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Works: 1,202 works in 1,288 publications in 1 language and 1,588 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
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Some observations on the densification of alpine snow covers( )

2 editions published in 1967 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Through pit measurements on selected deep seasonal snow covers, observations have been made on the densification rates of dry snows. The variation between rates has been compared with such physical characteristics of the snow as temperature, grain size, and loading rate. The rate of densification does not appear to be affected by temperature in the -1 to -10 degrees C range but it is inversely proportional to grain size and sensitive to rates of loading during the formative stage of any particular snow layer. Values of compressive viscosity vary from 100,000 to 10 to the 9th power gm/sq cm per second which is an order of magnitude less than the lowest values for polar snow. Plots of specific volume against overburden reveal a sharp discontinuity at a specific volume of about 3.0 cu cm/gm. The persistence of this discontinuity from location to location indicates that it may reflect a real phenomenon. It is suggested that it may be accounted for by extremely high strain rates at low densities. (Author)
Determining the dynamic properties of snow and ice by forced vibration( )

2 editions published in 1969 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The complex dynamic Young's and shear moduli, loss factor and Poisson's ratio are presented for naturally compacted glacial snow through a density range of 0.4 to 0.9 g/cu cm. A frequency dependence of the moduli and its effect on the computation of Poisson's ratio is demonstrated. Considerable scatter is exhibited in the loss factor measurements; however, indications are that the loss factors have negligible effect on the modulus computations. (Author)
The philberth probe for investigating polar ice caps( Book )

1 edition published in 1967 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Philberth probe is a surface-controlled, nonrecoverable instrumented vehicle that can penetrate polar ice sheets down to 3600 m by melting. It can be used to measure temperature, stress, ice movement, and seismic, acoustic and dielectric properties. It can also be used for other investigations with remote instrumentation. The probe consists of a hot point for melt penetration, instrumentation for control and measurement functions, two supply conductor coils to link the probe with the surface for transmission of power and measurement signals, and a reservoir section. The probe is filled with a dielectric fluid. (Author)
Influence of Soil on Detection of Buried Explosives and Tunnels by Trace Gas Analysis( Book )

2 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Detection of mines, explosives, and tunnels may be accomplished by sensing associated volatile effluvia. This investigation was undertaken to provide a basis for predicting the diffusion of volatile compounds from underground sources into the atmosphere. Diffusion of a volatile compound was studied for a range of soil conditions utilizing soils from the mine detection sites in Puerto Rico. A new mathematical analysis based on the Monte Carlo method was developed for predicting vapor diffusion through soil into the atmosphere. It was determined that diffusion in soil can be reliably predicted if soil porosity, moisture content, and affinity for the compound are known. Appearance in the atmosphere is also dependent on accumulation of the compound in air at the soil/atmosphere interface. Diffusion of volatile compounds through soil into the atmosphere is not likely to be an important factor in tunnel detection due to depth of overburden. However, adsorption of compounds at tunnel walls is likely to significantly reduce the amount of vapor appearing in the atmosphere through entrances and vents. Detection in the atmosphere of TNT vapor from mines and explosives buried in moist, porous soil should be possible under ideal sample collection conditions. (Author)
Isua, Greenland: Glaciological Investigations during 1973( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Two holes were drilled through the Greenland ice sheet during 1973 and temperature measurements were made in one hole drilled during 1972. These measurements show that the area of liquid water beneath the ice cap extends to ice depths as shallow as 100 m. The consequences of removing the frozen margin of glacial ice could be serious and more temperature measurements are needed to exactly locate the subglacial water. Petrographic studies of a few ice cores revealed a strongly oriented crystal fabric and an appreciable surface accumulation of superimposed ice. (Author)
Bibliography on Winter Construction, 1967-1971 by C. W Kaplar( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The bibliography covers world literature published during 1967-1971 on the subject of construction during cold weather. The contents are drawn mainly from the continuing current literature search performed by the Science and Technology Division of the Library of Congress for the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. The contents include 746 items grouped into 17 categories, plus an author index. This bibliography is an addendum to the revised edition of USA CRREL Special Report 83, A Bibliography on Winter Construction, 1940-1967, published in 1968. (Author)
Military Facilities and Environmental Stresses in Cold Regions by R. P Murrmann( Book )

2 editions published in 1972 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The types of stresses imposed by military activities on the environment are not well known, nor is it possible in most cases to quantify or predict the impact of stresses on a long term basis. A research program is currently being formulated to correct this deficiency. The report was prepared as a preliminary step to identifying research problems which arise as a special consequence of military facilities in cold regions. The subjects discussed include: air pollution(Ice fog); Terrain impacts(Erosion); Permafrost; and Water pollution
Ice Force Measurements on the Pembina River, Alberta, Canada( Book )

2 editions published in 1975 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Just before spring breakup in 1972, 23 in situ tests were conducted on the Pembina River, in Alberta, Canada, to measure ice forces. These tests simulated an ice sheet pushing against a bridge pier. The apparatus utilized a hydraulic ram to push a 5 1/2-in. (14.0-cm)-wide vertical pile section horizontally against the ice sheet, which varied from 11.5 to 19.5 in. (29.2 to 49.5 cm) in thickness. The velocity of the pile was varied from 0.07 to 21 in./sec (0.18 to 53.3 cm/sec) by hydraulic flow control valves. Both flat and round piles were used to represent the pier. Some tests began with the piles a few inches away from the ice sheet, whose edge was cut flat. Other tests began with the pile in contact with the ice sheet. For some of the round pile tests, augered holes were used to provide better initial contact. These in situ test results were compared with the ice force measurements made by other workers on a nearby bridge pier during ice breakup. The in situ test ice forces were about 50% higher than the bridge pier test results. This disagreement was caused by a difference between the sizes of the piles and the size of the pier and a three-day warming of the ice before the ice impacted against the pier. (Author)
Creep theory for a floating ice sheet by D. E Nevel( Book )

1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The problem investigated in this thesis is the prediction of the deflection and stresses in a floating ice sheet under loads which act over a long period of time. This problem is currently important for oil exploration offshore in the Arctic. A review of analytical methods for predicting the bearing capacity of an ice sheet is given. The problem is formulated by assuming the ice is isotropic with a constant Poisson's ratio. The shear modulus is assumed to obey a linear viscoelastic model. The specific model selected is a series of one Maxwell model and two Voigt models. One of the Voigt models has a negative spring constant which produces tertiary creep. The ice model exhibits a primary, secondary, and tertiary creep response, similar to that observed in uniaxial creep tests of ice. The material properties in the viscoelastic model may be a function of the vertical position in the ice sheet, but all these material properties must be proportional to the same function of position. Using the thin-plate theory for the floating ice sheet, the solution is obtained for the deflection and stresses in the ice sheet for primary, secondary, and tertiary creep regions. It is then shown that for a load that is not distributed over a large area, the time-dependent part of the deflection and stresses is relatively independent of the load's distribution. For the elastic case, the stress significantly depends upon the load's distribution. Results are given for the deflection and stresses as a function of time and distance from the load. The maximum deflection and stresses occur at the center of the load. At this point the deflection increases with time, while the stresses decrease; i.e., the stresses relax. (Author)
Anomalous water: nucleation, growth and properties by George K Swinzow( Book )

2 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An anomalous liquid phase forming in an atmosphere of reduced water vapor pressure was investigated. The liquid was grown in capillary tubes. Technical experimental refinements resulted in high nucleation rates not previously observed. An examination of vapor pressures disclosed the relationship of nucleation growth and equilibria of anomalous water. The possibility of nucleation and growth of anomalous water on flat surfaces was confirmed by observation. Anomalous water was nucleated and grown on glass, quartz, Teflon, polyethylene and metal. Growth rates on free flat surfaces were higher, and the total amount of fluid obtained was several orders of magnitude higher, than those obtained from capillary tubes. Refractive indexes and other properties were measured directly. The new method of growing anomalous water outside capillary tubes is an advantage that may lead to large-scale production. Neither investigation of nor conclusion on the nature of the substance was made. Its low freezing temperature, high boiling temperature, low vapor pressure and high viscosity, reported by previous investigators and observed by the author, are of primary importance and justify a search for large-scale preparation methods. (Author)
High snowfields of the st. elias mountains yukon territory, canada by Edward Grew( Book )

2 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Observations made during the 1964 summer provide a description of snow and radiation characteristics for the region and give insight into effects of altitude, regarded as a gross variable, when anomalous wind and slope effects are excluded. Divide Camp, Seward Camp, and Lucania Camp were occupied successively within a minimum period of time to compare conditions at different altitudes. Data are presented on snow profiles, snow accumulation measurements, the development of the annual snow layer, snow conditions at depth, the mechanical properties of the snow, snow densification, solar radiation, and the variation of snow properties with surface altitude. It is concluded that as long as local anomalies are avoided, the effects of surface altitude on snow properties and surface processes seem to be simple. However, in mountain regions it is probably a combination of local conditions which produces the most remarkable effects. (Author)
Biological aspects of terrestrial oil spills : USA CRREL oil research in Alaska, 1970-1974 : prepared for U.S. Army Research Office( Book )

1 edition published in 1975 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Knowledge concerning the biological effects of oil pollution on arctic and subarctic terrestrial ecosystems is limited. USA CRREL research personnel conducted investigations from 1970 through 1974 to expand information in this field. Objectives were to: (1) define the ecosystems most sensitive to the presence of crude oil or its refined products, (2) quantify and understand the injury response, and (3) establish time frames for manifestation of damage and natural restorative processes in arctic and subarctic regions. This was accomplished through: (1) surveys of natural oil seepages and past accidential spills in the Arctic and Subarctic, (2) initiation of controlled oil spills and (3) detailed laboratory investigations. Results demonstrated that terrestrial oil spills will to some degree be detrimental to both artic and subarctic plant communities. Degree and longevity of damage will be influenced primarily by the magnitude of the spill, season of occurrence and existing soil moisture content. Rapid recovery of plant communities subjected to spills will occur only if root systems remain relatively unaffected. Damage will be more extensive and long-term when root systems are saturated witl oil. Effects of damage will be manifested gradually over several seasons being influenced by winter stresses. Variation does exist in plant species susceptibility. Carex aquatilis a predominant sedge of the arctic is markedly resistant to crude oil damage. In the taiga Picea mariana is very susceptible. Plant recovery can be enhanced through the application of fertilizer. Fertilization, in addition to its direct effect on plant nutrition, will stimulate microbial decomposition of crude oil. (Author)
Cobra: Positive Pitch Controlled Articulated Testbed( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of the test program was to compare the performance of the multiunit articulated tracked vehicle Cobra with the positive pitch control between units operated in the locked and unlocked modes. Two vehicle performance characteristics were investigated: drawbar pull-slip and slope climbing
Shear stress measurements in situ of soils subjected to vibratory loads( Book )

2 editions published in 1963 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Direct measurements of shear and normal stresses were made, the compatibility of the resulting shear stress distribution and the corresponding normal stress pattern was studied, and the experimental findings were correlated with the existing theories for biaxial systems. A miniaturized shear cell was employed and the results of measurements in situ with this shear cell are compared with those of pressure cells. Vibratory (sinusoidal) loads were generated by a mechanical oscillator on the soil surface and transmitted to both types of cells buried beneath the oscillator. A predominantly homogeneous and noncohesive soil (dry beach sand) was used, so that the theory for biaxial stress distribution could be applied as a first approximation in the analysis. The standard deviation of the experimentally obtained shear stress vectors from values computed for a biaxial system did not exceed 4.75%, and for normal stresses it did not exceed 5.22%. (Author)
ISUA, Greenland: Calculations of Glacier Flow for an Open-Pit Mine( Book )

2 editions published in 1973 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The report covers the investigation of the possibility of developing an open-pit mine along the edge of the Greenland Ice Cap. The response of the glacier to a sudden change in surface slope and thickness is calculated. The existing flow is diverted away from the mineral deposit but will increase when the excavation begins. It is calculated that 66 million cubic meters of ice must be removed in order to establish a stable profile beyond the pit. An additional 7.9 million cubic meters of ice must be removed yearly in order to maintain the profile. (Author)
Pressure wave propagation in snow with nonuniform permeability( Book )

2 editions published in 1966 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A mathematical analysis of pressure wave propagation through a deep layer of snow with nonuniform permeability is presented. The study extends previous investigations on porous media in which the physical properties and imposed boundary conditions have been assumed or kept constant. Two cases of boundary conditions were considered. Case I: imposed pressure at the boundary remains constant. Case II: imposed pressure at the boundary falls exponentially with time. Darcy's law was assumed to be valid. The nonlinear differential equation was solved by the finite difference technique and the results are presented in terms of dimensionless variables. (Author)
Thermoinsulating media within embankments on perennially frozen soil by Richard L Berg( Book )

1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Numerous transportation facilities have been proposed for arctic and subarctic regions. Most will be constructed on embankments. Incorporation of a thermo-insulating layer within the embankment may permit use of reduced quantities of embankment material. Thermal design and analysis procedures applicable to embankments are reviewed and a two-dimensional numerical method coupling heat and mass transfer and vertical displacement is proposed. The modified Berggren equation, a method developed by Lachenbruch, and a finite difference technique are used to illustrate design and analysis methods for insulated embankments on permafrost. More than sixty thermoinsulating materials suitable for incorporation into embankments are currently available; however, only seventeen materials have been used. Most applications of insulation have been in seasonal frost areas but a few test sections have been constructed on permafrost. Stability of thermal and physical properties is a desirable characteristic of thermo-insulating layers. Moisture absorption causes increased thermal conductivity and degradation of strength of some insulating materials. Several types of moisture barriers have been used but the most successful have been polyethylene sheets. Laboratory tests presently used to evaluate properties of insulating materials do not provide quantitative design information. A new device that could provide this information is proposed. Other suggestions for future research are made. (Author)
Winter Thermal Structure and Ice Conditions on Lake Champlain, Vermont( Book )

2 editions published in 1976 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During the winter of 1974-75, the thermal structure and ice conditions of Lake Champlain were studied, near Shelburne Point, Vermont. This mid-latitude, large lake was instrumented to a depth of 8.5 m with a string of highly calibrated thermistors, connected to a data logger on shore which recorded water temperatures every four hours. An ice mooring system was developed to anchor the thermistor string so that ice and water temperatures could be obtained at known levels. This temperature recording system measured vertical and horizontal variations in ice and water temperature regimes during ice formation, growth and decay. Meteorological data were measured during the winter period November 1974 through March 1975 at the site. Ice stratigraphy was determined for the ice at the site at its maximum seasonal growth for comparison with ice from St. Albans Bay (at the northern end of Lake Champlain) which had formed earlier. Correlations were determined between ice growth and accumulated degree days of freezing. The operation of a bubbler system installed near the measurement site around a service dock was observed
Forces Generated in Ice Boom Structures( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Two ice booms in the international section of the St. Lawrence Seaway, near Ogdensburg, New York, were instrumented for measuring ice forces in the winter of 1972-73. These ice booms are among several installed annually by the United States and Canada primarily to prevent ice jams from forming and severely restricting water flows. As presently used, they act as barriers to the navigation of ships. Measurements were initiated at a shore anchor site. The system used for these measurements consisted of a commercial tension cell, located in a new line spliced to the anchor rope, which provided electrical signals to a strip chart recorder that operated continuously. A second system consisted primarily of two special tension cells, an armored signal cable, a direct conversion electric generator, and a recorder. This system was used to measure two concurrent forces at a midstream location where high loads were expected. (Modified author abstract)
Some Strength Properties of Frozen Soil and Effect of Loading Rate by C. W Kaplar( Book )

2 editions published in 1971 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The report presents frozen soil strength data for several soil types. The data include the effects of unit dry weight and the degree of saturation on the strength of frozen soils. The frozen soil strength increases with moisture content (frozen) up to full saturation and then drops off at greater ice contents. Data are presented showing that the compressive strength of many materials, frozen (including sea ice) and non-frozen, is greater under rapid loading rates. Fresh water ice shows the opposite effect Values of the adfreeze bond of frozen soils to various materials are also presented. (Author)
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English (36)