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Johnson O'connor Research Foundation, Chicago, Il. HumanEngineering Lab

Overview
Works: 21 works in 21 publications in 1 language and 37 library holdings
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Most widely held works by Chicago, Il. HumanEngineering Lab Johnson O'connor Research Foundation
A Factorial Study of Reasoning Tests. Technical Report 1982-6 by Mark Daniel( Book )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Inductive Reasoning and Analytical Reasoning tests of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation have been analyzed in a factorial study including marker tests for two commonly recognized reasoning factors, induction (three tests) and logical reasoning (two tests). The primary purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which the Johnson O'Connor tests measure these factors. Multiple groups factor analysis showed the two factors to be highly correlated (r=.73) and practically indistinguishable; a single "general" reasoning factor defined by all five marker tests does a good job of explaining their intercorrelations. The Analytical Reasoning test loads highly on this general factor, but Inductive Reasoning (individually administered) is highly independent of the general factor. It appears that the Inductive Reasoning test measures a distinct reasoning aptitude characterized by quickness in seeing common elements. The group-administered Inductive Reasoning test has low reliability and does not correlate highly with the individual version. (Author)
Development and Internal-Structure Analysis of a New Pitch Discrimination Test, Worksample 740 A. Technical Report 1990-1 by Ellen M Veccia( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As a measure of musical aptitude, a new 90-item Pitch Discrimination Test was developed, and its internal structure was examined. Each of the three sections of the test measures an individual's aptitude for pitch discrimination in a different frequency range using square-wave tones generated by a personal computer. A total of 1,303 examinees, mostly clients taking aptitude tests for career guidance, completed the new worksample 740 a and the current version 315 F. The analyses reported were conducted with a minimum of 1,270 examinees; the exact number of cases for any given analysis varied slightly as a function of missing values on some variables. Representation of both sexes was nearly equal, and the median age of examinees was 26 years. The internal structure of Worksample 740 a was assessed using several methods: (1) comparisons with Worksample 315 f; (2) reliability analysis; (3) factor analysis; (4) item fit analysis; and (5) item difficulty analysis. Obtained reliability coefficients for Worksample 740 a were higher than those of Worksample 315 F. With a few exceptions, all items contributed to the test's reliability. Factor analysis indicated that all sections measured the same underlying construct. Analysis of age and sex indicated that age, but not sex, requires careful consideration in construction of norms for the new test. The new instrument allows the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation to provide examinees with a more generalizable assessment of their aptitudes for pitch discrimination. (Sld)
Item Analysis of the Paper Folding Test (Wks. 622). Technical Report No. 1988-6 by Werner Wothke( Book )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Large-sample item response data for the 10-item Paper Folding worksample 622 (n=2,749) and for five new experimental paper folding items (n=2,514) are analyzed with the logistic item response model and with full-information item factor analysis. The main results of the unidimensional analysis are that: (1) item discrimination is heterogeneous, so that a Rasch model cannot be ascertained for the Paper Folding worksample; (2) item difficulty does not increase with presentation order; and (3) there are not enough items in the midrange of the scale. Item factor analysis identifies an additional minor factor attributable to during-the-test learning of specific solutions for items with similar stems. Based on these results, a modified 11-item version of the Paper Folding worksample is proposed. (Six graphs and five tables present the data.) (Author)
The Perceptual Abilities Project. Technical Report No. 1988-4 by Janine K Bethscheider( Book )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An experimental test battery designed to measure several perceptual abilities was administered to 1,368 (51.8% male) paying clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (jocrf) in an effort to identify and measure three perceptual abilities: (1) flexibility of closure; (2) speed of closure; and (3) spatial scanning. Subjects, who ranged in age from 14 to 69 years, also took the standard jocrf battery. The experimental battery consisted of eight worksamples--six designed by the Educational Testing Service, and two developed within the jocrf. Internal structure analyses of the tests indicated that the following worksamples had moderately high reliabilities: (1) Maze Tracing; (2) Hidden Patterns; (3) Drawing; and (4) Concealed Words. The experimental tests considered jointly were found to measure three distinct factors: (1) one represented by Gestalt Completion, Snowy Pictures, and Concealed Words; (2) a second measured by Hidden Patterns, Hidden Figures, Drawing, and Tactics; and (3) a third represented by Maze Tracing. The perceptual ability factors studied were not measured by the jocrf standard battery. The Concealed Words Test, the Hidden Patterns Test, and Maze Tracing Speed Test were found to be the most suitable perceptual abilities measures; they may be useful additions to the standard jocrf battery. Twenty-two tables and 16 figures present study data. (Sld)
The Ideaphoria Worksamples as Measures of Divergent Thinking. Technical Report 1982-7 by Mark Daniel( Book )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The construct validity of written Ideaphoria and oral Ideaphoria is discussed through analysis of their content and format and their correlations with tests of divergent thinking and writing speed. The current status of research on the measurement of divergent thinking ability is reviewed. Although the Ideaphoria tests have the same content as several commonly used tests of the ideational fluency aspect of divergent thinking, their administrations are quite different, and the abilities being measured may differ as a result. A factor analysis of the Ideaphoria tests, two tests of the flexibility aspect of divergent thinking, and writing speed shows the Ideaphoria tests to be only moderately correlated with the flexibility factor, and indicates a second factor defined by written Ideaphoria and writing speed. Additional data must be collected before it can be determined whether the Ideaphoria tests measure a type of ideational fluency, or instead measure simply the rate of production of verbal material. (Author)
Aptitudes of Physicians. Technical Report 1983-6 by Mark Daniel( Book )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aptitude scores of 70 physicians in various areas of practice who were tested between 1934 and 1971 were compared with aptitude battery scores obtained by the general population of Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation examinees. For each aptitude test, obtained-score distributions were produced for the time periods of pre-1941, 1941-45, and each year from 1946 through 1972, allowing for better control when comparing physicians' scores with those of the general population of Foundation examinees. The Mann-Whitney u Test was used to evaluate the statistical differences between the physicians' and general population's score distributions. Results showed that physicians scored significantly higher in knowledge of English vocabulary, as well as in many other aptitudes, including structural visualization, clerical speed, finger dexterity, foresight, analytical and inductive reasoning, and several memory and musical abilities. Most of these aptitudes have obvious applications in either medical training or medical practice. Results of the Occupational Follow-up Questionnaire also indicated that 70% of the physicians rated their work very rewarding, while 23% rated it essentially satisfying. (Ksa)
Aptitudes of Guidance Counselors. Technical Report 1986-2 by Joseph Tal( Book )

1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To identify the aptitude profile of successful guidance counselors, tests were administered to 49 guidance counselors (14 male, 35 female) ranging in age from 29 to 62 (Mean age 42) and having an average of 9.5 years experience. The findings indicated that guidance counselors as a group scored near or above the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation's population median on all tests in the Foundation's aptitude test battery. Counselors tended to have above-average Ideaphoria (the flow of their ideas was high) and Inductive Reasoning (they were quick to see relationships among separate facts). These abilities should allow counselors to diagnose problems, find various solutions, and communicate their ideas to others. In addition, counselors scored high on Foresight (the ability to focus on distant goals). This ability is useful in occupations requiring a great deal of training, such as guidance counseling; all but one counselor in this sample had earned a college degree, and 92% also had a graduate degree. Counselors were also above-average on Graphoria (suggesting that they do clerical tasks quickly and accurately), Silograms (suggesting good memory for words), and Finger Dexterity. The high scores on these last three aptitudes are more difficult to interpret. (Author/LPG)
The Vocabulary Scores of Company Presidents. Technical Report 1984-1 by Richard M Smith( Book )

1 edition published in 1984 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In June 1983, 456 presidents from among 5,000 of the largest companies in the United States took a vocabulary test designed by the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, with the purpose of reexaming the contention that a large and exact vocabulary is an attribute characterizing executives. This Executive Vocabulary Test consisted of 50 multiple-choice items, selected to cover a range of vocabulary difficulty from average to hard. Results showed that as a group, the company presidents had a higher average vocabulary score (mean Vocabulary Scale Score (vss) of 200.1) than that of the norm group of clients tested by the Foundation (mean vss of 181.3). The evidence from this survey supported the Foundation's earlier contention that an above-average vocabulary is characteristic of company presidents. The small positive correlation between vss and both age and years of education indicates that these factors only marginally accounted for the variation in vocabulary scores. These data indicated that the scores obtained by the respondents were not always related to the opportunities and advantages provided by higher education or the experience afforded by age. (Ksa)
Large-Sample Test Intercorrelations. Technical Report 1983-2 by Mark Daniel( Book )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The correlations of each of the 22 tests in the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation battery with all other tests in the battery are listed. Four fairly large samples are used, each including cases of one sex and a narrow age range. These cases come from a file of 3,555 examinees tested between June 1981 and the fall of 1982. The purpose of computing and publishing these correlations is to provide a resource to be used in future research. No attempt is made in this report to interpret the individual results. The correlations are, in general, similar to those that have been reported previously for smaller samples. There may be a tendency for the present correlations to be slightly higher than earlier ones; this could be attributed to the care which has been taken in using only comparable forms of each test, and to recent efforts to reduce slight differences in scores obtained by different administrators or offices. The present report also illustrates the unreliability of correlations from small samples; for example, the correlations between Oral Ideaphoria and Wiggly Block, based on samples containing from 61 to 169 cases, range from -.05 to .40. (pn)
The Relationship of Aptitudes to the Performance of Skilled Technical Jobs in Engine Manufacturing. Technical Report 1982-5 [and Supplement] by Mark Daniel( Book )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A study examined the relationship of aptitudes to the performance of skilled technical jobs in engine manufacturing. During the study, several approaches were utilized, including criterion-referenced validation, taxonomic validation, construct validation, and detailed anlaysis of the behaviors involved in performing the jobs. The study sample consisted of 224 employees who performed 28 technical jobs related to engine manufacturing. Researchers concluded that performance in these jobs is best predicted by the following aptitude components: verbal reasoning (measured by reading comprehension, logical reasoning, and figure-series tests), spatial ability, clerical speed, manual dexterity, academic ability (measured by tests of induction and numerical ability), and visual pursuit. Furthermore, the technicians averaged higher than the general population on most of the tests measuring abilities that predict success on the job. While the validity coefficients found in the study are reduced in size by the restricted range of job performance and job ability in the sample, it is reasonable to expect that they would have been higher if a broader range of aptitudes and job performances were represented in the sample. (The test instruments used and guidelines concerning their use are provided in appendixes and in an attached supplement.) (Mn)
One-Year Follow-Up of Apprentices in a Skilled-Trades Program. Technical Report 1983-3 by Mark Daniel( Book )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As a consequence of a validation study based on over 200 skilled technicians employed in engine manufacturing, seven aptitude tests were administered to 50 applicants in June 1982. This report presents correlations between test scores and three criteria (math grades, job performance ratings, and a composite) for the 26 people who entered the program. Math grades and the composite were well predicted by the aptitude tests, particularly the spatial ability, figural reasoning, and numerical reasoning tests. (Author/PN)
Analysis of Cognitive Style Measures by Kathy E Green( Book )

1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The psychometric utility of six experimental cognitive style (cs) measures was analyzed. Examinees were 1,135 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation who, during 1985, completed at least one of the six cs tests. Information is provided on measure reliability; relationships among cs measures; relationships with standard battery aptitude measures; and relationships to sex, age, education, and laterality. Measurement precision appears adequate for the Rod-and-Frame Test and the Matching Familiar Figures Test style score. For the Stroop Color and Word Test, the reliability was a little low but could be raised by lengthening the test. These three measures appear to be independent of each other and of the standard battery measures and may be useful additions to the battery if further research indicates that they predict vocational/avocational performance. The Verbalizer/Visualizer Questionnaire requires further investigation and development prior to use. The measure of global-analytic style did not have adequate reliability, and the measure of global-analytic ability showed overlap with current battery measures, but might prove useful as a measure of general reasoning ability. Item statistics, the calculation routine for over- and under-correction on the Rod and Frame Test, and descriptive statistics for the standard battery measures are appended. (Tjh)
The Numerical Facility Project. Technical Report 1987-1 by Joseph Tal( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An experimental test battery (the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation battery) designed to measure numerical facility was administered to 1,451 subjects at 12 testing centers across the United States over a 5-month period. Five work samples were included: (1) arithmetic; (2) counting backwards; (3) number reasoning; (4) rule learning; and (5) number series. All five work samples had moderately high internal reliabilities. Factor and item analyses showed that each work sample measured primarily one dimension. These work samples provided information that was not obtained with the standard Johnson O'Connor aptitude test battery. When predictive validity was examined, all five discriminated to some degree among groups of examinees divided according to their college majors. Arithmetic and Counting Backwards were, psychometrically, the purest measures of numerical facility; however, all were considered suitable. Twenty-five tables are presented. (Sld)
Aptitude Scores of Guidance Counselors. Technical Report 1982-1 by Bruce Foxley( Book )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A sample of 21 guidance counselors was administered the full battery of Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation aptitude tests to compare scores with the "general population" (norm group). The counselors had worked in public schools, private schools or as self-employed consultants for an average of 10 years. The average age was 42. The tests, which were developed over a sixty-year period, measure a wide range of aptitude areas including perceptual speed, spatial ability, reasoning, dexterity, memory, music and divergent thinking. The guidance counselor sample scored significantly higher than the general population in Ideaphoria (a measure of verbal fluency), Inductive Reasoning (quickness in seeing relationships), and Pitch Discrimination. They also tended to score high in Foresight and Tonal Memory, but the differences from general-population scores were not statistically significant. The high Ideaphoria and Inductive Reasoning scores were expected because the counselor's job appears to use these aptitudes; the high scores on the music tests, however, do not have a ready explanation. (Author/CM)
Rasch-Model Procedures Used to Build the Jocrf Vocabulary Item Bank. Technical Report 1990-3 by Richard C Gershon( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In an effort to improve the ways in which words are learned, the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation (jocrf) is attempting to determine the difficulty level of all non-technical words in the English language. This item banking project entails: (1) identifying words that should be calibrated; (2) writing a test item for each word; (3) testing the item in public schools and private schools; and (4) calculating a series of statistics to assess the relative difficulty of a word and place it on the JOCRF's Vocabulary Scale. The vocabulary data base is composed of five data bases (items, used, discuss, stats, and allstats) that are related to each other via various "key" fields. This report outlines the Rasch model statistical procedures used to determine the difficulty of a word. The rationale for using the Rasch model and a description of actual use of the statistical procedures are provided. The data base structure that the jocrf uses to store the large quantities of statistical and verbal data generated by the project is also described. Eight appendices are provided containing numerous figures and tables that supplement the text. A 36-item list of references is included. (Sld)
Relationship of Aptitudes to Performance in High School Mathematics. Technical Report 1982-2 by Mark Daniel( Book )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A battery of aptitude and vocabulary tests was administered to 477 students from two high schools. Test scores were correlated with grades in three mathematics courses (algebra, geometry, and algebra II/trigonometry) and scores on the psat and sat. It was found that course grades are most strongly related to analytical reasoning, English vocabulary, and several tests of short-term memory. Scores on the mathematics sections of the psat and sat are predicted by the same aptitudes, plus structural visualization. The verbal sections of the psat and sat are largely predicted by vocabulary, but analytical reasoning, ideaphoria and silograms (verbal short-term memory) also contribute to prediction. (Author)
 
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