Olympics by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

4 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The summer 2004 Olympic Games will take place in Athens, Greece, where their success is a point of national pride. The Greek government is planning unprecedented security measures to deal with possible terrorist threats. Attacks by Al Qaeda or its allies in Europe and elsewhere has heightened the government's awareness of the potential for terrorism at the Olympics. Athens believes that it has effectively dismantled major domestic terrorist groups in recent years and is preparing mainly for external threats, although anarchists and anti-globalization groups may be disruptive as well. The Greek Ministry of Public Order is in charge of security and Greece has requested assistance from NATO and others, including the United States. The U.S. Government is taking its own steps to protect the U.S. Olympic team. This report will be updated if developments warrant. See also CRS Report RS21529, "Al Qaeda after the Iraq Conflict," May 23, 2003, by Audrey Kurth Cronin, and the CRS Electronic Briefing Book "Terrorism" page on "Al Qaeda," which is updated regularly by Kenneth Katzman
Israel's disengagement from Gaza by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Turkey's 2007 elections : crisis of identity and power by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

4 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effort of Turkey's ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) to elect one of its own to be president of the Republic provoked a crisis. The nominee, the otherwise respected Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul, has roots in Turkey's Islamist movement and his wife wears a head scarf, which some secularists consider a symbol of both Islamism and backwardness. Moreover, because AKP already controls the prime ministry and parliament, it was argued that the balance of political power would be disturbed if the party also assumed the presidency
Cyprus status of U.N. negotiations and related issues by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

4 editions published between 2006 and 2008 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cyprus has been divided since 1974. Greek Cypriots, 76% of the population, live in the southern two-thirds of the island. Turkish Cypriots, 19% of the populace, live in the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by Turkey, with about 36,000 Turkish troops providing security. United Nations peacekeeping forces (UNFICYP) maintain a buffer zone between the two. Since the late 1970s, the U.N., with U.S. support, has promoted negotiations aimed at reuniting the island as a federal, bicommunal, bizonal republic
Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

14 editions published between 2006 and 2010 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

After the first Gulf war, in 1991, a new peace process consisting of bilateral negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon achieved mixed results. Milestones included the Israeli-Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Declaration of Principles (DOP) of September 13, 1993, providing for Palestinian empowerment and some territorial control, the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty of October 26, 1994, and the Interim Self-Rule in the West Bank or Oslo II accord of September 28, 1995, which led to the formation of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to govern the West Bank and Gaza Strip. However, Israeli-Syrian negotiations were intermittent and difficult, and postponed indefinitely in 2000. Israeli-Lebanese negotiations also were unsuccessful, leading Israel to withdraw unilaterally from south Lebanon on May 24, 2000. President Clinton held a summit with Israeli and Palestinian leaders at Camp David on final status issues that July, but they did not produce an accord. A Palestinian uprising or intifadah began in September. On February 6, 2001, Ariel Sharon was elected Prime Minister of Israel, and rejected steps taken at Camp David and afterwards
Tunisia : current issues by Carol Migdalovitz( Book )

4 editions published between 2003 and 2008 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Tunisia has a stable, authoritarian government led by President Zine ben Ali, who was elected to a fourth term on October 24, 2004. Ben Ali's Constitutional Democratic Rally party controls parliament, state and local governments, and most political activity. There are significant limitations on human rights but marked advancements for women and girls. Tunisia has experienced occasional attacks by Islamist terrorists, and Tunisian expatriates have been arrested in Europe and North America on terrorism-related charges. Tunisia is a non-oil-exporting, middle-class country with a diverse, growing economy, and high unemployment. It has long enjoyed good relations with the United States. This report will be updated as developments warrant
Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During a period of domestic political turmoil in spring and summer 2008, the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) government of Turkey continued to conduct a very active foreign policy aimed at portraying the country as a regional power and at improving relations with its neighbors. It has engaged Iraq in order to fight the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), a U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO); prevent the emergence of an independent Kurdish state in northern Iraq; and ensure the development of a stable neighbor. This engagement includes advances in both political and economic bilateral relations. Turkey also has been facilitating indirect Israeli-Syrian peace talks and improving political and economic ties to Syria. More controversially, the AKP has drawn closer to Iran, partly because Turkey believes that it would be harmed by a possible conflict over Iran's nuclear program and partly because it seeks to diversify its sources of energy. The AKP has continued to act on its EU ambitions and offers Turkey as a bridge between its neighbors and Europe. However, Turkey's policy toward Cyprus may impede progress toward EU membership, and its approach to the Cyprus settlement talks may not be as constructive as it was in 2004. Finally, Turkey ssssssssssss relations with Armenia have been troubled, mainly because of its refusal to recognize the Armenian genocide of the early 20th century and Nagorno-Karabakh issues
Turkey : issues for U.S. policy by Carol Migdalovitz( )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Iran: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As the Administration and Congress move forward to pursue engagement, harsher sanctions, or both, regional actors are evaluating their policies and priorities with respect to Iran. Iran's neighbors share many U.S. concerns, but often evaluate them differently than the United States when calculating their own relationship with or policy toward Iran. Because Iran and other regional concerns-the Arab-Israeli peace process, stability in Lebanon and Iraq, terrorism, and the ongoing war in Afghanistan-have become increasingly intertwined, understanding the policies and perspectives of Iran's neighbors could be crucial during the consideration of options to address overall U.S. policy toward Iran
Iraq : Turkey, the deployment of U.S. forces, and related issues by Carol Migdalovitz( )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On March 1, 2003, the Turkish parliament rejected a resolution authorizing the deployment of U.S. forces to Turkey to open a northern front in a war against Iraq. The rejection resulted from strains within the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), an inexperienced leadership, competing influences, and the overwhelming opposition of Turkish public opinion. Moreover, the powerful Turkish military had not actively supported the government's position before the vote, and the President had suggested that the resolution would be unconstitutional. For a long time, Turkey had serious concerns about the prospect of a second Gulf war, and these affected the vote in parliament and the negotiations with the United States for the troop deployment. Concerns included fear that a war would lead to an independent Iraqi Kurdish state and inspire the revival of Turkish Kurdish separatism, worries over the fate of Iraqi Turkomans, who are ethnic kin of the Turks, potential economic losses, a potential refugee crisis on the Turkey-Iraq border, and possible detrimental effects on regional stability. The Bush Administration engaged in intensive diplomacy to gain Turkey's support. The negotiations reportedly produced several tentative agreements. The parliamentary resolution that was rejected would have enabled a U.S. deployment of troops, planes, and helicopters to Turkey. The United States would have provided Turkey with a $6 billion assistance package, some of which could have been used to support $24 billion loan guarantees. Until the funds were available, the Administration would have provided a bridge loan of $8.5 billion. It also would have provided enhanced trade benefits to Turkish businesses. A memorandum of understanding was said to have dealt with Turkish troops in northern Iraq and their coordination with U.S. forces. But the agreements were never concluded. After the war began, the Administration only wanted access to Turkey's airspace, which was granted on March 21, 2003, and to prevent Turkish forces from interfering in northern Iraq. Turkey agreed to provide food, fuel, and other non-lethal supplies for U.S. troops in northern Iraq. The United States will give Turkey $1 billion in aid, with which it can leverage $8.5 billion in loans. The Turkish parliament's failure to authorize the troop deployment has significant implications. To govern effectively, the AKP needs to mend strains and rebuild its political standing. Moreover, despite Turkey's increasing democratization, the AKP cannot ignore the military's great influence. The prolonged negotiations and the legislative defeat strained bilateral U.S.-Turkish relations. Both sides developed hard feelings which may take time to overcome. Turkey may be deprived of some influence concerning postwar Iraq, the Iraqi Kurds, and the Iraqi Turkomans. It also lost the substantial aid package that had been tied to acceptance of the U.S. deployment, although a smaller one has been appropriated. This report will not be updated. For background, see CRS Report RS21355, Turkey's November 3, 2002 National Election
Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference by Carol Migdalovitz( )

2 editions published between 2002 and 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

At the end of November 2007, the Bush Administration convened an international conference in Annapolis, Maryland, to officially revive the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian Authority (PA) President Mahmud Abbas reached a "Joint Understanding," in which they agreed to launch continuous bilateral negotiations in an effort to conclude a peace treaty by the end of 2008 and to simultaneously implement the moribund 2003 Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Both leaders are operating under significant domestic political constraints and they continue to disagree on many issues. Thus, their negotiations will be challenging. This report will not be updated. For background and future developments, see CRS Report RL33530, "Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy," by Carol Migdalovitz
Turkey: Update on Crisis of Identity and Power( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Secularism has been one of the fundamental and unchanging principles guiding the Turkish Republic since its founding in 1923. It also has been the principle that has produced considerable domestic political tension. Over the years, political parties have emerged that appeared to challenge that principle and to strive to restore religion to a central place in the state. Each time, the party has eventually been banned from the political stage. The Justice and Development Party (AKP), formed in 2001, has Islamist roots and claims to be conservative and democratic. The AKP won the 2002 and 2007 national elections by wide margins, yet its victories have not ended the secular-religious tensions in the country
Morocco : current issues by Carol Migdalovitz( )

2 editions published between 2003 and 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The United States government views Morocco as a moderate Arab regime, an ally against terrorism, and a free trade partner. King Mohammed VI retains supreme power but has taken incremental liberalizing steps. Since 9/11, Moroccan expatriates have been implicated in international terrorism, and Morocco has suffered terrorist attacks. Morocco takes a proactive approach to countering terrorism, but some of its measures may be setting back progress in human rights. Morocco's foreign policy focuses largely on Europe, particularly France and Spain, and the United States. In the Middle East, it supports a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and has severed diplomatic relations with Iran for bilateral reasons
European Union Enlargement: A Status Report on Turkey's Accession Negotiations( )

3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

October 2009 marks the fourth anniversary of the European Union's decision to proceed with formal negotiations with Turkey toward full membership in the Union. And, on October 15, the European Commission issued its fourth formal report on Turkey's accession progress. The Commission's 2009 report, like its previous reports, was marked by a mixed assessment of Turkey's accomplishments thus far in working through the various chapters of the accession process that have been opened. The report, while noting some progress in judicial reform and relations with the Kurds and Armenia, and little progress in other areas, contained nothing new or dramatic. The Commission, unlike some in Europe, did not view its 2009 report as any more significant or important than previous annual reports. For some in Europe, the focus now shifts to December 2009, when the EU Council must decide the next steps in the accession process. Many "Turkey-skeptics" see December as a deadline for Turkish action that could mark a critical juncture for the future of Europe's relationship with Turkey and perhaps force EU member states into a difficult debate pitting loyalty to another member state, being shunned by a candidate for Union membership, versus Europe's long-term strategic interests in Turkey. The principal issues regarding Turkey's accession center around what the EU believes has been too slow of a pace for certain critical reforms within Turkey; a perceived ambivalence toward the EU by the current Turkish leadership; Turkey's failure to live up to its agreement to extend the benefits of its customs union with the EU to Cyprus, including the continued reluctance by Turkey to open its sea and air ports to Cypriot shipping and commerce until a political settlement has been achieved on Cyprus; and a continued skepticism on the part of many Europeans about whether Turkey should be embraced as a member of the European family
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English (152)