WorldCat Identities


Works: 9 works in 9 publications in 1 language and 9 library holdings
Publication Timeline
Tissue Distribution of Tungsten in Mice Following Oral Exposure to Sodium Tungstate( Book )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The present study describes tissue distribution of tungsten in mice following oral exposure to sodium tungstate. Mice were exposed to sodium tungstate (0, 62.5, 125 and 200mg/kg/d) for 28 days, and then kidney, liver, colon, bone, brain and spleen were harvested for trace element analysis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed increasing tungsten levels in all organs, with the highest concentration found in the bones and the lowest concentration found in brain tissue. As part of a complementary study on possible effects on immune functions from tungsten exposure, subgroups of animals were also exposed either to staphylococcal enterotoxin B or lipopolysaccharide. Immune challenge did not have significant effects on tissue distribution, and gender differences were noticed only in spleen (higher concentration of tungsten in female animals). In addition, tungsten levels in this organ were correlated with increased iron levels, something that was not observed for any other organ or either of the other two metals that were analyzed (nickel and cobalt). These findings confirmed most of what has been published on tungsten tissue distribution; they also showed that the brain is relatively protected from oral exposure, and further studies are necessary to clarify the findings on spleen
Development of an Infrared Spectrophotometric Method for the Analysis of Jet Fuel Using a Loop Calibration Technique( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A whole body inhalation study of combined jet fuel vapor and aerosol necessitated the development of a method for preparing vapor standards from the neat fuel. Due to the complex mixture of components in jet fuel, and the selective partitioning between aerosol and vapor, a novel method was needed to prepare vapor only standards for the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and a gas chromatograph. A re-circulating loop system was developed which provided vapor only standards whose composition matched those seen in an exposure system. Comparison of nominal concentrations in the exposure system to those determined by infrared spectrophotometry and gas chromatography were in 8O%-99% agreement
Design and Construction of a 1,4-Dioxane Vapor Generation System( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A rodent, whole body inhalation study to characterize the biological effects of 1,4-Dioxane (dioxane) gas necessitated the development of a generation system capable of creating 6000 parts per million of dioxane in a 180 liter per minute air flow. Heat was required to counteract evaporative cooling of the dioxane while avoiding excessive heat so as not to increase temperatures in the exposure chamber. A variable alternating current transformer (Variac) was used to control two heating cords. The first warmed the glass generator body while the second heated the air passing through the generator. The temperatures used were sufficient to allow complete vaporization of the dioxane at 6000 ppm while not significantly increasing exposure chamber temperatures
Design and Construction of a Small Whole Body Inhalation Chamber( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An animal model whole body inhalation study of carbon monoxide gas necessitated the development of an exposure chamber and suitable caging for both the exposure and subsequent treatment with hyperbaric oxygen of test animals. The exposure chamber was constructed from both polycarbonate and acrylic plastics. It uses a plenum design for both the input and the exhaust systems to assure uniform distribution of the carbon monoxide vapors within the exposure chamber. This chamber design is also suitable for use with other gases provided they are chemically compatible with acrylic, and polycarbonate
Impact of 30-Day Oral Dosing With N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine on Sprague-Dawley Rat Physiology( )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A number of studies have demonstrated a protective effect associated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) against toxic chemical exposure. However, the impact of long-term oral dosing on tssue pathology has not been determined. In this study, we assessed the impact of long-term oral NAC administration on organ histopathology and tissue glutathione (GSH) and total glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity levels in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Groups of 20 SD rats (10 male, 10 female), 8 weeks of age, were dosed daily by oral gavage with deionized H2O (negative controls) or NAC solution at a rate of 600 or 1,200 mglkgld for 30 days. Animals were euthanized 6 hours after treatment on study Day 30. There were no significant differences in final body weights or weekly average weight gain between treatment groups. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were significantly elevated (p less than or equal to 0.05) in NAC-treated animals compared to controls when measured on study Day 30. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, stomach, small intestine, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, and lungs revealed no lesions associated with NAC administration. When measured on study Day 30, total GST acUvity for kidney and skin from NAC-treated animals were increased 39-131% as compared to controls. Tissue GSH concentrations from NAC-treated animals were increased 24-81% as compared with negative controls. Further studies are needed to determine if the observed increase in tissue GSH concentraion and GST activity provide a degree of chemoprotection against dermal and systemic chemical toxicants
Acute Toxicity Assessment of Break-Free CLP: A Weapons Cleaning and Maintenance Compound( )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Break-Free CLP(R) ("Break-Free CLP") is a commercial cleaning, lubricating, and preserving compound used in both the military and civilian sectors for maintenance of small and large caliber weapons. Break-Free CLP is a complex mixture made up of polyalphaolefin oil (65%), synthetic oils, esters and other synthetic proprietary ingredients (27%), isoparaffinic hydrocarbons (5%), and dibasic ester (3%). Like many commercial mixtures, there is very little information available on the toxicity of Break-Free CLP. Studies were conducted to characterize the biological effects of single or repeat dermal application of Break-Free CLP to the clipped backs of CD-1 mice
Characterization of the Reproductive Toxicity of Depleted Uranium( )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of the proposed work is to determine the reproductive and developmental toxicity of depleted uranium (DU) ore in Sprague-Dawly rats. DU-tipped munitions have become common-place on the modern battlefield and recent experience has shown that minor injuries associated with DU munitions are becoming more common. Four hundred ninety-eight adult (P1) SD rats were implanted with up to 20, 1x2mm DU pellets and mated at 30 and 120 days post-implantation. Preliminary findings indicate no adverse effect associated with DU implantation on P1 reproductive success, or F1 and F2 offspring survival and development
Impact of Sodium Tungstate and Tungsten Alloys on the Growth of Selected Microorganisms with Environmental Significance( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Tungsten is a transition metal with unique properties that permit its use in a range of applications, including household products and small caliber ammunition. Increased use has restored interest in tungsten and tungsten-based products in determining not only their impacts upon human health, but also on the environment. Given the dependence on microbes for environmental processes, it is appropriate to evaluate tungsten effect on microorganisms. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) and tungsten alloys on the growth of selected environmental microorganisms that play roles in metal reduction, biogeochemical cycling and biodegradation. A soil community was also evaluated for its tolerance to Na2WO4. Shewanella, a strong metal reducer, displayed the most robust ability to grow in the highest concentrations of Na2WO4 evaluated, whereas Pseudomonas displayed lower tolerances. Interestingly, bacteria cultivated from the environment displayed only minor delays and reduction in growth relative to pure cultures, suggesting that such a microbial consortium is better suited to cope with Na2WO4 exposure. Tungsten alloys also had profound effects on bacterial growth, however, these were dependent on the metals and nutrients present, suggesting the effect may be exacerbated in certain environmental settings where nutrients may be limited
Neurobehavioral Effects of Sodium Tungstate Exposure on Rats and Their Progeny( )

1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the mid 1990's, the use of tungsten as a replacement for lead and depleted uranium began for the manufacture of small arms munitions and armor penetrator munitions, respectively. Recent reports have demonstrated that tungsten can solubilize in soil and is present in some US drinking water supplies, however, little research has been conducted to determine the human health consequences of exposure. The purpose of this study was to use a battery of tests as an initial screen for potential neurobehavioral effects that may be associated with 70 days of daily tungsten exposure via drinking water. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with diH2O vehicle, 5 or 125 mg/kg/day of sodium tungstate for 70 consecutive days. The rats were mated after 14 days and dosing continued through pregnancy up to post-natal day 21. Following sodium tungstate treatment, neurobehavioral tests were conducted on the adult females and their pups. Early neurobehavioral evaluations on the-pups were done through tests of the righting reflex and maternal separation distress as measured by ultrasonic vocalizations. The adult females were tested for maternal retrieval, acoustic startle/pre-pulse inhibition (AS/PPI), spontaneous locomotor activity, and navigation in a watermaze. In the pups, a 78% increase in distress. - vocalizations was observed in the highest dose group as compared to controls and an interaction of sex and dose was found for righting reflex latencies. While there were no treatment related effects for maternal retrieval, AS/PPI or watermaze navigation, dose related effects were observed for measures of locomotor activity. Adult females treated with the low dose showed increased distance traveled, more time in ambulatory movements, and less time in stereotypic behavior than controls or high dose animals. Those receiving the highest dose had more time in stereotypical movements than controls, and less time resting than controls and the lowest exposure group
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Audience level: 0.99 (from 0.95 for Impact of ... to 0.99 for Tissue Dis ...)