WorldCat Identities

FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION OKLAHOMA CITY OK CIVIL AEROSPACE MEDICAL INST

Overview
Works: 39 works in 39 publications in 1 language and 43 library holdings
Genres: Bibliography 
Classifications: RC1054.U5,
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION OKLAHOMA CITY OK CIVIL AEROSPACE MEDICAL INST
Distribution of oxycodone in postmortem fluids and tissues by Sabra R Botch( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Oxycodone is a heavily used and abused analgesic agent. Its pharmacological effects, including euphoria, respiratory depression, nausea, and drowsiness, have the potential to adversely affect performance. The postmortem distribution of oxycodone has not been well characterized, particularly at sub-lethal levels. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the distribution of oxycodone in postmortem specimens collected from aviation accidents. Methods: A search of our database identified 4 oxycodone-positive fatalities from separate civil aviation accidents that occurred during a period of 6 years that had numerous biological tissues and fluids available (blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, lung, spleen, heart muscle, and brain). These specimens were extracted using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed for oxycodone by GC/MS. Results: Oxycodone concentration ranges (g/mL, g/g) found in the different tissues and fluids were: blood 0.027-0.742, urine 2.20 - 12.5, vitreous humor 0.048 - 0.118, liver 0.103-3.35, lung 0.047-1.35, kidney 0.045-3.12, spleen 0.115-2.43, muscle 0.017-0.400, brain 0.032-1.36, and heart 0.038-3.19. Conclusion: The blood concentrations found indicate that the oxycodone in these cases ranged from therapeutic to above therapeutic, but all were below lethal levels. Tissue/fluid to blood distribution coefficients were found to have large coefficients of variation (ranging from 26-128%), thereby rendering them unreliable for estimating a blood oxycodone concentration from a tissue value when no blood is available for analysis
United States Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air Navigation Commission was directed to strengthen relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control (ATC) personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English Language Proficiency (ELP) requirements and urged its members to document their ELP test implementation plans by March 8, 2008. Until all ATC personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations obtain a passing level of ELP, the language-based problems international pilots face is not known. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by a small focus group of 48 U.S. pilots of their difficulties in international operations. The focus group consisted of 12 international U.S. pilots each from American, Continental, Delta, and United Airlines. Each focus group met with two interviewers to discuss their language experiences flying into countries where English may or may not be the local or national language among its radio operators, controllers, and pilots. In this report, the pilots' responses to questions 24-30 and their comments from discussions of those questions with interviewers are presented as a compiled narrative. The pilots' responses had eight major thrusts, among them the following: (1) Once pilots get past the controller's accented English, understanding is not a problem during routine operations; (2) The lack of standardized pronunciation of NAVAIDs, waypoints, intersections, etc., complicates understanding what was said; and (3) Currency in flight time in the theater of operation is critical to understanding accented English
General unknown screening by ion trap LC/MS/MS by Robert D Johnson( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

During the investigation of aviation accidents, postmortem specimens from accident victims are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. The first, and perhaps most important, step in the analysis process is the initial screening of biological specimens for illicit, medically prescribed, and over-the-counter compounds that may be present and could have been the cause of the accident. Currently, our General Unknown Screening (GUS) procedure involves both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/diode array detection (LC/DAD) and fluorescence detection techniques. Both techniques have inherent limitations that prevent the detection of certain types of compounds. LC/DAD, however, is more limited due to poor sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, our laboratory developed and validated an LC/MS/MS procedure that provides far superior sensitivity and specificity to that of LC/DAD. The combination of GC/MS with LC/MS/MS will allow for the detection of more compounds at lower concentrations than our current techniques
Causes of general aviation weather-related, non-fatal incidents : analysis using NASA aviation safety reporting system data by William Knecht( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Adverse weather remains a major cause of general aviation accidents. However, weather alone is never the sole culprit. Searching for other salient causal factors, we turned to incident analysis. Incidents are less serious than accidents, but far more common, and have witnesses to better determine causes. The current research examined 100 GA weather-related incident reports made to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) during 2005-06. With pilot permission, ASRS gathered additional data on nearly 300 variables related to possible root causes. The following factors seemed to constitute a problem for 5%, or more, of pilots: 1. Darkness (4 dusk +17 night = 21% of pilots). 2. Moisture affecting visibility (clouds, fog, rain, snow> 50%) and/or air movement affecting aircraft handling (thunderstorm, icing, turbulence> 25%). 3. Multiple weather factors experienced simultaneously (85%). 4. Failure to get a preflight weather briefing, or "briefing" with only a low-grade (non-aviation-oriented) source (5%). 5. Deterioration of weather forecast accuracy over time (66% correct forecasts at departure, decreasing to 37% correct at destination). 6. Weather that materialized worse than predicted (35%. This implicitly includes lack of en-route forecast updates). 7. Lack of weather-related training and experience (> 50%, non-instrument-rated and new instrument-rated pilots). 8. Inadequate equipment (less-experienced pilots tend to have less-capable airframes and avionics). 9. Ambulance missions (7%, particularly helicopter ambulance). 10. "Non-weather-related factors": decision-making (26%), time pressure (21%), "get-home-itis" (9%), aircraft equipment problem (8%), fatigue (7%), distraction by passenger or crew (5%). In broad terms, this analysis reveals two major at-risk target groups with distinct training needs: Non-instrument-rated pilots Newly minted instrument-rated pilots
U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English-Speaking Airspace/Airports( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air Navigation Commission was directed to complete the task of strengthening relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control (ATC) personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English-Language Proficiency requirements (ELP) and urged its members to document their ELP test implementation plans by March 8, 2008. Until all ATC personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations obtain a passing level of ELP, the language-based problems international pilots face is not known. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by a group of 48 U.S. pilots of their difficulties in international operations who met with interviewers to discuss their language experiences flying into countries where English may or may not be the local or national language among its radio operators, controllers, and pilots. In this report, the pilots' responses to questions 31-38 and their comments from discussions of those questions with interviewers are presented as a compiled narrative. The pilots' responses had nine major thrusts, among them the following: (1) Traveling into nonnative English-speaking countries can be a positive learning experience leading to professional growth and development; (2) English-language proficiency varies from country to country and individual to individual, however, problems occur everywhere; and (3) Hearing multiple languages on the radio restricts situational awareness and diminishes pilots' expectations as information derived from the party line decreases
U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 5: Language Experiences in Native English-Speaking Airspace/Airports( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air traffic control personnel and flight crews involved in flight operations in airspace where the use of the English language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. This report is a compilation of written responses and comments by U.S. pilots from American, Continental, Delta, and United Airlines of their difficulties in international operations. In this report, the pilots? responses to questions 46-53 are presented as a compiled narrative. Their responses had eight major thrusts from which we derived the following five recommendations: (1) Adopt a standard dialect for use in ATC communications. (2) All trainees and current certified professional controllers successfully complete instruction and training in the principles of voice production and articulation as it relates to ATC communication. (3) Define an optimal rate of speech for use by certified professional controllers when communicating with pilots. Research is needed to provide guidance on the optimal rate of speech for different populations of speakers? U.S., Foreign. (4) Develop new standard phraseology for non-routine events. Generally, the controller needs to have the pilot answer one question,?What do you need from me?? The controller would coordinate the appropriate actions to provide the pilot with what is needed. (5) Controllers should be discouraged from using local jargon, slang, idiomatic expressions, and other forms of conversational communications when transmitting messages to pilots
Infrared radiation transmittance and pilot vision through civilian aircraft windscreens by Van B Nakagawara( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In support of a Department of Homeland Security project, the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute measured the optical transmittance properties of aircraft windscreens. This paper focuses on windscreen transmittance in the infrared (IR) spectral region (780 - 4000 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Transmission measurements were performed on eight aircraft windscreens. Three windscreens were from large commercial jets (MD 88, Airbus A320, and Boeing 727/737); two from commercial, propeller-driven passenger planes (Fokker 27 and the ATR 42); one from a small private jet (Raytheon Aircraft Corporation Hawker Horizon); and two from small general aviation (GA), single-engine, propeller-driven planes (Beech Bonanza and Cessna 182). The two GA aircraft windscreens were plastic (polycarbonate); the others were multilayer (laminated) composite glass. The average transmittance for both glass laminate and plastic windscreens in the IR-A region (780 - 1400 nm) varied considerably (47.5% 11.7%), with glass windscreens consistently attenuating more IR than plastic windscreens. The average difference in transmittance between the two materials fluctuated (27.3% 15.9%) throughout the first half of the IR-B spectrum (1400 - 3000 nm) up to approximately 2200 nm when transmittance dropped below 7%. The average transmittance for glass and plastic windscreens became negligible beyond 2800 nm. Aircraft windscreens provide a level of protection from potential ocular and skin hazards due to prolonged or intense exposure to IR radiation. The amount of protection is dependent on the type of windscreen material, the wavelength of the radiation, and angle of incidence. On average, laminated glass windscreens attenuate more IR than plastic
Optical Radiation Transmittance of Aircraft Windscreens and Pilot Vision( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Optical radiation can have acute and chronic effects on the tissues of the eye, especially if exposure levels exceed normal repair capabilities. In support of a Department of Homeland Security project, the transmittance properties of aircraft windscreens were measured at the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for both visible and invisible optical radiation. This paper focuses on windscreen transmittance in the ultraviolet (UV) (<380 nm) and visible (380-780 nm) portions of the optical spectrum. Transmission measurements were performed on eight aircraft windscreens. Three windscreens were from large commercial jets (MD 88, Airbus A320, and Boeing 727/737); two from commercial, propeller-driven passenger planes (Fokker 27 and the ATR 42); one from a small private jet (Raytheon Aircraft Corporation Hawker Horizon); and two from small general aviation (GA), single-engine, propeller-driven planes (Beech Bonanza and Cessna 182). The two GA aircraft windscreens were plastic (polycarbonate); the others were multilayer (laminated) composite glass. UV transmittance for both glass and plastic windscreens was less than 1% for UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation. In the UV-A portion (320-380 nm) of the spectrum, transmittance differences increased from 0.41% to 53.5%, with plastic attenuating more UV radiation than glass. For visible light, average transmittance from 400-600 nm (violet to orange) was similar (82.8% 4.6%) for both windscreen materials, while from 625 to 775 nm (orange to red), the difference in average transmittance increased from 9.1% to 40.0%, respectively, with plastic transmitting longer wavelengths more efficiently
Vitreous fluid and/or urine glucose concentrations in 1,335 civil aviation accident pilot fatalities( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

For aviation accident investigations at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), vitreous fluid and urine samples from pilot fatalities are analyzed for glucose, and in those cases wherein glucose levels are elevated, blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is measured. These analyses are conducted to monitor diabetic pilots to ensure that their disease was in control at the time of accidents and to discover other pilots with undiagnosed and unreported diabetes.--P. i
Determination of etomidate in human postmortem fluids and tissues by Robert D Johnson( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Following an aviation accident, biological specimens from the operator of the aircraft are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute for toxicological analysis. During the course of medical treatment following an aviation accident, pilots who later died as a result of their injuries may have been administered etomidate as an intravenous anesthetic. Our laboratory has developed a sensitive method for the identification and quantitation of etomidate in the biological specimens received from these pilots. Furthermore, we have evaluated the distribution of this compound in various postmortem tissues and fluids from 3 fatal aviation accident cases. When available, 10 specimen types were analyzed for each case, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, lung, spleen, heart muscle, and brain. Specimens were extracted using solid-phase base extraction and analyzed by GC/MS. Deuterated etomidate was not available as an internal standard, so to eliminate any possible matrix effects during extraction all quantitative values in specimens other than blood were determined through standard addition. Blood etomidate concentrations in these three cases ranged from 12 to 41 ng/mL. Distribution coefficients for etomidate were determined for each of the specimen types analyzed. These coefficients are expressed relative to the blood concentration in that case. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting the distribution of etomidate in humans at therapeutic concentrations
Physiological equivalence of normobaric and hypobaric exposures of humans to 25,000 feet by David A Self( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Skepticism exists whether normobaric and hypobaric hypoxic exposures are equivalent. We have evaluated if physiological differences between the two environments would translate into actual differences in hypoxia symptoms. Methods. We exposed 20 subjects to 5-min 25,000 ft (7620 m) equivalent environments in an altitude chamber and then in a ground-level portable reduced-oxygen training enclosure (PROTE). Heart rate and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SAO2) were continuously monitored. Alveolar gas samples were collected at 1-, 3-, and 4-min elapsed time. Subjects completed hypoxia symptom questionnaires at the same time points. Results. Mean 4th min alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2), alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PACO2), and respiratory quotient (RQ) differed significantly between the chamber and PROTE. Declines in SAO2 appeared biphasic, with steepest declines seen in the first minute. Rates of SAO2 decline over the 5-min exposure were significantly different. Heart rate was not different, even when indexed to body surface area. Mean number of hypoxia symptoms between hypobaric and normobaric environments after 1 min were significant. However, the temporal pattern of symptom frequencies across subjects between the chamber and PROTE were similar. Conclusions. Alveolar gas composition, as well as arterial hemoglobin oxygen desaturation patterns, differed between a ground-level and hypobaric exposure. Differences in mean number of hypoxia symptoms between hypobaric and normobaric environments after 1 min, but not at 3 and 4 min, coupled with similar patterns in symptom frequencies, suggest that ground-level hypoxia training may be a sufficiently faithful surrogate for altitude chamber training
Time series analyses of integrated terminal weather system effects on system airport efficiency ratings by Elaine M Pfleiderer( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The FAA has initiated efforts to improve weather information, forecasting, and dissemination to enhance both safety and operational efficiency. The FAA has also adopted the System Airport Efficiency Rate (SAER) as a metric of facility operating efficiency that accounts for weather by using either actual demand or the facility-set arrival rate as the denominator, reflecting a reduction in the published ability to handle departures or arrivals due to prevailing weather conditions. Interventions aimed at improving performance should be observable in our metrics. However, acceptance and widespread use of the SAER raises the question of whether a weather-adjusted measure is sensitive enough to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving performance during inclement weather. One such intervention is the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS). In the present study, we applied time series analysis to average daily and monthly SAERs at 13 airports. We modeled SAER data at each airport prior to ITWS implementation and then tested whether each ITWS build (i.e., subsequent software updates and added functionality) affected SAER values. Though some statistically significant effects were found (both positive and negative), the patterns of these effects were not consistent enough to draw any definite conclusions. The fact that we were unable to make a clear determination about the effectiveness of ITWS implementation suggests that the SAER may "control out" the variance needed to detect the consequences of interventions. Thus, it is imperative that the raw data from which they are derived remain readily available to evaluate the efficacy of changes to the system, because simply monitoring facility and system effectiveness measures may obscure or discount intervention effects
Antiemetics with concomitant sedative use in civil aviation pilot fatalities : from 2000 to 2006 by Sabra R Botch( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many drugs commonly used for the treatment of various ailments can be dangerous when used in combination. Antiemetics and sedatives are two drug classes that contain compounds that may have harmful side effects when mixed. A drug such as chlorpheniramine with antiemetic properties can dramatically increase the negative side effects of numerous drugs in the sedative class. This phenomenon is especially dangerous for pilots. Although many of these compounds are considered disqualifying and are not allowed by the FAA, their use does occur in the pilot community. Pilots that use these drugs may be unaware of the danger that can arise when compounds from these two drug classes are taken together. Our laboratory was interested in evaluating the circumstances surrounding accidents in which the pilot was found positive for drugs from each of these two classes. Epidemiological, toxicological, and aeromedical findings from pilots involved in such accidents were collected for a 7-year period, 2000 - 2006. Case histories, accident information, and the probable cause of the aviation accidents were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). Toxicological information was obtained from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory. There were 2,184 fatal aviation accidents over this time period. Of these accidents, 26 were found positive for compounds from both the antiemetic and the sedative drug classes. All 26 aircraft were operated under 14 CFR Part 91 as general aviation. All pilots involved in these accidents were male; 21 tested positive for a disqualifying substance that may have affected their ability to control the aircraft
Application of DNA profiling in resolving aviation forensic toxicology issues( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biological samples from the victims of aviation accidents are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological evaluation. Body components of aviation accident fatalities are often scattered, disintegrated, commingled, contaminated, and/or putrefied at accident scenes. These situations may impose difficulties in victim identification and tissue matching, thereby in the toxicological analysis of authentic samples and the interpretation of the associated analytical results. The use of DNA typing has been exemplified in the literature to resolve the sample misidentification issue. However, the prevalence of this type of issue in relation to aviation accident forensic toxicology has not been well-established. Therefore, the CAMI toxicology database was searched for the period of 1998-2008 for those accidents/cases wherein DNA profiling was performed. During this period, samples from 3523 accidents were received by CAMI. Of these, there were 3366 aviation accidents wherein at least one fatality had occurred. Biological samples from a total of 3319 pilots were received. Of these, 3275 were fatally injured. The 3319 pilots translated into the equivalent number of aviation accidents. Of the 3319 accidents, there were only 15 (0.5%) accidents wherein DNA profiling was performed on the biological samples. Six occupants (four fatalities and two injured victims) were involved in one accident and five (two fatalities and three injured victims) in another. Three fatalities occurred in three accidents each, two fatalities in eight accidents each, and one fatality in one accident. In one accident, there were two occupants with non-fatal injuries. DNA profiling was conducted upon the requests of families in two accidents, of accident investigators in three, and of pathologists in four. In six accidents, contradictory toxicological findings--such as selective presence of analytes in samples--CAMI laboratory to initiate DNA profiling
Drug usage in pilots involved in aviation accidents compared with drug usage in the general population from 1990 to 2005 by Sabra R Botch( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Civil aviation pilots represent a small subsection of the general population. Therefore, one might expect to see the same types of drugs used by pilots that are found in the general population. The purpose of this study was to compare usage of both illegal drugs and abused prescription medications in pilots involved in civil aviation accidents from 1990 to 2005 with that of the general population in the United States. Comparisons included abused drugs routinely screened for by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy, as well as prescription medications-barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and ketamine. The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's (CAMI's) Forensic Toxicology Research Laboratory analyzes postmortem specimens collected from pilots involved in civil aviation accidents. Toxicological information for cases in which pilots were found positive for prescription or illicit compounds was obtained from CAMI's ToxFlo (DiscoverSoft Development, LLC) toxicology database. Statistics on drug usage, trends, and demographics of users in the United States were obtained from National Institute on Drug Abuse, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Drug Enforcement Administration, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Trends in illicit and prescription drug use in pilots of civil aviation accidents are comparable to those seen in emergency departments (ED) and community data from major metropolitan areas collected by DAWN and Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG). Of the 5,321 pilots involved in aviation accidents during the examined time period, there were 467 occurrences of either illicit drugs or commonly abused prescription drugs accounting for 11% of all pilots that were involved in aviation accidents
Participant assessments of aviation safety inspector training for technically advanced aircraft by Thomas Raymond Chidester( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Technically advanced "glass cockpit" aircraft are making their way into general aviation. Aside from technical challenges presented by learning any new system, pilots report some difficulty in acquiring a conceptual understanding of the functions offered by the avionics, developing system monitoring skills and habits, developing mode management and awareness skills, understanding when and when not to use automation, and maintaining manual flying skills. Operating aircraft with advanced avionics requires an additional set of knowledge elements and skills. Currently, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation safety inspectors are required to inspect technically advanced aircraft, check certified flight instructors, and conduct surveillance of designated pilot examiners who are certifying pilots operating technically advanced aircraft. Therefore, the FAA collaborated with researchers from National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University to develop and implement training for aviation safety inspectors on technically advanced aircraft. This paper reports initial participant evaluations of the course
En route operational errors : transfer of postion responsibility as a function of time on position by Lawrence L Bailey( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Operational Errors (OEs) can occur anytime while a controller is on position. However, the historical trend has been that a higher percentage of OEs occur early on position and then tapers off as on-position time increases. This trend has been consistently observed across the different air traffic options and time of day. Past efforts at reducing OEs that occur early on position have focused on improvements associated with the position relief briefing. Despite these efforts, nothing has been able to reverse the trend in OEs. We conducted a retrospective analysis of enroute OEs to determine if there were human factors considerations unrelated to the position relief briefing checklist that may explain why OEs occur early following a position transfer. Our results suggest that position transfers differ by type (replacement vs. providing workload reduction) and the amount of time available (time pressure vs. no pressure). Moreover, the human factors considerations differ between the type of transfer and the amount of available time. Although the position relief briefing checklist is well grounded in human factors principles, the checklist itself is insufficient for assessing the various states of mind a controller is operating under immediately following a position transfer
Laser illumination of aircraft by geographic location for a 3-year period (2004-2006) by Van B Nakagawara( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Incidents involving laser illumination of aircraft in the National Airspace System have raised concerns within the aviation community for more than a decade. The principal concern is the visual effect laser illumination may have on flight crew performance during terminal operations, such as landing and departure maneuvers, when operational activities are extremely critical. This 3-year study examines the frequency and rate of aviation-related laser incidents by year and location. Incident reports of civilian aircraft illuminated by high-intensity lights have been collected from various sources and entered into a database maintained by the Vision Research Team at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. Reported incidents of laser exposure of civilian aircraft in the United States for a 3-year period (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006) were collated and analyzed. A total of 832 incidents during the study period took place within the United States in the nine FAA-designated regions. For the period, total laser incident rates per 100,000 flight operations ranged from zero in the Alaskan region to 0.86 in the Western Pacific Region. Of the 202 airports where laser incidents occurred, there were 20 (9.9%) that reported 10 or more laser incidents during the study period. The majority of airports (52.6%) with 10 or more laser incidents reported a higher number of incidents in 2005 than in 2006. Laser illumination incidents that could compromise aviation safety and threaten flight crew vision performance occur with some regularity within the contiguous United States. While the study data indicate the Western Pacific Region had a significantly higher prevalence rate than the other FAA regions, analysis was complicated by incident clusters that occurred randomly at various airports
Index to FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine reports: 1961 through 2008 by William Edward Collins( )

1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An index to Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aerospace Medicine Reports (1964-2008) and Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aerospace medicine technical reports published from 1961 through 2008: chronologically, alphabetically by author, and alphabetically by subject
Designing questionnaires for controlling and managing information complexity in visual displays by Jing Xing( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Information complexity of automation displays has become a bottleneck that limits the usefulness of new technologies in air traffic control (ATC). Previously, we developed a set of metrics to measure information complexity in ATC displays. While these metrics provide measures of display complexity, their use is somewhat limited due to required human factors expertise and understanding of the display design. Technology developers and human factors practitioners often desire quick, easy-to-use tools to assess the display during design and acquisition evaluation. Questionnaires provide a quick and inexpensive means to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. We developed two questionnaires to evaluate ATC display complexity, based on the metric indices. The first questionnaire employs a multiple-choice format and allows quantitative evaluation of complexity. The second questionnaire uses a Likert rating format and is intended for qualitative assessment of complexity. We conducted an initial assessment of the questionnaires with seven subject matter experts on a radar display (STARS). The results indicate that both questionnaires produced consistent complexity evaluations among the subjects. Thus, we recommend that the multiple-choice questionnaire is more suitable for assessing quantitative complexity control during acquisition evaluations, and the Likert rating questionnaire is more suitable for complexity management during design of new ATC technologies
 
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