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Copenhagen Business School. CBS Center for Strategi og Globalisering. SMG Center for Strategic Management and Globalization. SMG

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Works: 96 works in 159 publications in 1 language and 0 library holdings
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Most widely held works by Copenhagen Business School. CBS
Whether and What to Offshore? by Peter D Ørberg Jensen( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this article, we explore the idea that offshoring of services and technical work should be regarded as a dynamic process that evolves over time. Firms gradually move from offshoring of simple, standardized activities towards offshoring of advanced activities when they accumulate experience with offshoring, and this type of offshoring comes with an entirely different set of characteristics compared to traditional, cost-seeking offshoring. Based on a unique survey among the total population of firms in the eastern region of Denmark, we analyze some of the dynamics of this process through a model that incorporates two different aspects of the process of offshoring. First, we approach the question of whether to offshore and establish a baseline that investigates the determinants of firms' participation?or lack thereof?in offshoring. Secondly, we approach the question of what to offshore and the subsequent process of offshoring, as we analyze the determinants of the offshoring of advanced, highend technical, and service activities. The findings are consistent with the notion of offshoring as a dynamic process as they show how some (cost-related) determinants play a role when firms first engage in offshoring, while rather different determinants matter for the subsequent process of offshoring of advanced activities. Although the model portrays a simplified expression of the offshoring process with two stages, the findings underpin our view that a process perspective on offshoring is a useful analytical framework. Keywords: Offshoring dynamics, and service offshoring
Explaining intra-organizational Knowledge transfer at the individual level by Dana B Minbaeva( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The knowledge-based view has recently been criticized for overlooking individual-level action and interaction in favor of an over-emphasis on the firm-level capabilities. This paper seeks to respond to that criticism by providing some individual-level explanations for a collective-level phenomenon - intraorganizational knowledge transfer. We suggest that variations in individual ability, motivation and the use of interaction opportunities provided by the organization explain part of the variation found in individuallevel knowledge acquisition and use, and that this has an influence on organizational level knowledge transfer within a firm. More specifically, we find that ability and intrinsic motivation are important drivers of individual level knowledge acquisition and use, while extrinsic motivation has no impact. Furthermore, the extent to which an individual uses interaction opportunities provided by the organization influences knowledge transfer both directly and through a moderator effect with ability and person-to-person interaction
Theory of Science Perspectives on Strategic Management Research : Debates and a Novel View by Nikolai J Foss( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Arguments derived from the theory of science have been present in strategic management discourse since at least the beginning of the 1970s. The field's topjournal,the Strategic Management Journal, has printed several theory of sciencebased papers. Most positions in the theory of science (falsificationism, instrumentalism, realism, constructivism, etc.) have been present in the methodological discourse in the field. This chapter briefly reviews theory science applications to strategic management, before a distinctive perspective on the evolution of the strategic management field is developed. According to this perspective, science progresses when deeper level mechanisms are identified and theorized. Theoretical reduction may therefore be an independent criterion of scientific progress. Application to the strategic management field of this perspective, which in the social sciences is closely connected to the notion of methodological individualism, reveals that the field has evolved in a manner akin to a swinging pendulum, oscillating between micro and macro perspectives
Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes by Niron Hashai( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions
Local, Regional or Global? : Quantifying MNC Geographic Scope by Christian Geisler Asmussen( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper proposes a multidimensional index of regional and global orientation which can be used in confirmatory studies with econometric methodologies. Unlike extant measures, the index is objectively scaled and controls for home country orientation and market size differences. The index is shown to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies in fact reflects strong home country biases. Keywords: globalization; regional integration; global strategy; regional strategy; local strategy; triad; liability of foreignness
The need for an entrepreneurial theory of the firm by Nicolai J Foss( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Entrepreneurship and the theory of the firm are two of the fastest-growing fields in eco-nomics and management. The two fields developed largely in isolation and are only now beginning to be brought together. We argue that each field has much to learn from the other and that combining them yields a better theory of the firm and a fuller understand-ing of the nature and effects of entrepreneurship in the economy. Specifically, the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment, combined with the Austrian ap-proach to capital heterogeneity, leads to a number of unconventional insights about the nature, boundaries, and internal organization of the firm. The judgment perspective also shifts attention from the discovery or recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities to the exploitation of those opportunities through the acquisition, combination, and recombina-tion of resources, adding to our understanding of the causes and consequences of entre-preneurship
Exploring Knowledge Governance by Nicolai J Foss( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research challenges
Experience and Repetition as Antecedents of Organizational Routines and Capabilities : A Critique of Behaviorist and Empiricist Approaches by Teppo Felin( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We discuss the behaviorist and empiricist foundations of the organizational routines and capabilities literature, specifically the extant emphasis placed on experience, repetition and observation as the key inputs and mechanisms of behavior, learning and change in organizations. Based on this discussion we highlight several concerns associated with specifying experience and repetition as antecedents of routines and capabilities, namely, (1) the problem of origins and causation, (2) the problem of extremes, (3) the problem of intentionality, (4) the problem of new knowledge, and (5) the problem of the environment. We highlight the "poverty of stimulus" argument and more generally discuss how internalist or rationalist, choice-based approach might provide a more fruitful (though preliminary) foundation for extant research on organizational routines and capabilities
The Impact of Subsidiary Autonomy on MNE Knowledge Transfer Resolving the Debate by Larissa Rabbiosi( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper explores theoretical and empirical ambiguities in the literature concerning the impact of foreign subsidiary autonomy on intra-MNE knowledge transfer. We argue that understanding the interdependences between subsidiary autonomy and the use of different communication systems - e.g. person-based and electronic-based communication systems - is crucial to putting forward new insights in the debate. Based on the recent literature on strategic management, we hypothesize that the two communication systems call for different degrees of subsidiary autonomy and vice versa. Using a data set consisting of 307 dyads between foreign subsidiaries and their parent companies, we find that two distinctive configurations positively affect the extent of knowledge transfer from foreign subsidiaries to their parent companies. The first is the combination of a high degree of subsidiary autonomy and the use of person-based mechanisms, and the second is the combination of low subsidiary autonomy and the use of electronic-based mechanisms
Building M&A Integration capabilities : M&A practices as a key instrument to improve M&A integration : How Serial Acquirers Become Master Acquirers by Koen H Heimeriks( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

While firms increasingly rely on mergers and acquisitions as a key growth instrument, many firms have difficulty successfully integrating the target. To counter the disappointing statistics, some firms like IBM and Xerox use M&A practices that capture learnings to improve M&A integrations. Comparing occasional with master acquirers, we find that those that make effective use of such M&A practices increase their chances of success with up to 24%. While there are plenty of reasons for M&A integrations to fail, we derive four key lessons that give master acquirers a leading edge over their occasional counterparts. The findings are based on survey data by 101 firms engaged in 2,447 integrations over the past decade and one dozen expert interviews. The conclusions are based using case examples of master M&A integration practices from six master acquirers IBM, Xerox, Home Depot, Dow Chemical, GE Capital Finance and SC Johnson. JEL code: G34
Understanding opportunity discovery and sustainable advantage : The role of transaction costs and property rights by Kirsten Foss( Book )

3 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On November 24, 1874, United States Patent No. 157,124 was granted to Joseph Glidden of DeKalb, Ill., for improved barbed wire fencing. Glidden's patent was the culmination of a series of nine patents for improvements to wire fencing that were granted by the U.S. Patent Offi ce to American inventors, beginning with Michael Kelly in November 1868 and ending with Glidden's patent (McCallum and McCallum, 1965), which quickly became dominant. To be sure, wire fencing had been used for a very long time. However, property rights over livestock were less secure, as wire fencing would often break under the impact of heavy livestock pressing against the fencing. This would not happen with barbed wire, so the costs at which property rights to livestock could be protected fell dramatically (Dennen, 1976; Anderson and Hill, 2004)
Organizational governance by Nicolai J Foss( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the incomplete-contracts or property-rights approach. We distill the main unifying characteristics of these streams, survey each stream, and offer some critical commentary and suggestions for moving forward
A Knowledge System Approach to the Multinational Company: Conceptual Grounding and Implications for Research by Yves Dos( Book )

2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The role of knowledge, organizational learning, and innovation as levers of competitive advantage is now a commonly acknowledged insight in research in international management. However, while the agglomeration of insights of described as the "knowledge-based view" is a promising theoretical lens, insights are not organized into a unifying framework and there are significant holes in the understanding of how knowledge may be turned into a source of competitive advantage for MNCs. In order to advance the knowledge-based theory of the MNC, we develop the notion of the MNC as a global knowledge system linking local knowledge structures and combining local knowledge elements that are complementary to confer strategic advantage, and relate this to the theory of complex systems deriving from the work of Herbert Simon. These ideas are used to frame the changing environments, strategic intents, and learning stances that characterize MNCs, and to derive a set of research challenges for MNC research
The Performance and Risk Management Implications of Multinationality : an Industry Perspective by Torben Juul Andersen( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Multinational enterprise in control of dispersed overseas resources and capabilities has been linked to strategic flexibility that allows the firm to take advantage of opportunities and manage exposures imposed by changing environmental conditions. This paper analyzes the implied performance and risk management effects in a comprehensive sample of public firms and finds supportive evidence for the proposition that multinationality can enhance performance across industries. However, the ability to exploit upside potential and avoid downside risk is industry specific. The positive effects of multinationality are found particularly pronounced among firms operating in knowledge intensive service industries while firms in capital-intensive primary industries display the inverse relationships. Keywords: Strategic flexibility, Real options, Risk management
Evolution of subsidiary competences : Extending the diamond network model by Christian Geisler Asmussen( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We extend the 'centers of excellence' concept in the multinational corporation (MNC) literature to address the diversity and the multidimensionality of subsidiary competence and link such diversity to the host country environment. Using Rugman and Verbeke's (1993) diamond network model of competitive advantage of nations, we hypothesize the contingencies under which heterogeneity in host environments influences subsidiary competence configuration. We test our model with data from more than 2,000 subsidiaries in seven Western European countries. Our results provide new insights on the evolution of subsidiary competence and how MNCs can overcome 'unbalanced' national diamonds by acquiring complementary capabilities across borders. Keywords: MNC environment, subsidiary competence configuration, industrial clusters, differentiated networks, subsidiary embeddedness
Do economic freedom and entrepreneurship impact total factor productivity? by Christian Bjørnskov( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The economics of growth has shown that countries not only grow by deploying higher levels of inputs to production, but also by better allocating whatever resources are at their disposal and by introducing productivity-enhancing innovations. We proffer arguments as to why and how entrepreneurship as well institutions of liberty (i.e., economic freedom, including the rule of law, easy regulations, low taxes and limited government interference in the economy) positively impact total factor productivity (TFP): These institutions allow entrepreneurial experimentation with the combination of factors to take place at low transaction costs. We test these ideas on a unique panel data set derived from Compendia, World Bank data and the Fraser Institute's economic freedom data. We find that while entrepreneurship positively impacts TFP, the marginal contribution of entrepreneurship to TFP is strongest in economies with substantial government activity
Entrepreneurship : From opportunity discovery to judgment by Nicolai J Foss( Book )

2 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Entrepreneurship has become a fast-growing subfield in management research, and is increasingly appearing in economics, finance, and even law. We survey a number of approaches to entrepreneurship in the economics and management literatures, and argue that modern research in this area need to be focused around ideas from Austrian economics and Frank Knight on entrepreneurial judgment. We critically discuss the recent opportunity discovery literature in management, and argue that it has partially misunderstood the Austrian origins of the theory, and fails to ade-quately distinguish between opportunity identification and opportunity exploitation
Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets : A Learning Perspective by Marjorie A Lyles( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets. Potential determinants are derived from traditional internationalization process theory as well as more recent literature on organizational learning processes, including the concept of absorptive capacity. Building on these two literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primary data of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggests that factors considered essential in traditional internationalization process theory, such as experiential learning, explains only a very limited part of perceived knowledge gaps. When factors pertaining to the concepts of absorptive capacity and superstitious learning are added, the explanatory power improves significantly. Apparently, our understanding of firms' internationalization processes can be enriched by insights from organizational learning literature. Key words: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, superstitious learning. JEL Codes: D21, F23, M10
Hands Off! : How Organizational Design Can Make Delegation Credible by Kirsten Foss( Book )

2 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Credible delegation of discretion obtains when it is a rational strategy for managers not to overrule employee decisions that are based on delegated decision rights or renege on the level of delegated discretion (and this is common knowledge). Making delegation of discretion credible becomes a crucial issue when organizations want to sustain the advantages that may flow from delegation: Such advantages are dependent on motivated employees, and managerial overruling or reneging is harmful to motivation. However, little work has been done on how organizations can make delegation credible. We argue that key elements of organizations (i.e., organizational structure, coordination mechanisms, reward structures, and interdependencies between activities) and how these fit influence the credibility of delegation. Fit configurations of organizational elements reduce the probability of managerial intervention that may harm employee motivation. This introduces a neglected incentive dimension to the organizational design literature. Moreover, it is argued that harmful intervention may be reduced by increasing managers' costs of intervening. Refutable propositions are derived
Determining Factors of Subsidiary Development by Torben Pedersen( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Subsidiary development is a multi-dimensional construct that cannot be captured just by looking at subsidiary roles, activities, etc. Three distinct dimensions of subsidiary development are identified and these are: scope of subsidiary (the breadth of activities), level of subsidiary competence (the depth of activities) and level of integration in the internal MNC-network. Birkinshaw and Hood (1998a) have in their seminal paper proposed a model where subsidiary development is determined by three factors: Headquarter assignment, dynamism of local business environment and subsidiary initiatives. This paper is the first to conduct a statistical test of this model on a large-sample data set including data of more than 2.100 subsidiaries located in seven different countries in Europe. The effect of the three determining factors on subsidiary development is tested simultaneously in a LISREL model
 
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English (34)