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Pelavin Associates, Inc., Washington, DC

Overview
Works: 63 works in 65 publications in 1 language and 118 library holdings
Classifications: LC1032,
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Inc., Washington, DC Pelavin Associates
On the Front Line : Chelsea Teachers and the Chelsea-BU Agreement by Rita Kirshstein( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As part of an ongoing evaluation of the Chelsea Public School System-Boston University (BU) partnership in Massachusetts, a survey was done of 165 teachers to determine their reactions to this effort at school reform and their opinions concerning several matters related to education in Chelsea and the Chelsea-BU partnership. A year and a half after BU's arrival, Chelsea teachers overall appeared to be mixed in their view of BU's impact on the schools. However, teachers who were most involved in school-related activities were most positive about BU's impact on the schools. High school teachers were the least positive about BU's impact on Chelsea, perhaps due to major organizational changes that occurred in the high school during the first year and that were not anticipated and the relatively few professional development activities provided for high school teachers. Two years into the project Chelsea teachers still perceived the system's particular education conditions to be among the worst. However, teachers rated principal effectiveness, quality of teaching, and teacher attendance the highest of education conditions. Survey results also indicate that staff development needs are quite diverse and extensive. Appendixes contain the 102-item Survey of Chelsea Teachers and data on teacher characteristics. (JB)
Bilingual beginnings : an evaluation of the Title VII Special Populations Preschool Program : final report by Lorelei Brush( Book )

2 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In fiscal year 1990, the Bilingual Education Special Populations Program of the Department of Education awarded grants to 30 programs serving children of limited English proficiency. These programs were preschool projects, special education projects, or projects that served gifted children. This document reports the results of a survey, conducted by means of site visits and telephone interviews, of 15 of these programs. Chapter 1 describes the issues examined in the survey and explains the data collection process. Chapter 2 reports the survey results relating to six areas: (1) project goals, including goals for children's language development, cognitive skills, and school readiness, and for parents and staff; (2) project operation and services, including recruitment, enrollment, group size, retention, instructional methods, language usage, materials and equipment, noninstructional services, and parent involvement; (3) project linkages with educational institutions and the community; (4) project staff, including staffing patterns, child-staff ratio, and instructor characteristics and training; (5) participant evaluation, including evaluation of the progress of participating children, children's language development, and analysis of kindergarten enrollment; and (6) fiscal operations. Chapter 3 discusses the implications for policymakers and program managers of survey results that relate to project operations, services, and fiscal operations. Appendixes include tables of data for preschool projects not reported in the document and detailed profiles of the 15 projects surveyed. (BC)
Dropping Out of School. Volume I Causes and Consequences for Male and Female Youth by Joel D Sherman( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In late 1986, the United States Department of Education contracted with Pelavin Associates to conduct a study of the dropout problem in the United States. The research project was undertaken to provide a national overview of the dimensions of the dropout problem, focusing specifically on gender differences; and to identify successful or effective strategies for serving dropout-prone youth and school dropouts. The research was conducted in two phases. The first phase consisted of a research review conducted to assess the national dimensions of the dropout problem, identify successful strategies, and choose individual dropout programs for greater study through site visits. The second phase consisted of site visits to nine dropout prevention and recovery programs that appeared to be relatively effective in reducing the incidence of school dropouts. The findings are reported in three volumes. This document, volume I, presents a national overview of the dropout problem and differences in the dropout problem among young men and women. It discusses the magnitude of the dropout problem, the characteristics of male and female dropouts, the reasons different students drop out of school, and the consequences of dropping out for male and female youth. Eighteen tables, six figures, and a bibliography are included. (NB)
Learning readiness : promising strategies by Carol Copple( Book )

2 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

National Education Goal One, as framed by President Bush and the governors of the 50 states in 1989, declares that by the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn. This sourcebook identifies and provides information about 20 promising comprehensive state and local strategies designed to improve learning readiness among children and adolescents. After defining learning readiness, the booklet discusses some obstacles to readiness, such as poor child health, the lack of a stable and caring home environment, and the lack of an engaging and responsive school environment. Successful programs that address the obstacles to learning readiness: (1) are comprehensive and flexible; (2) focus on the whole family; (3) are accessible and client-oriented; (4) build relationships of trust and respect with children and families; and (5) emphasize prevention rather than remediation. The greater part of the sourcebook consists of two-page profiles of learning readiness programs in eight preschools, four elementary schools, and four secondary schools, and eight learning readiness programs for families and individuals of all ages. Each profile explains the primary focus of the program and the program's scope, describes the program and its funding, discusses evaluations and future plans of the program, and provides the name, address, and telephone number of a contact person. Several full-page black and white photographs illustrate the text. Contains 136 references. (Mdm)
Meeting the Challenges : Coordinating To Promote Self-Sufficiency. Volume 1. Handbook by Inc., Washington, DC National Alliance of Business( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This handbook provides information on effective approaches, methods, processes, and techniques that state and local agencies have used at various stages in implementing their Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs. It is intended for all state and local agencies involved in planning and providing services to JOBS participants, especially staff at human services, labor, and education agencies. The first section describes types of benefits that can be gained from JOBS coordination. The next section summarizes challenges that coordination efforts may encounter and some of the approaches states and counties have taken. Key elements of state approaches to address specific challenges follow. The next six sections each focus on one of the six specific challenges: (1) overcoming philosophic and programmatic differences among programs; (2) establishing an effective state role in promoting local level coordination; (3) making the most of resources; (4) establishing an effective information exchange; (5) building quality assurance and accountability; and (6) providing appropriate and quality services. Each of these sections consists of a description of the challenge, a summary of state or local approaches, and detailed discussion of the approaches. Appendixes include forms, documents, and guidelines developed by state or local agencies. (YLB)
Synthesis of State Quality Indicators for Adult Education Programs. Draft Report by Larry Condelli( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As a preliminary to developing criteria to meet quality control requirements of the National Literacy Act of 1991, this report analyzes four areas where state education agencies examine program quality: local program monitoring to assess compliance or promote program improvement; criteria used to evaluate local program funding applications; program evaluations of state or local adult education programs and evaluations of projects designed to improve program quality; and explicit indicators of local program quality already in use by states. Data were gathered through a review of 46 monitoring instruments and 20 proposal review protocols, requests for proposals, or funding criteria. Following an introductory section describing the research methodology and aims of the study, the report is organized in five sections. Section 2 presents monitoring indicators, section 3 evaluation indicators, and section 4 funding indicators. Each section includes descriptions of documents reviewed and summaries of research methodology, of how the information is used, and of the general topics and quality indicators used in a majority of documents under review. The information is presented in tabular form by component area, topic area, indicator, and specific measure. Section 5 of the report describes explicit quality indicators used in seven states, and the final section lists quality indicators synthesized from all four sources. Appendixes, which make up half the document, present individual summaries of the program evaluation and state summaries of funding criteria. (KC)
Meeting the Challenges : Coordinating To Promote Self-Sufficiency. Volume II. JOBS Program. Federal Funding Resources by Inc., Washington, DC National Alliance of Business( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The five matrices in this volume are designed to assist states in coordinating their Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs. The matrices, each organized around a theme, summarize key elements of a variety of federal programs. Matrix A features the main programs of human services, labor, and education agencies that are most critical to the JOBS program. Matrices B and C supplement Matrix A by displaying additional human services, labor, and education programs. Child care programs are covered in Matrix D. The set concludes with Matrix E, which profiles housing programs, and Matrix F, which describes tax credits. Each page of the matrices spans two pages. The key elements summarized include the following: authorization, purpose, administrative auspices, funding levels, allocation basis, match requirements, fiscal year, program year, planning cycle, nature of state plan, mandate for substate planning, rules/regulations and policies, eligibility, reporting requirements, performance indicators, coordination requirements, and other. A glossary of acronyms used in the matrices completes the document. (YLB)
Quality Indicators for Adult Education Programs : Lessons Learned from Other Programs by Larry Condelli( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

As a preliminary to developing criteria to meet quality control requirements of the National Literacy Act of 1991, a study examined federal and state development of measures of program quality and performance standards for programs funded under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, the Food Stamp Employment and Training Program (FSETP), and the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program of the Family Support Act. The study found that JTPA implemented performance standards for employment and training programs at the inception of the program that measured cost per entered employment, entered employment rate, and average wage at placement. Reacting to criticism that these standards forced programs to neglect services to the hard-to-place, JTPA created new standards in 1990 stressing job retention. The Perkins Act reauthorization of 1990 requires states to develop performance standards that measure learning gains, competency or job skill attainment, placement into employment or other training programs, and retention in or completion of secondary school or its equivalent; about half the states are having considerable difficulty developing such standards. FSETP and JOBS programs are required to implement performance standards, but they have not yet been developed. Based on the experience of these other programs with performance indicators, the following lessons appear most relevant to adult education: (1) establish appropriate indicators and standards; (2) allow state and local flexibility; (3) develop management information systems; (4) provide states with technical assistance; and (5) take steps to avoid unintended effects of indicators. (11 references) (KC)
Study of the Indian Education Fellowship Program. Final Report by Inc., Washington, DC Pelavin Associates( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This document represents a study of the Indian Education Fellowship Program that provides Indian students with financial assistance to attend colleges, universities, or professional schools. It describes the individuals who received Fellowships during 1985-1989 and the higher education institutions they attended. Data were obtained by reviewing application files of recipients and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), contacting university registrars' offices, and conducting a mail survey of the recipients and telephone interviews of recipients' institutions. A total of 287 out of 482 recipients (60 percent) from 178 institutions returned the mail questionnaires. Results of the study indicate: (1) 74 percent of undergraduates and 80 percent of graduate students were enrolled in good standing or had completed their academic programs; (2) of the recipients who completed school, 59 percent of undergraduates and 85 percent of graduate student recipients were employed; and (3) among employed recipients, about 60 percent had at least one job that involved them with members of the Indian community. Good standing enrollment and completing the program are related to: not taking time out, receiving the Fellowship for more years, not having children, and enrollment in medical programs. Institutional characteristics related to study outcomes were also examined. The report discusses the following policy issues: (1) the effect of dropping the criterion of financial need; (2) potential changes in allowable fields of study; (3) the optimal proportion of undergraduate versus graduate recipients; and (4) program management issues. This report contains 15 tables. (LP)
Research Findings from the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study by Inc., Washington, DC Pelavin Associates( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report consists of a series of papers analyzing survey data from the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) concerning the characteristics of both aided and nonaided students, as well as the manner in which students financed their postsecondary education. The following papers are presented: (1) "Paying for College: The Role of Financial Aid in Meeting the Costs of Undergraduate Education" (Rita J. Kirshstein); (2) "Who Attends Proprietary Schools? Findings from NPSAS" (Laura H. Salganik, Patricia A. Hopper); (3) "The Distribution of Discretionary Financial Aid and Stafford Loans" (Dan Sherman, Jon Cohen); and (4) "Descriptive Tables of the Characteristics of Undergraduate Students by Race and Ethnicity." The first paper uses three different definitions of net price to look at what students from different economic backgrounds paid to attend college. The second paper compares the characteristics of students attending proprietary schools to those attending similar programs in community colleges. The third paper identifies the significant factors related to the awarding of institutional aid, campus-based aid, and Stafford loans. The final paper presents data on personal characteristics, enrollment, and student aid by racial and ethnic categories. The report's appendix provides tables of statistical data developed from survey information. (GLR)
Targeting, Formula, and Resource Allocation Issues : Focusing Federal Funds Where the Needs Are Greatest. A Supplemental Volume to the National Assessment of the Chapter 1 Program by Jay Moskowitz( Book )

1 edition published in 1993 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report analyzes options for modifying the current provisions for allocating Chapter 1 funds to better meet the program's goals. The report is organized in seven sections. Following an executive summary and introductory remarks in section 1, section 2 analyzes the existing Chapter 1 funds allocation formulas. Section 3 analyzes the targeting of the Chapter 1 program, including the consequences of current formula provisions on the distribution of funds among schools, school districts, and counties; and the potential effects of selected formula alternatives designed to improve targeting. Section 4 analyzes demographic shifts in poverty among school-age children and youth from one decennial census to another and the resulting impact on the distribution of Chapter 1 funds among counties and states. Section 5 discusses the rationale for adjusting Chapter 1 allocations for interstate differences in costs, the redistributive effects of the current cost adjustment, the accuracy of the current per-pupil expenditure factor as a proxy for the cost of education, and the effects of substituting alternative cost proxies on the distribution of Chapter 1 funds among states and counties. Section 6 discusses the rationale for adjusting Chapter 1 allocations for interstate differences in fiscal capacity and fiscal effort, and examines the redistributive effects of doing so. Section 7 addresses Chapter 1 comparability requirements. Sixty-one exhibits illustrate the discussion. Three appendixes present tables of Chapter 1 funding and allocation data about 10 counties with the highest concentrations of poor children, the 10 largest school districts, and number threshold versus percentage threshold statistics. (Contains 36 references.) (GLR)
Quality Indicators, Measures and Performance Standards by Larry Condelli( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The process of developing indicators, measures, and standards of program quality can be considered a tiered, four-step process consisting of the following: (1) identification of topic areas important to program quality; (2) establishing the indicators that reflect quality for each area; (3) determining measures of the indicators; and (4) setting a numeric criterion or standard for the measure. Topic areas include program context, program process and content, and program outcomes. Quality indicators are variables that reflect effective and efficient performance. Performance measures are the data used to determine the quantitative level of performance. Performance standards are measures with a specific numeric criterion or level of performance tied to them. Indicators and performance standards can be used to assess the success of a program and to hold programs accountable for performance. Indicators can be defined using the focus group method. (Two tables provide examples of indicators, measures, and standards and a framework for development of quality indicators.) (KC)
Background Papers Prepared for the "Study of the Escalating Costs of Higher Education." by Inc., Washington, DC Pelavin Associates( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This report presents seven studies commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education to examine the issue of the rapid rise of college costs during the 1980s and the ability of American students and families to afford higher education. The seven papers are as follows: (1) "The Ability to Afford Higher Education: Past, Present, and Future" (Ralph M. Bradburd et al.) which describes trends in affordability for different types of students and families; (2) "Understanding the Quality Issue in U.S. Higher Education" (Ralph M. Bradburd et al.) which examines measures of educational output (including financial and other measures), analyzes expenditure patterns, and suggests federal policy options and institutional strategies to improve quality at U.S. colleges and universities; (3) "The Market for Higher Education: An Economic Analysis" (Ralph M. Bradburd and Duncan P. Mann) which characterizes the higher education market as segmented due to differences among institutions, the students they serve, the services they provide, and the resources available to them; (4) "Faculty Utilization" (Rita J. Kirshstein and James Fairweather) which focuses on the compensation, activities, productivity, and attitudes of the faculty of U.S. colleges and universities; (5) "Issues in Public Higher Education" (Daniel Sherman et al.) which profiles state-supported higher education institutions, with emphasis on state financing of higher education and the determinants of tuition levels; (6) "Expensive Private Institutions" (Daniel Sherman and Jon Cohen) which focuses on those institutions charging tuition and fees of $10,000 or more in 1988; and (7) "Tuition and Expenditures in Higher Education: An Econometric Model" (Charles L. Masten) which addresses the chicken-and-egg question of whether higher education institutions raise tuitions to cover their expenses, or whether revenue generated from tuition increases fuels expenditure growth. (References accompany each paper.) (GLR)
SCANS in the schools by Carol Copple( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper is designed to help educators to incorporate the competencies developed by the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) into their curricula. (SCANS is a commission composed of representatives of education, business, labor, and state government established in 1990 to define a common core of skills that constitute job readiness.) The paper suggests how to approach issues that schools will have to resolve before the competencies can be taught, such as where in the curriculum they should be introduced and how learning objectives can be developed. Specific examples of teaching individual competencies are included for the five SCANS competencies: resources; information; interpersonal; systems; and technology. The following three exhibits are included: (1) definitions for the five SCANS competencies, with examples of tasks or performances that illustrate the use of each skill; (2) a matrix showing how each subject-matter area can be used to develop each competency; and (3) examples of teaching competencies at different developmental levels. A resources section contains 50 references, most of which relate to a specific competency. (KC)
Evaluation Framework for the State Adult Education Program by Joel D Sherman( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This publication provides a framework that is designed for use by state agencies as a guide for planning and conducting evaluation of different aspects of the State Adult Education Program. The evaluation framework is presented using a set of design tables that offer different approaches states can use to address the Adult Education Act's evaluation requirements. The tables present evaluation options for the following topic areas: program context, program processes (planning and content, curriculum, qualifications of personnel), and program outcomes. For each design and topic presented, the tables provide the evaluation topics, data to collect, methodology, instrumentation, strengths/advantages, and problems and limitations. The measures presented are illustrative of the data that can be collected for each type of evaluation. Within each area, the tables present data collection strategies for basic, enhanced, and optimal levels of evaluation. The levels of evaluation differ by the quality of data they produce, resources required to conduct them, and the type of program decisions they can inform. Following the tables are summaries of the data the evaluation can collect at each level and outlines of evaluation reports that could be produced for each level. (YLB)
Analysis of Factors Related to Default by Mark Dynarski( Book )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper analyzes the factors associated with student loan default in the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program for higher education. The paper provides an overview of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) Student Loan Recipient Survey, and, using data from the survey, presents a descriptive analysis of student loan recipients and of default rates, broken down by various demographic, socioeconomic, and educational-level groupings. Also, the paper explores the underlying factors that determine default, using multivariate statistical techniques. Three key results are reported based on the analysis. First, that a borrower's ability to pay is a powerful determinant of default. Second, that the default rates differ significantly by level of educational attainment. Finally, that default rates differ significantly by the characteristics of borrowers. In summarizing these key results, the report finds that: (1) borrowers leaving school with lower incomes, whose monthly GSL payments are higher, and who have more dependents are more likely to default; (2) borrowers who do not complete high school or their postsecondary education programs are more likely to default; and (3) Black and Hispanic borrowers are more likely to default, after controlling for income, education, and other individual characteristics. Contains seven references. (GLR)
Primary and Secondary Indicators of Program Quality for Adult Education Programs by Larry Condelli( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper describes a list of quality indicators for adult education programs. The list was developed after consideration of background materials and input from four focus groups. The list is divided into two main areas: student outcomes and program process and content. Within each area, the primary indicators (those identified by at least three of the four focus groups) are presented by topic area, along with examples of measures for each indicator. The area of student outcomes includes two topic areas: educational gains and student personal-social development. The area of program process and content includes six topic areas: program planning; curriculum and instruction; staff development and characteristics; support services; recruitment; and retention. A list of secondary indicators, which are indicators identified by one or two focus groups, follows. For student outcomes, topic areas are as follows: educational gains, student personal-social development, employment-related gains, family literacy, and "other." Topics in the area of program process and content are: program planning, curriculum and instruction, staff development and characteristics, and organizational support. (YLB)
Program and Provider Perspectives on Developing Indicators of Program Quality for Adult Education Programs by Mary Ann Corley( Book )

1 edition published in 1992 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This document presents seven papers prepared by experts in the field of adult education on the issues related to developing and implementing quality indicators from the perspective of their program areas or organizational affiliations. "Indicators of Program Quality for Adult Basic Education" (Mary Williams) addresses the appropriateness of indicators of program quality that were developed by Pelavin Associates for adult basic education (ABE). "Indicators of Program Quality: An ESL Programming Perspective" (Inaam Mansoor) examines Pelavin's sample outline of proposed areas in which indicators would be addressed in English as a second language and some sample data elements for the indicators. "Indicators of Program Quality: Adult Secondary Education Programs" (Mary Ann Corley) suggests a repositioning of some indicators, a more specific detailing of others, and the addition of one new indicator. "Quality Indicators of Adult Education Programs for Local Education Agencies" (Connie Eichhorn) suggests additional indicators and dimensions more applicable to local agency programs. "Community College Delivery of ABE: Measuring Effectiveness" (Donna Lane) describes the community college system in Oregon and appropriate indicators. "A New Framework for Assessing Program Quality: Meeting the Challenge of the National Literacy Act of 1991" (Sondra Stein) suggests a shift in the proposed approach to ensure proper evaluation of programs offered by community-based providers. "Indicators of Program Quality for Volunteer Literacy Programs" (Kevin Smith) suggests a set of program quality standards specific to volunteer literacy programs. A list of the sample quality indicators used as a guide by the paper writers is appended. (YLB)
Assessment of Training and Housing Needs within Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions. A Description of Facility and Housing Needs and Five-Year Projections for Meeting Facility and Housing Needs by Lorelei Brush( Book )

1 edition published in 1993 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This document contains two reports that assess the facilities and equipment needs of two American Indian technical institutions, and suggest 5-year plans. United Tribes Technical College in Bismarck (North Dakota) provides l-year and 2-year vocational-technical programs to about 280 American Indian students. Because most have low incomes and/or dependent children, or never lived off their reservations, the college also provides housing and a variety of support services. Most buildings are nearly 100 years old and require major repairs and renovations. Expansion of enrollment to accommodate students on waiting lists requires construction of additional family housing, dormitories, classrooms, and other facilities. Also needed are computers and training equipment that reflect current practice in occupational areas. The second institution, Crownpoint Institute of Technology (CIT) in the Navajo Nation (New Mexico) provides 1-year technical-vocational programs to about 150 students and continuing education courses to about 200. Located in a rural area, CIT provides virtually all housing for students and faculty. The main building was scheduled for demolition in fall 1992 due to structural problems. Construction needs include replacement structures and additional housing and facilities for expanding enrollment. Several options for meeting each institution's needs were developed in light of tribal economic development plans and state employment projections. Both of these reports include details on institutional mission and objectives, enrollment, student characteristics, funding, expenditures, and estimated construction costs. (SV)
Integrated Quality Control Measurement Project. Findings and Corrective Actions by New York, Ny Price Waterhouse and Co.( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Integrated Quality Control Measurement Project (iqcmp) of the U.S. Department of Education measured the quality of awards distributed during the 1988-89 award year under the three major Title iv programs: the Pell Grant program, the Campus-Based programs, and the Stafford Loan program, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of the delivery of Title iv financial aid. The study used a nationwide sample of recipients (3,310 students) and obtained data on each from financial aid administrators, financial aid records, interviews with students and parents, and additional sources. Findings indicated that: approximately 10.9 percent of the $15.4 billion dollars awarded was awarded in error; certain items on the application and certain steps in the award calculation process were error-prone; Integrated Verification, the primary procedure for verifying student application data, was poorly targeted to students with error; and certain groups were more likely than others to have an error in their award though these groups were generally not selected for verification more often than others. Changes that could decrease the error rate are simplification of the delivery system and placing more responsibility for quality control on educational institutions. Included are 61 exhibits; in addition, appendixes list student marginal error, variables associated with error, Federal Government costs per dollar of Stafford Loan, and examples of contingency table analysis. (Jb)
 
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