WorldCat Identities


Works: 266 works in 288 publications in 1 language and 298 library holdings
Classifications: RC1054.U5,
Publication Timeline
The prevalence of visual deficiencies among 1979 general aviation accident airmen by J. Robert Dille( Book )

1 edition published in 1981 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analyses of the accident experience of pilots who were monocular, did not meet (even the liberal) vision standards, had color vision defects and no operational restrictions, or wore contact lenses, have shown higher-than-expected accident experience in previous studies. However, no causal role had been assigned by accident investigators and reexamination of the records failed to show any obvious pattern or relationship between the defects and the accidents. In the present study of 1979 accidents, the relatively small number of pilots with aphakia and artificial lens implants, as well as the total eye pathology population, had significantly higher accident rates, but the monocular pilots did not. Again, no causal role had been ascribed. Some associations are debatable, but there is no clear recurring problem. There are still unresolved questions about the consistent operational performance of monocular pilots, those who are not fully corrected to 20/20 distant visual acuity bilaterally, airmen with near vision deficiencies only who are not required to wear corrective glasses, those without fusion, and several with appreciable pathology who have 20/20 corrected central visual acuity but about whom we know very little concerning their dynamic, peripheral, depth or accommodative function. (Author)
Drugs of abuse in aviation fatalities by Delbert J Lacefield( Book )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Isopropyl alcohol swabs taken from the oral cavities of pilots killed in general aviation accidents were analyzed for marijuana by the modified Duquenois-Levine test. During the 2-year period from October 1982 through September 1984, 289 pilot fatalities (of 809 sampled for other toxicological reasons) were sampled for marijuana; a positive test indicated the recent use of marijuana. Six of the pilots' samples (2.1 percent) were positive
Impact injury to the pregnant female and fetus in lap belt restraint by Richard G Snyder( Book )

2 editions published in 1968 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Summative evaluation of the collegiate training initiative for Air Traffic Control Specialists Program : progress of Minnesota Air Traffic Control Training Center graduates in en route field training by Dana Broach( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This summative evaluation of the Collegiate Training Initiative for Air Traffic Control Specialists focused on the progress of the Minnesota Air Traffic Control Training Center (MnATCTC) graduates in en route field training. The evaluation compared 136 MnATCTC graduates with 157 FAA Academy graduates on 4 classes of measures: (a) diversity; (b) progress in training at the first assigned field facility; (c) attrition from the first assigned field facility; and (d) performance ratings at the first assigned facility. A cost-benefit analysis for the MnATCTC program was also conducted. There were significantly more women in the MnATCTC (40%) than in the FAA Academy group (17%); there were no significant differences in minority representation. Just 17% of the MnATCTC had achieved full performance level (FPL) certification as of June 1995, compared with 69% of the FAA Academy group. However, time to FPL and attrition rates were similar. MnATCTC graduates were rated significantly lower than FAA Academy graduates by supervisors in teamwork, technical skill, technical knowledge, and overall potential to succeed in the ATCS occupation. Cost analysis found that MaATCTC per-hire costs would be competitive with FAA Academy costs-per-student by FY1998-2000. Cost-benefit analysis found that the MnATCTC would begin returning about $1.45 in avoided costs and savings to the agency for every $1 invested by FY1998-2001, even with continued FAA financial support. However, with a maximum capacity of about 100 graduates per year, the MnATCTC can provide only a small fraction of the FAA controller workforce. In summary, this evaluation found that the MnATCTC program appears to be achieving its stated goals
The aeromedical certification of photorefractive keratectomy in civil aviation : a reference guide by Van B Nakagawara( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The use of surgery to correct refractive errors continues to evolve at a significant pace. Radial keratotomy (RK), the first widely accepted refractive surgical procedure, involves making radial incisions on the peripheral cornea. These incisions weaken the cornea and allow intraocular pressure to push the peripheral cornea out, flattening the apex and reducing refractive power. There are many disadvantages with RK that raise concerns regarding its use in the aviation environment. These include: progressive hyperopic shifts, reduced corneal strength, fluctuation of vision, glare, poor refractive predictability and altitude-induced corneal changes. In October 1995, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the excimer laser to perform photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to reshape the anterior curvature of the cornea. Since that time, PRK has become the refractive surgical procedure of choice. It has been reported that for low to moderate levels of myopia there is greater predictability, no fluctuation of vision or reduction in corneal strength, and about 85% of patients have uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. As with RK, there are aspects of PRK that raise concerns about its use in the aviation environment. Some of these include: night vision problems (e.g., glare, halos around lights, haze, starbursts, and dim lighting difficulties), reduced contrast sensitivity, stability of refraction, reduced best-corrected visual acuity, and induced anisometropia. Using a mathematical model, it was estimated that by the year 2000 there may be over 1,200 civil airmen who elect to have PRK performed. To provide the aeromedical community with information to formulate administrative decisions and policies associated with this new refractive surgical procedure, this paper reviews the results of clinical trials on PRK and discusses its applicability in aviation
Refractive surgery in the civil airman population by class of medical certificate and by aviation occupation by Van B Nakagawara( Book )

2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Refractive surgical procedures performed in the United States have increased in recent years and continued growth is projected in the near future. These procedures have been associated with numerous side-effects, including glare, reduced contrast sensitivity, and fluctuating visual acuity. The quality of vision after refractive surgery may be unacceptable in a cockpit environment. This report reviews the aeromedical certification experience with the refractive surgery population. Active airmen with FAA-specific pathology codes 130 (radial keratotomy) and 5179 (general eye pathology with surgical prefix), during the period 1 January 1994 through 31 December 1996, were identified in the Consolidated Airman Information System medical database. The medical records of airmen with pathology code 5179 were reviewed. Airmen identified by records review as having had refractive surgery, and those with pathology code 130 were collated into a database and analyzed against demographic data extracted from Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) publications. Airmen with refractive surgery were further stratified by aviation occupation (pilot, copilot, first and second officer, and flight engineer). There were 3,761 airmen identified as having had some type of refractive surgical procedure during the study period. The prevalence rate of refractive surgery in the total civil airman population was 6.21/1,000 airmen. By class of airman medical certificate, the prevalence rate was 3.60/1,000 for first-class, 6.26/1,000 for second-class, and 7.43/1,000 for third-class holders. A total of 133 airmen (125 pilots and 8 flight engineers) with refractive surgery was identified as employees of scheduled and nonscheduled airlines. Airmen who have had refractive surgery are present in all classes of civil aeromedical certificate holders, including a substantial number of crewmembers who fly for commercial airlines
Performance of a portable oxygen breathing system at 25,000 feet altitude( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

A portable oxygen system utilizing open port dilution rebreathing mask technology was tested for its ability to deliver an adequate supply of oxygen at an altitude of 25,000 feet above sea level. Twenty-two subjects, ii females and 11 males, participated in the study. Blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) baseline levels for hypoxic exposure were established for each subject. Altitude testing consisted of the subject being placed in a hypobaric chamber and it being decompressed to an altitude of 25,000 feet. Immediately after the start of the decompression, the subject was instructed to don the oxygen mask and start the flow of oxygen from the portable cylinder. Oxygen flow to the mask was continuous at 4 liters per minute. Once at altitude, the subjects pedaled a cycle ergometer at a resistance of 15 watts for five minutes. SaO2 and other physiological variables were monitored throughout the altitude exposure. SaO2 levels were maintained at ground level values for all subjects throughout the altitude exposures. At no point during the testing did oxygenation levels approach baseline levels for hypoxic exposure. The portable oxygen system tested provided protection from hypobaric hypoxia at an altitude of 25,000 feet
Bloodborne pathogens in aircraft accident investigation( Book )

2 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) amended 29 CFR Part 1910 in 1991 to include regulations addressing occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens (BBP). The rule affects all employees who have the potential for occupational exposure to these pathogens. An accident scene presents significant challenges in terms of implementing a program which was primarily envisioned to affect personnel in "traditional" healthcare delivery facilities; the OSHA requirements now had to be met in the chaotic, inhospitable, and logistically difficult environment of an aircraft accident site
Cockpit integration of GPS : initial assessment, menu formats and procedures by Steven S Wreggit( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

A popular portable Global Positioning System (GPS) unit (Megellan EC-lOX), representative of this class of devices, was examined for its usability by general aviation pilots. Nine private pilots participated in the experimentation, which was accomplished in three phases: familiarization and training, usability testing, and post-experiment debriefing. During familiarization and training, participants were asked to study flow diagrams representing GPS interface logic, observed a demonstration of the unit's features and procedures, and then were allowed to practice with the unit until they could demonstrate proficiency. During the usability testing phase, participants performed 37 GPS-related tasks requiring waypoint setting, GPS navigation, and general GPS-data entry and retrieval. Findings from videotape, questionnaire, and debriefing data indicated that a number of menu structures interfered with the pilots' successful entry of data, editing of stored data, and activation of functions. For example, one source of confusion resulting in excess button presses was the need to deactivate the flight plan before any editing could be done. Recommendations are made for defining the form of the interface structure in this class of devices, including: A given function should be consistently assigned to one button, feedback should be consistent and meaningful, and an "undo" or "back" function would be a very useful way to decrease the number of button presses required by this interface
Predictors of perceived empowerment : an initial assessment by Richard Thompson( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Empowerment of employees regarding their work procedures is considered an important approach to improved organizational effectiveness. Recent research suggests that employee empowerment is related to a number of variables besides organizational structure and the use of teams. The present paper examined a number of organizational context variables, obtained from three samples in two government agencies. Perceptions of empowerment were then predicted from these context variables. The results show that perceptions of communication are the strongest predictor of empowerment perceptions across samples. In addition, the size of the communication slope estimate (B value) did not differ across the sample. The results support the contention that context factors besides teams and restructuring are related to empowerment. Specifically, communication perceptions are consistently the strongest predictor across samples and measures. Future research should examine the mechanisms that relate communication and empowerment
GPS design considerations : displaying nearest airport information by Kevin W Williams( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Thirty-six participants were tested in a flight simulator on their ability to orient toward the nearest airport, based on the manner in which information was presented on a global positioning system (GPS) display. Results indicated that use of the tabular, text-only format normally found on such displays was significantly slower and less accurate than either a map display of nearest airport information or a text display that included an orientation symbol. In addition, it was found that pilots tended to ignore information available from the heading indicator, and instead, focused solely on the GPS display to perform the task. Discussion of the results includes the need to support pilot decision-making through interface design and the development of design guidelines for GPS displays
An analysis of voice communication in a simulated approach control environment by O. Veronika Prinzo( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This report consists of an analysis of simulated terminal radar approach control (TRACON) air traffic control communications. Twenty-four full performance level air traffic controllers (FPLATC) from 2 TRACON facilities participated in the simulation study. Each controller worked 2 light- and 2 heavy-traffic density scenarios for feeder and final sectors. All communications were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim by a retired FPLATC. Once transcribed, transmissions were parsed into communication elements. Each communication element was assigned a speech act category (e.g., address, instruction, request, or advisory), an aviation topic (e.g., altitude, heading, speed) and then coded for irregularities (e.g., grouping numbers together when they should be spoken sequentially, or omitting, substituting, or adding words contrary to required phraseology) (ATSAT, Prinzo et al., 1995). The simulated communications were compared to an analysis performed on audiotapes from the same TRACON facilities. Percentages in 3 speech act categories were comparable (Instruction, 55% versus 51%; Address; 14% versus 26%; Advisory, 24% versus 18%). Detailed analyses revealed that, although there were fewer irregular communications produced during simulation, the distributions of those communication irregularities were very much the same, with the exception of aircraft call sign. The differences in those distributions were attributed to the voice recognition system; it could not recognize a call sign spoken sequentially and then restated in grouped form
The role of shift work and fatigue in air traffic control operational errors and incidents( Book )

2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This report was developed from a collaborative effort between the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute's (CAMI's) Shift Work and Fatigue Research Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The purpose of this report was to examine existing databases to assess the extent to which shift work and fatigue might be factors associated with incidents and errors in air traffic control (ATC) operations
The relationship of sector characteristics to operational errors by Mark D Rodgers( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

An exploratory study was conducted on the relationship of air traffic control (ATC) complexity factors to operational errors (OEs). This consisted of a detailed examination of OE data from 1992 through 1995 from the Atlanta en route center. The Systematic Air Traffic Operations Research Initiative (SATORI) system was used to collect data for the analysis. Sectors were categorized into zero-, low-, and high-error groups. Fifteen sector and traffic flow variables had statistically significant correlations with OE frequency. Four variables were higher for the high-error group as compared to the zero-error group. Sector size was smaller for the high-error group as compared to the combined zero- and low-error categories. A significant multiple correlation was found between overall OE rate and a subset of the ATC complexity measures. The data were also analyzed to define relationships between the complexity measures and controller situational awareness (SA) at the time of the OE. The only statistically significant difference between OEs with and without SA was for horizontal separation. In addition, high-error sectors were characterized by low SA for errors. Certain sector and traffic flow characteristics were associated with these high-error sectors, suggesting that these factors may negatively affect SA. It was concluded that the results demonstrated a relationship between sector complexity and OE rate. Such findings, if extended, could assist with traffic management, sector design activities, and the development of decision-support systems
Passenger Flow Rates between Compartments: Straight-Segmented Stairways, Spiral Stairways, and Passageways with Restricted Vision and Changes of Attitude( )

1 edition published in 1978 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Data are presented from 210 trials to compare movement up and down spiral and straight-segmented stairways simulating the stairs in multideck transport aircraft, up and down spiral and straight-segmented industrial-type stairways, fore and aft through a passageway enclosed on one side, and fore and aft through a passageway enclosed on both sides. The Civil Aeromedical Institute evacuation simulator was positioned to represent degrees of pitch and roll similar to those encountered in accidents as a result of landing gear failure. Tests were conducted in regular cabin lighting, reduced cabin lighting, reduced cabin lighting with subjects wearing goggles simulating smoke conditions, and artificial smoke conditions. Results indicate that an enclosed passageway enables more rapid movement from one compartment to another than does a passageway enclosed on only one side. Straight-segmented stairways allowed more efficient movement from one level to another than did spiral stairs. Subjects were more cautious in the tests that involved wearing smoke goggles than in any of the other conditions
GPS user-interface design problems by Kevin W Williams( )

2 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper is the second of two of a review of human factors problems associated with the user interface design of a set of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, certified for use in aircraft for instrument non-precision approaches. Both papers focus on design problems associated with the interfaces and specific inconsistencies across the set of interfaces that could cause confusion or errors during operation. Some specific problems addressed involve the placement of units in the cockpit; the use and design of moving map displays; and problems associated with changes in course direction indicator sensitivity. Recommendations for solving some of the problems are provided, as well as suggestions to the FAA, GPS manufacturers, and pilots regarding the future development and use of these products
Use of off-the-shelf PC-based flight simulators for aviation human factors research by Dennis B Beringer( )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Flight simulation has historically been an expensive proposition, particularly if out-the-window views were desired. Advances in computer technology have allowed a modular, off-the-shelf flight simulation (based on 80486 processors or Pentiums) to be assembled that has been adapted, with minimal modification, for conducting general aviation research. This simulation includes variable flight instrumentation, forward, 45 and 90 degree left external world views, and a map display. Control inputs are provided by high-fidelity analog controls (e.g., damped and self-centering yoke, high-performance throttle quadrant, gear, flap, and trim controls; and navigation radio frequency select). The simulation is based upon two commercially available flight simulation software packages, one originally designed as an instrument flight tralner and the other as a 'game'-type flight simulation. The provisions of these packages are discussed highlighting their particular research capabilities. as well as their limitations. The comparatively low cost and ease of assembly/integration allow multiple 'standardized' systems to be distributed for cooperative inter-laboratory studies. The approach appears to have utility for both research and training
Flight Attendant Fatigue. Part 6: Fatigue Countermeasure Training and Potential Benefits( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Today's aviation industry is a 24/7 operation that produces a variety of challenges for cabin crew members, including extended duty periods, highly variable schedules, and frequent time zone changes. While these operational requirements may be necessary, they are far from ideal with respect to the human body's biological rhythms for managing sleep and alertness. In fact, acute sleep loss, sustained periods of wakefulness, and circadian factors resulting from this form of misalignment are all contributors to fatigue and fatigue-related mishaps (Caldwell, 2005; Rosekind et al., 1996). The strategic management of fatigue is necessary for safety improvement throughout the industry. Employee educational programs regarding the dangers of fatigue, the causes of sleepiness, and the importance of proper sleep hygiene to improve sleep quality may be critical for effective fatigue management (Caldwell, 2005). This report outlines specific recommendations regarding fatigue countermeasures training and its potential benefits to flight attendant operations
A comparison of the effects of navigational display formats and memory aids on pilot performance by Dennis B Beringer( )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A great deal of effort has been invested in examining integrated instrumentation for advanced cockpits, but little comparable effort has been directed toward the greatest number of aircraft presently flying - those in the general aviation environment. This series of studies examined the benefits of a simple and widely available integrated instrument, the horizontal situation indicator (HSI), in the performance of simple navigational and orientational tasks by private pilots and instructor pilots. Tested in the context of the multiple-processor Basic General Aviation Research Simulator (BGARS), the private pilots exhibited significantly fewer navigational reversals and orientational errors when using the HSI (in comparison with their performances when using the traditional VOR and directional gyro combination). These results were consistent with but even more definitive than those obtained for the instructor pilots. Similar benefits in procedural error reduction were also found when instrument index markers, or 'bugs, ' were used as short-term memory aids
Data-linked pilot reply time on controller workload and communication in a simulated terminal option : final report by O. Veronika Prinzo( )

1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report describes an analysis of air traffic control communication and workload in a simulated terminal radar approach control environment. The objective of this study was to investigate how pilot-to-controller data-link acknowledgment time might affect controller-perceived workload and operational communication. Eight controllers provided air traffic services to simulated arrival aircraft during a moderate-traffic density simulation in which voice radio and data link communications were available. The effect of a delay in downlinked pilot acknowledgment time to controller uplinked messages was the primary variable of interest. Each controller completed the same scenario twice, with the order of presentation counterbalanced. That is, for the first simulation, half the controllers received immediate responses to their data link messages while the other half received pilot acknowledgment time delayed by about 11 seconds. The primary finding was a general, albeit not statistically significant, tendency among controllers towards an increase in subjective workload overall and on individual dimensions of the NASA Task Load Index when the simulation environment supported mixed, rather than immediate pilot responses. The analysis performed on communication measures revealed that controller workload was affected by the communications capability onboard the aircraft but not ghost pilot response type (immediate, delayed). Transmissions to data link-equipped aircraft took longer to complete and contained longer pauses than transmissions to non-data linked aircraft. The mode of communications selected by controllers also influenced workload but ghost pilot response type did not
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English (33)