WorldCat Identities

FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION OKLAHOMA CITY OK CIVIL AEROSPACE MEDICAL INST

Overview
Works: 39 works in 39 publications in 1 language and 43 library holdings
Genres: Bibliography 
Classifications: RC1054.U5,
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION OKLAHOMA CITY OK CIVIL AEROSPACE MEDICAL INST
U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English-Speaking Airspace/Airports( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air Navigation Commission was directed to complete the task of strengthening relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control (ATC) personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English-Language Proficiency requirements (ELP) and urged its members to document their ELP test implementation plans by March 8, 2008. Until all ATC personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations obtain a passing level of ELP, the language-based problems international pilots face is not known. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by a group of 48 U.S. pilots of their difficulties in international operations who met with interviewers to discuss their language experiences flying into countries where English may or may not be the local or national language among its radio operators, controllers, and pilots. In this report, the pilots' responses to questions 31-38 and their comments from discussions of those questions with interviewers are presented as a compiled narrative. The pilots' responses had nine major thrusts, among them the following: (1) Traveling into nonnative English-speaking countries can be a positive learning experience leading to professional growth and development; (2) English-language proficiency varies from country to country and individual to individual, however, problems occur everywhere; and (3) Hearing multiple languages on the radio restricts situational awareness and diminishes pilots' expectations as information derived from the party line decreases
Distribution of oxycodone in postmortem fluids and tissues by Sabra R Botch( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Oxycodone is a heavily used and abused analgesic agent. Its pharmacological effects, including euphoria, respiratory depression, nausea, and drowsiness, have the potential to adversely affect performance. The postmortem distribution of oxycodone has not been well characterized, particularly at sub-lethal levels. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the distribution of oxycodone in postmortem specimens collected from aviation accidents. Methods: A search of our database identified 4 oxycodone-positive fatalities from separate civil aviation accidents that occurred during a period of 6 years that had numerous biological tissues and fluids available (blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, lung, spleen, heart muscle, and brain). These specimens were extracted using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed for oxycodone by GC/MS. Results: Oxycodone concentration ranges (g/mL, g/g) found in the different tissues and fluids were: blood 0.027-0.742, urine 2.20 - 12.5, vitreous humor 0.048 - 0.118, liver 0.103-3.35, lung 0.047-1.35, kidney 0.045-3.12, spleen 0.115-2.43, muscle 0.017-0.400, brain 0.032-1.36, and heart 0.038-3.19. Conclusion: The blood concentrations found indicate that the oxycodone in these cases ranged from therapeutic to above therapeutic, but all were below lethal levels. Tissue/fluid to blood distribution coefficients were found to have large coefficients of variation (ranging from 26-128%), thereby rendering them unreliable for estimating a blood oxycodone concentration from a tissue value when no blood is available for analysis
United States Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air Navigation Commission was directed to strengthen relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control (ATC) personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English Language Proficiency (ELP) requirements and urged its members to document their ELP test implementation plans by March 8, 2008. Until all ATC personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations obtain a passing level of ELP, the language-based problems international pilots face is not known. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by a small focus group of 48 U.S. pilots of their difficulties in international operations. The focus group consisted of 12 international U.S. pilots each from American, Continental, Delta, and United Airlines. Each focus group met with two interviewers to discuss their language experiences flying into countries where English may or may not be the local or national language among its radio operators, controllers, and pilots. In this report, the pilots' responses to questions 24-30 and their comments from discussions of those questions with interviewers are presented as a compiled narrative. The pilots' responses had eight major thrusts, among them the following: (1) Once pilots get past the controller's accented English, understanding is not a problem during routine operations; (2) The lack of standardized pronunciation of NAVAIDs, waypoints, intersections, etc., complicates understanding what was said; and (3) Currency in flight time in the theater of operation is critical to understanding accented English
General unknown screening by ion trap LC/MS/MS by Robert D Johnson( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. The first, and perhaps most important, step in the analysis process is the initial screening of biological specimens for illicit, medically prescribed, and over-the-counter compounds that may be present and could have been the cause of the accident. Currently, our General Unknown Screening (GUS) procedure involves both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/diode array detection (LC/DAD) and fluorescence detection techniques. Both techniques have inherent limitations that prevent the detection of certain types of compounds. LC/DAD, however, is more limited due to poor sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, our laboratory developed and validated an LC/MS/MS procedure that provides far superior sensitivity and specificity to that of LC/DAD. The combination of GC/MS with LC/MS/MS will allow for the detection of more compounds at lower concentrations than our current techniques
Causes of general aviation weather-related, non-fatal incidents : analysis using NASA aviation safety reporting system data by William Knecht( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Adverse weather remains a major cause of general aviation accidents. However, weather alone is never the sole culprit. Searching for other salient causal factors, we turned to incident analysis. Incidents are less serious than accidents, but far more common, and have witnesses to better determine causes. The current research examined 100 GA weather-related incident reports made to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) during 2005-06. With pilot permission, ASRS gathered additional data on nearly 300 variables related to possible root causes. The following factors seemed to constitute a problem for 5%, or more, of pilots: 1. Darkness (4 dusk +17 night = 21% of pilots). 2. Moisture affecting visibility (clouds, fog, rain, snow> 50%) and/or air movement affecting aircraft handling (thunderstorm, icing, turbulence> 25%). 3. Multiple weather factors experienced simultaneously (85%). 4. Failure to get a preflight weather briefing, or "briefing" with only a low-grade (non-aviation-oriented) source (5%). 5. Deterioration of weather forecast accuracy over time (66% correct forecasts at departure, decreasing to 37% correct at destination). 6. Weather that materialized worse than predicted (35%. This implicitly includes lack of en-route forecast updates). 7. Lack of weather-related training and experience (> 50%, non-instrument-rated and new instrument-rated pilots). 8. Inadequate equipment (less-experienced pilots tend to have less-capable airframes and avionics). 9. Ambulance missions (7%, particularly helicopter ambulance). 10. "Non-weather-related factors": decision-making (26%), time pressure (21%), "get-home-itis" (9%), aircraft equipment problem (8%), fatigue (7%), distraction by passenger or crew (5%). In broad terms, this analysis reveals two major at-risk target groups with distinct training needs: Non-instrument-rated pilots Newly minted instrument-rated pilots
Effects of video weather training products, web-based preflight weather briefing, and local versus. non-local pilots on general aviation pilot weather knowledge and flight behavior, phase 3 by William Knecht( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The primary purpose of Phases 1 and 2 of this research was to test the effects of video weather training products on weather-related risk-taking. During the investigation, two unexpected observations were made: (1) Despite specific instructions to fly visual-flight-rules-only (VFR), nine of 50 Phase 1 pilots spent more than 10 min in simulated instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), plus three of those nine repeated that behavior in Phase 2; (2) Whole-group (N=50) weather knowledge test scores were significantly lower (19%, p<.001) than average FAA certification exam scores obtained by freshly licensed pilots, implying knowledge decay over time. To assess if any of the IMC violations were willful (rather than inadvertent), we sent a brief questionnaire to the nine pilots of interest. Five responded. After analysis, the leading explanation seemed that their flight profiles were consistent with preflight terrain avoidance planning (TAP). These pilots seemed determined to fly straight and level above the highest known obstacle, even if that obstacle was distant and TAP altitude meant flying initial VFR-into-IMC. The average group decline in certification exam scores was equally significant from a logical standpoint. Since knowledge retention tends to be a function of knowledge relevancy, if FAA test questions were uniformly relevant to real-world weather encounters, we would expect pilots' scores to increase with experience, not decrease. Since experience tends to increase with time, this should offset the normal decay process of forgetting. However, this study shows that it did not. This was consistent with pilot anecdotes that FAA test questions often seemed, to them, "trick questions," or otherwise based on tasks that pilots rarely do and conditions rarely encountered
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors : medical history of fatally injured aviation accident pilots by Ahmet Sen( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are popularly prescribed for treating depression, but these antidepressants are not currently approved for use by U.S. civilian aviators. In a 2003 study, 4 SSRIs-citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline-have been found in 61 pilot fatalities of civil aviation accidents that occurred during 1990-2001. However, it was not known whether these pilots had disqualifying psychological conditions, including depression, and had properly reported the use of the antidepressants. The aeromedical history of the pilots was retrieved from the FAA's Medical Certification Database; additional pilot medical information and the cause/factor of the accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB's) Aviation Accident Database. Fifty-nine pilots had medical records in the FAA's Certification Database. The database did not contain medical records of 2 pilots-1 has never received a medical certificate and another had a Canadian pilot and medical certificate. Although driving under the influence was self-reported by 22 of the 59 pilots during their past aeromedical examinations, disqualifying psychological conditions were self-reported in the past examinations of only 7 (12%) of the 59 pilots, and the use of an SSRI was reported by 3 of the 7 pilots. In later examinations, 6 of the 7 indicated that they were free from the conditions and not taking SSRIs; thus, they were reissued medical certificates. Such conditions and/or drug use were not self-reported in the aeromedical records of the 52 (88%) pilots. Nevertheless, the NTSB investigations revealed that 12 (20%) of the 61 pilots had a history of a psychological condition and/or an SSRI use, as suggested by their personal medical records. Psychological conditions and/or the use of drugs were determined to be the cause or a factor in 16 (31%) of the 61 accidents. These findings reconfirm that SSRIs were used but not reported during medical examinations
U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 5: Language Experiences in Native English-Speaking Airspace/Airports( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by U.S. pilots from American, Continental, Delta, and United Airlines of their difficulties in international operations. In this report, the pilots? responses to questions 46-53 are presented as a compiled narrative. Their responses had eight major thrusts from which we derived the following five recommendations: (1) Adopt a standard dialect for use in ATC communications. (2) All trainees and current certified professional controllers successfully complete instruction and training in the principles of voice production and articulation as it relates to ATC communication. (3) Define an optimal rate of speech for use by certified professional controllers when communicating with pilots. Research is needed to provide guidance on the optimal rate of speech for different populations of speakers? U.S., Foreign. (4) Develop new standard phraseology for non-routine events. Generally, the controller needs to have the pilot answer one question,?What do you need from me?? The controller would coordinate the appropriate actions to provide the pilot with what is needed. (5) Controllers should be discouraged from using local jargon, slang, idiomatic expressions, and other forms of conversational communications when transmitting messages to pilots
Drug usage in pilots involved in aviation accidents compared with drug usage in the general population from 1990 to 2005 by Sabra R Botch( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Civil aviation pilots represent a small subsection of the general population. Therefore, one might expect to see the same types of drugs used by pilots that are found in the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare usage of both illegal drugs and abused prescription medications in pilots involved in civil aviation accidents from 1990 to 2005 with that of the general population in the United States. Comparisons included abused drugs routinely screened for by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy, as well as prescription medications-barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and ketamine. The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory analyzes postmortem specimens collected from pilots involved in civil aviation accidents. Toxicological information for cases in which pilots were found positive for prescription or illicit compounds was obtained from CAMI's ToxFlo (DiscoverSoft Development, LLC) toxicology database. Statistics on drug usage, trends, and demographics of users in the United States were obtained from National Institute on Drug Abuse, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Enforcement Administration, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Trends in illicit and prescription drug use in pilots of civil aviation accidents are comparable to those seen in emergency departments (ED) and community data from major metropolitan areas collected by DAWN and Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG). Of the 5,321 pilots involved in aviation accidents during the examined time period, there were 467 occurrences of either illicit drugs or commonly abused prescription drugs accounting for 11% of all pilots that were involved in aviation accidents
Designing questionnaires for controlling and managing information complexity in visual displays by Jing Xing( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Information complexity of automation displays has become a bottleneck that limits the usefulness of new technologies in air traffic control (ATC). Previously, we developed a set of metrics to measure information complexity in ATC displays. While these metrics provide measures of display complexity, their use is somewhat limited due to required human factors expertise and understanding of the display design. Technology developers and human factors practitioners often desire quick, easy-to-use tools to assess the display during design and acquisition evaluation. Questionnaires provide a quick and inexpensive means to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. We developed two questionnaires to evaluate ATC display complexity, based on the metric indices. The first questionnaire employs a multiple-choice format and allows quantitative evaluation of complexity. The second questionnaire uses a Likert rating format and is intended for qualitative assessment of complexity. We conducted an initial assessment of the questionnaires with seven subject matter experts on a radar display (STARS). The results indicate that both questionnaires produced consistent complexity evaluations among the subjects. Thus, we recommend that the multiple-choice questionnaire is more suitable for assessing quantitative complexity control during acquisition evaluations, and the Likert rating questionnaire is more suitable for complexity management during design of new ATC technologies
The illumination of aircraft at altitude by laser beams : a 5-year study period (2004-2008) by Van B Nakagawara( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Laser illuminations of aircraft in navigable airspace have concerned the aviation community for over a decade. The principal apprehension is the effect laser illumination may have on flight crew personnel performing landing and departure maneuvers, where procedural requirements are critical. This study examines the frequency of aviation-related laser incidents by altitude of occurrence. Event reports of aircraft illuminated by high-intensity light sources have been collected from various sources and entered into a database maintained by the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. Reported events of laser exposure of civilian aircraft for a 5-year period (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008) were collated and analyzed. A total of 2,492 laser events occurred in the U.S. during the study period. The cockpit environment was illuminated by laser beam in 1,676 (67.3%) events, and altitude information was provided in 1,361 (81.2%) of these reports. At altitude levels associated with the FAA's Laser-Free Zone (0-2,000 feet), cockpit illuminations increased from 12.5% to 26.7% for the period, while the percentage for Critical Flight Zone equivalent altitudes (>2,000-10,000 feet) decreased from 87.5% to 58.4%. For the period, green laser light was reported in 92% of the events where color was identified. The increasing percentage of aircraft laser illuminations reported at or below 2,000 feet that involve green laser light may represent an escalating threat to aviation safety. Low-flying aircraft, which may not be within currently established flight hazard zones around airports, need protection due to their increased vulnerability to laser illumination and their close proximity to obstacles and terrain
Participant assessments of aviation safety inspector training for technically advanced aircraft by Thomas Raymond Chidester( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Technically advanced "glass cockpit" aircraft are making their way into general aviation. Aside from technical challenges presented by learning any new system, pilots report some difficulty in acquiring a conceptual understanding of the functions offered by the avionics, developing system monitoring skills and habits, developing mode management and awareness skills, understanding when and when not to use automation, and maintaining manual flying skills. Operating aircraft with advanced avionics requires an additional set of knowledge elements and skills. Currently, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation safety inspectors are required to inspect technically advanced aircraft, check certified flight instructors, and conduct surveillance of designated pilot examiners who are certifying pilots operating technically advanced aircraft. Therefore, the FAA collaborated with researchers from National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University to develop and implement training for aviation safety inspectors on technically advanced aircraft. This paper reports initial participant evaluations of the course
En route operational errors : transfer of postion responsibility as a function of time on position by Lawrence L Bailey( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Operational Errors (OEs) can occur anytime while a controller is on position. However, the historical trend has been that a higher percentage of OEs occur early on position and then tapers off as on-position time increases. This trend has been consistently observed across the different air traffic options and time of day. Past efforts at reducing OEs that occur early on position have focused on improvements associated with the position relief briefing. Despite these efforts, nothing has been able to reverse the trend in OEs. We conducted a retrospective analysis of enroute OEs to determine if there were human factors considerations unrelated to the position relief briefing checklist that may explain why OEs occur early following a position transfer. Our results suggest that position transfers differ by type (replacement vs. providing workload reduction) and the amount of time available (time pressure vs. no pressure). Moreover, the human factors considerations differ between the type of transfer and the amount of available time. Although the position relief briefing checklist is well grounded in human factors principles, the checklist itself is insufficient for assessing the various states of mind a controller is operating under immediately following a position transfer
Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1,335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

For aviation accident investigations at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose, and in those cases wherein glucose levels are elevated, blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is measured. These analyses are conducted to monitor diabetic pilots to ensure that their disease was in control at the time of accidents and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed and unreported diabetes.--P. i
Index to FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine reports: 1961 through 2008 by William Edward Collins( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An index to Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aerospace Medicine Reports (1964-2008) and Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aerospace medicine technical reports published from 1961 through 2008: chronologically, alphabetically by author, and alphabetically by subject
The distribution of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in postmortem fluids and tissues by Russell J Lewis( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During aviation accident investigations, postmortem specimens from the flight crews are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. Fluoxetine (Prozac) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that was introduced in 1986. Certain side effects of this medication - drowsiness, dizziness, abnormal vision, diarrhea, and headache - could affect pilot performance and become a factor in an aviation accident. Our laboratory has determined the distribution of fluoxetine and its desmethyl metabolite, norfluoxetine, in various postmortem tissues and fluids from 10 fatal aviation accident cases. When available, 11 specimen types were analyzed for each case, including: blood, urine, vitreous humor, bile, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, lung, spleen, heart muscle, and brain. Specimens were extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by GC/MS. Deuterated fluoxetine and norfluoxetine were used as internal standards to eliminate any possible matrix effects during extraction. Blood fluoxetine concentrations in these 10 cases ranged from 21 to 1480 ng/mL. Most cases fell within the expected therapeutic range for patients that regularly take this drug. The distribution coefficients for fluoxetine were determined to be: urine 0.9 +/- 0.4, vitreous humor 0.10 +/- 0.03, bile 9 +/- 1, liver 38 +/- 10, lung 60 +/- 17, kidney 9 +/- 3, spleen 20 +/- 5, muscle 2.2 +/- 0.3, brain 15 +/- 3, and heart 10 +/- 2. While the coefficient of variation (CV) for the distribution coefficients range from 11-44%, the distribution into heart, brain, muscle, spleen, and bile is relatively reproducible, each having a CV of less or equal 25%. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting the distribution of fluoxetine in humans at therapeutic concentrations
Determination of etomidate in human postmortem fluids and tissues by Robert D Johnson( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Following an aviation accident, biological specimens from the operator of the aircraft are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. During the course of medical treatment following an aviation accident, pilots who later died as a result of their injuries may have been administered etomidate as an intravenous anesthetic. Our laboratory has developed a sensitive method for the identification and quantitation of etomidate in the biological specimens received from these pilots. Furthermore, we have evaluated the distribution of this compound in various postmortem tissues and fluids from 3 fatal aviation accident cases."--Report documentation page
The impact of training on general aviation pilots' ability to make strategic weather-related decisions by Jerry D Ball( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Inadvertent flight into hazardous weather can have devastating results for general aviation pilots (NTSB, 2005; Goh and Wiegmann, 2001). In fact, weather is the leading cause of fatalities in general aviation. The purpose of this study was to determine if a graphical weather display combined with an instructional training paradigm could improve pilots' ability to maintain a safe flying distance from convective thunderstorm activity. Previous research suggested that giving pilots the ability to see accurately the weather they are flying in and around may tempt some pilots to try to fly through small breaks in the convective activity. Indeed, Beringer and Ball (2004) found that pilots using graphical weather could be classified into two types of users (tactical vs. strategic). Tactical users were those pilots who used the information to try and navigate through or very close to the hazardous weather. Strategic users were those pilots who used the graphical information to plan and maintain a safe distance (20 nautical miles or greater) from the storm. An instructional slide presentation based on the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM, 7-1-27) guidelines was developed with the intent of modifying the behavior of users classified as "tactical." Fifty-seven general aviation pilots were evaluated on a low-visibility visual flight rules (VFR) scenario where they encountered an encroaching thunderstorm traversing their flight plan. The pilots were separated into two groups, tactical or strategic users, according to how they responded to a simulated scenario of a VFR flight using a graphical weather display. Half of the pilots in each group then received training to see if it would decrease the incidence of tactical usage. Additionally, a control group was evaluated that flew the multifunction display without the graphical weather information
Infrared radiation transmittance and pilot vision through civilian aircraft windscreens by Van B Nakagawara( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In support of a Department of Homeland Security project, the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute measured the optical transmittance properties of aircraft windscreens. This paper focuses on windscreen transmittance in the infrared (IR) spectral region (780 - 4000 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Transmission measurements were performed on eight aircraft windscreens. Three windscreens were from large commercial jets (MD 88, Airbus A320, and Boeing 727/737); two from commercial, propeller-driven passenger planes (Fokker 27 and the ATR 42); one from a small private jet (Raytheon Aircraft Corporation Hawker Horizon); and two from small general aviation (GA), single-engine, propeller-driven planes (Beech Bonanza and Cessna 182). The two GA aircraft windscreens were plastic (polycarbonate); the others were multilayer (laminated) composite glass. The average transmittance for both glass laminate and plastic windscreens in the IR-A region (780 - 1400 nm) varied considerably (47.5% 11.7%), with glass windscreens consistently attenuating more IR than plastic windscreens. The average difference in transmittance between the two materials fluctuated (27.3% 15.9%) throughout the first half of the IR-B spectrum (1400 - 3000 nm) up to approximately 2200 nm when transmittance dropped below 7%. The average transmittance for glass and plastic windscreens became negligible beyond 2800 nm. Aircraft windscreens provide a level of protection from potential ocular and skin hazards due to prolonged or intense exposure to IR radiation. The amount of protection is dependent on the type of windscreen material, the wavelength of the radiation, and angle of incidence. On average, laminated glass windscreens attenuate more IR than plastic
Time series analyses of integrated terminal weather system effects on system airport efficiency ratings by Elaine M Pfleiderer( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The FAA has initiated efforts to improve weather information, forecasting, and dissemination to enhance both safety and operational efficiency. The FAA has also adopted the System Airport Efficiency Rate (SAER) as a metric of facility operating efficiency that accounts for weather by using either actual demand or the facility-set arrival rate as the denominator, reflecting a reduction in the published ability to handle departures or arrivals due to prevailing weather conditions. Interventions aimed at improving performance should be observable in our metrics. However, acceptance and widespread use of the SAER raises the question of whether a weather-adjusted measure is sensitive enough to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving performance during inclement weather. One such intervention is the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS). In the present study, we applied time series analysis to average daily and monthly SAERs at 13 airports. We modeled SAER data at each airport prior to ITWS implementation and then tested whether each ITWS build (i.e., subsequent software updates and added functionality) affected SAER values. Though some statistically significant effects were found (both positive and negative), the patterns of these effects were not consistent enough to draw any definite conclusions. The fact that we were unable to make a clear determination about the effectiveness of ITWS implementation suggests that the SAER may "control out" the variance needed to detect the consequences of interventions. Thus, it is imperative that the raw data from which they are derived remain readily available to evaluate the efficacy of changes to the system, because simply monitoring facility and system effectiveness measures may obscure or discount intervention effects
 
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