QUEEN'S UNIV KINGSTON (Ont.) DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Most widely held works by QUEEN'S UNIV KINGSTON (Ont.) DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Absolute Judgment of Musically-Related Pure Tones ( Book )
1 edition published in 1970 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Accuracy of pitch judgment for three sets of 12 sine-wave tones was studied in three experiments. Tone sets differed only in the spacing of stimulus frequencies within the range 175 Hz-2093 Hz. The frequencies for Triad spacing were derived from the (well-tempered) tonic chord with root F3; for Keyboard Interval spacing, each frequency corresponded to a different musical note; for Arithmetic Interval spacing, frequencies were spaced at predetermined Arithmetic Intervals without specific concern for musical correspondence. Musical listeners showed most accurate judgment and most rapid learning of pitch for Triad spacing, and showed no difference between Keyboard Interval and Arithmetic Interval spacing. Comparison of two interstimulus durations, 3 sec and 8 sec, indicated at the slower rate of presentation a small but significant improvement in judgment of the lower six tones for both Triad and Keyboard Interval spacing, and an increased number of octave errors for the higher six tones for Triad spacing. Non-musical listeners showed no differences between sets or rates of presentation. Some characteristics of decision rules for musical pitch recognition are discussed. (Author).
On the transfer from iconic to short-term memory ( Book )
1 edition published in 1968 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Pairs of eight-letter sequences, zero-order or second-order approximations to English, were presented for 50, 125, or 200 msec. The materials were masked 0, 75, or 125 msec. after the offset of the initial presentation. By adding exposure duration to the delay of the masking stimulus, it was possible to compute the total time material was available for processing in iconic memory. Accuracy of report increased monotonically as a function of processing time, and the rate of increase (to an asymptote at about 200 msec) was greater for second-order sequences. In a second experiment, single zero-order and fourth-order approximations to English were presented for 40 msec. and were masked on either the left side (Letters 1-4) or the right side (Letters 5-8) after a delay of 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80 msec. In general, masking the left side reduced accuracy more than masking the right side, but as the delay of mask was increased, accuracy of identification increased and the difference between masking on the left and on the right decreased. Taken together, the results suggest that familiar letter sequences are input to memory more rapidly than are random letter strings and that the input mechanism proceeds sequentially from left to right. (Author).