WorldCat Identities

WASHINGTON UNIV ST LOUIS MO

Overview
Works: 232 works in 284 publications in 1 language and 332 library holdings
Classifications: QA11, 510.7
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by WASHINGTON UNIV ST LOUIS MO
Regulation of Nutrient Transport in Quiescent, Lactating, and Neoplastic Mammary Epithelia( Book )

4 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We studied developmental changes in glucose transporter (GT) targeting in mammary gland, a prerequisite for the understanding GT targeting in breast cancer. Previously, we established that GLUT1 is targeted to Golgi during lactation. To understand the regulation of this process, we carried out subcellular fractionation and density gradient centrifugation, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in mammary glands of mothers whose pups were prematurely weaned. We conclude: (1) There is enrichment of Golgi by GLUT1 during lactation. This is lost by 5h of weaning. (2) Enrichment can be restored by returning the pups to the mother for 5h. (3) At 10h, total cellular content of GLUT1 begins to decrease. (4) A 72 kD protein recognized by the GLUT1 antibody showed even more striking Golgi enrichment than GLUT1. (5) Intermediate MW forms at 50 and 65 kD were also observed. These each demonstrate specific patterns of appearance, disappearance, and subcellular localization, and can be deglycosylated to give aglyco GLUT1. (6) The 72 kD protein was resistant to deglycosylation. Based on the kinetics of its appearance and disappearance, its physicochemical properties which suggest it is not a GT, and based on its subcellular localization in the Golgi, p72 is an excellent candidate for a protein involved in sequestering GTs within the Golgi. (7) Ubiquitin appears to play an important role in the rapid degradation of GLUT1 and p72 during premature weaning. Differential display analysis of gene expression regulated by prolactin and dexamethasone has identified five novel genes, and full length clones are being isolated. One of these may encode a protein with a motif similar to the trans Golgi targeting motif of the GLUT4 GT
Regulation of Glucose Transport in Quiescent, Lactating, and Neoplastic Mammary Epithelia( Book )

4 editions published between 1997 and 2000 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Glucose is a key substrate for lactating and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells. Our purpose is to understand how lactating breast meets its need for glucose transport into Golgi, the site of lactose synthesis, and whether this mechanism has physiological, pathophysiological, or potentially therapeutic relevance in breast cancer. The scope of the research includes established cell lines, primary cells, and mammary glands, from both mice and humans. Major findings are: (1) in mouse and human mammary epithelial cells in culture and also in mouse mammary gland, the hormonal milieu of lactation induces GLUT1 and causes it to be targeted to Golgi, (2) GLUT1 targeting to Golgi is rapidly reversible during forced weaning, and (3) GLUT1 is virtually absent from the plasma membrane in MCF7 and MDA231 cancer cells even in the absence of lactogenic hormones, and is targeted to a non-Golgi compartment. The results suggest that GLUT1 is sequestered within the cell and is not responsible for plasma membrane glucose transport activity in breast cancer. A unique mechanism, possibly with effects on targeting and activity of other proteins, must underlie the sequestration of GLUT1 in breast cancer cells. These cells may express a novel glucose transporter, potentially an attractive therapeutic target
Chromatin Structure and Breast Cancer Radiosensitivity( )

4 editions published between 2003 and 2006 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Most patients with breast cancer tolerate radiotherapy well with only limited acute, reversible adverse effects. However, about 5% of patients experience severe, delayed complications such as skin pigmentation changes, subcutaneous fibrosis, rib fractures, cardiac disease, pulmonary fibrosis, second primary cancer (specifically esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma as well as adenocarcinoma) and other complications, which manifest several years after treatment with ionizing radiation. Epidemiological studies have shown that irradiation of the breast especially among young women, increases the risk for subsequently developing breast cancer. It might thus be expected that genes that are known to influence radiation sensitivity may be associated with the radiotherapy related adverse effects
Positron lifetimes against annihilation in metals and alkali halides( Book )

1 edition published in 1961 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The positron lifetimes against annihilation in three metals (Cu, Ag, Mg) and ten alkali halide crystals (LiF, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KCl, KBr, KI, CsBr, CsI) was determined. The lifetimes obtained are in qualitative agreement with the simple theory discussed in Chapter III. Chapter II serves as a general introduction to the use of the phenomenon of positron-electron annihilation as a tool to explore the electronic structure of solids. Chapter III summarizes the work (experimental and theoretical) which is pertinent to the subject of this thesis. Chapter IV describes the experimental technique and the equipment. Analysis of the data is also treated in this section. A summary of the results of this experiment is given in Capter V. Chapter VI consists of a discussion of the data and comparison with other data as well as the rough theory described in Chapter III for the alkali halides. This section also contains suggestions for further work on the alkali halides. (Author)
Mechanism of Cytotoxicity of the Aids Virus, HTLV-III/LAV by Lee Ratner( )

4 editions published between 1988 and 1990 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study was undertaken in order to devise a quantitative assay of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load in patients' tissues. No methods are currently available which are both sensitive and specific for this purpose. Our method utilizes blood mononuclear cell or tissue DNA. HIV-1 sequences are amplified by the primer chain amplification reaction (PCR) technique. The reaction products are detected and quantitated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide stain, and Southern blot hybridization. This method has proven successful using a single set of primers in detection of HIV-1 DNA sequences from 10 of 12 HIV-1 infected individuals, and 0 of 10 uninfected individuals. Methods of quantitation of using standard curves with defined amounts of HIV-1 DNA sequences and internal controls are under investigation. In addition, we have developed a sensitive and specific assay from HTLV-1 and HTLV-II DNA sequences using the same methodology and we have successfully applied it to the evaluation of blood samples from asymptomatic HTVL-1 infected individuals and individuals with adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma. Keywords: Immunosuppression; Diagnosis medicine. (aw)
Patient Preferences for Outcomes Associated with Surgical Management of Prostate Cancer( )

3 editions published between 1999 and 2002 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of this project is to assess patient preferences for health states following radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Approximately 430 community volunteers enrolled in a prostate cancer screening study were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer from 1994 through 1997 and opted for radical prostatectomy. We have previously evaluated function and bother in this cohort with regard to urinary and sexual domains. Based on these data, we have stratified our cohort into three groups: (1) men bothered by both their current urinary and sexual functioning, (2) men bothered by their current sexual functioning, but not urinary functioning, and (3) men not bothered by either. We have randomly selected approximately equal 50 men from each group (total N = 155) and have assessed preferences for current health states as utilities (i.e., the proportion of remaining life expectancy men would be willing to trade to have ideal health rather than current health). Preliminary analysis indicate lower utilities for men bothered by both current and sexual functioning. Rational decision making in the setting of prostate cancer detection and treatment requires comparing the potential benefits of screening with the potential harms. Because utilities measure the gain in length of life needed to offset undesirable health states, they provide a formal method for characterizing that tradeoff
Modeling Phenotypes of Tuberous Scerosis in the Mouse( )

3 editions published between 2006 and 2008 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The overall goal of this project is to generate a mouse model of the smooth muscle-related facets of tuberous sclerosis, specifically in an attempt to model the lung phenotype seen in a subset of TS patients and patients with LAM. We have conditionally targeted the TSC1 gene in smooth muscle, which results in mortality at approximately 10 weeks of age. This mouse now provides a useful model in which to investigate the function of individual MMPs or other proteins in this pathological progression, and to evaluate relevant therapeutic interventions such as rapamycin
Cataloging Differentially Expressed Sequence Tags from Human Breast Cancer( Book )

3 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of the reported research was to identify novel genes whose differential pattern of expression could serve as useful diagnostic markers for human breast cancer. Using modifications of the differential display polymerase chain reaction technique, we successfully implemented a moderate-throughput method for isolating and directly sequencing novel cDNA fragments. An initial set of 150 cDNA fragments corresponded to mRNAs that were differentially expressed among five different human breast tumor cell lines. Sequence information from eight of these cDNAs was used to generate gene-specific primers. A semi-quantitative, multiplexed RT-PCR assay demonstrated that each of the eight genes had a unique pattern of expression among four, otherwise in-distinguishable primary human breast tumors. This work has resulted in methodology to isolate, catalog, and characterize sets of differentially expressed genes in microdissected, primary human breast tumors. A manuscript in preparation and subsequently awarded funding will continue This work toward the goal of developing novel breast, tumor markers
The Role of Attention in Visual Processing( Book )

3 editions published between 1989 and 1991 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This is the first reported instance in which attention modulates the strength of a visual aftereffect and supports the basic idea underlying the grant: that one can use adaptation phenomena to relate the action of attention to specific visual mechanisms. If one views an object on a monitor whose direction of rotation is specified through perspective, then a subsequent object presented without perspective, whose direction of rotation is normally ambiguous, will be seen to rotate in the opposite direction. Adapting to the unambiguous stimulus has desensitized mechanisms specific for a particular direction of rotation in depth. I now have data indicating that the extent to which this adaption process occurs depends on the extent to which the adapting stimulus is attended. This result suggests that the mechanisms that are being adapted in these experiments are also capable of being attentionally influenced
The measurement and evaluation of over- and underachievement( Book )

2 editions published in 1963 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This is the fourth conference on Research Methodology in Training sponsored jointly by Washington University and the Office of Naval Research. The emphasis of research has been on the study of adult learning by methods which are intermediate between laboratory and psychometric methods. Our special concern today is to examine the nature and measurement of overand underachievement. (Author)
Definition of the T Cell-Mediated Immune Response to Mammaglobin, a Novel Breast Cancer-Associated Protein( )

3 editions published between 2000 and 2002 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The elucidation of the immune response to cancer should be of great help in the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Based on recent advances in our understanding of antigen recognition by T lymphocytes, it has been possible to identify several tumor-associated antigens (TAA) recognized by CTLs. However, the expression for these TAAs has been shown to be relatively low in breast cancer tumor cells. A new protein named mammaglobin has been demonstrated to be exclusively expressed in the mammary epithelium. In addition, 90% of primary breast cancer tumors have high levels of expression of the mammaglobin protein. Given the exclusive mammaglobin expression in breast cancer tumors, this novel protein may prove to be a TAA highly specific for breast cancer that could be utilized in the near future for in vitro breast cancer-specific activation of CTLs. The discovery of mammaglobin-derived antigenic peptides that are highly expressed in breast cancer tumor tissue and are recognized by CTLs offer many exciting future therapeutic options for the treatment of breast cancer
The Role of a Novel Topological Form of the Prion Protein in Prion Disease( )

3 editions published between 2005 and 2008 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Most(but not all) cases of prion disease are associated with a conformationally altered form of the prion protein (PrP) known as PrPSc. Several lines of evidence indicate that while PrpSc is the infectious molecule, it may not be the proximate cause of toxicity in prion disease. Several other candidates for such a toxic species have been proposed, including an altered topological form of PrP known as CtmPrP. Lines of transgenic mice engineered to express CtmPrP develop a spontaneous prion-like disease. Thus, extending our knowledge of the biology of CtmPrP will likely lead to important clues about how all prion diseases induce neurotoxicity. We have characterized the cell biology of CtmPrP in detail in cultured neurons, and show that its cellular trafficking differs from normal PrP. We have also learned that CtmPrP is much less toxic when expressed on a PrP null genetic background; this result has important implications for the mechanism of toxicity in prion disease. We have attempted to establish a cell culture model for CtmPrP-dependent toxicity to further define the mechanism of cell injury
New Approaches to the Labeling of Estrogen Useful for PET( )

3 editions published between 1995 and 1997 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) allows estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer to be diagnostically imaged using radiolabeled estrogens with the benefit of early detection, monitoring, and staging of breast cancer. In order to better target breast cancer, improved estrogen receptor imaging agents are sought. Three new estrogen receptor ligands were synthesized with a methoxy substituted at the 16 position. These compounds were obtained by utilizing the chemistry of methyl hypofluorite (MeOF). Conditions for reacting methyl hypofluorite and steroids were optimized overcoming solubility and solvent problems resulting in decreased formation of side products. Two of the three estradiol analogs were tested for their affinity to bind the estrogen receptor. The results predict these agents to be poor visualizers of breast tumors. The third estrogen, 16alpha-methoxyestradiol-17beta, is currently being tested and based on its structure is predicted to be the superior imaging agent of the three. Synthesis of this third compound required several modifications leaving it the last to be tested. If the binding affinity of this compound is found to be favorable, carbon-11 radiolabeling studies will be initiated to further evaluate the biological effectiveness
Asymmetries in Hemispheric Control of Attention in Schizophrenia by Michael I Posner( Book )

2 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study compared the performance of schizophrenic patients and normal controls in their ability to direct visual attention. The first experiment compared 12 adult schizophrenic patients with 30 control volunteers in their ability to orient attention in response to peripheral visual cues. The patients were distinguished from controls by a slower response to a target in the right visual field than to a target in the left visual field when attention was not first directed to the target location. The second experiment, involving a spatial orienting task along with "shadowing" a story aloud, indicated that patients were distinguished from controls by a stronger bias in favor of symbolic information over language information about spatial direction. In both experiments, the patients demonstrated deficits in attention similar to patients who had unilateral lesions of the left hemisphere. (Author/JDD)
Optical Imaging of Mammaglobin Expression in Breast Cancer( )

3 editions published between 2003 and 2005 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mammaglobin (MMG) is a breast-specific glycoprotein that is over-expressed in 80% of all primary and metastatic breast cancer. Despite its uniqueness as a breast-specific cancer marker, the utility of MMG in breast cancer imaging has not been explored. Consequently, the goal of this project is to evaluate the potential of imaging the expression of MMG in established human breast cancer models. TO accomplish this goal, we labeled polyclonal and monoclonal anti-MMG antibodies with a near infrared fluorescent probe for optical imaging and 64Cu-DOTA for positron emission tomography (mPET). Preliminary results indicate that the mPET imaging with 64Cu-DOTA-anti MMG monoclonal antibodies showed predominant liver uptake in mice. In contrast, the fluorescent-labeled derivative of polyclonal MMG antibody primarily accumulated in the tumor, kidneys and liver. We have also developed a tumor model with increased expression of MMG. Our preliminary results appear to support the hypothesis that targeting the expression of MMG will enhance the localization of breast cancer tumors
Education and Outreach for Breast Imaging and Breast Cancer Patients( )

2 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During the past year, we obtained lRB approval from the DOD to begin data collection in December, 2001. However, the practice of the Breast Health Center, where the study was planned, had changed. Because randomization of patients according to core biopsy scheduling was no longer, we had a series of meetings with the Breast Health Center and Siteman Cancer Center administrators. At these discussions, we decided to revise the protocol. The revised protocol is submitted. Patients will still be randomized into different groups based on the informed consent process, but the timing of the core biopsy would not be manipulated. We still plan to collect observational data on this variable, however. Currently, we are seeking lRB approval of the revised protocol. Once this protocol is approved by the lRB's of both Washington University and DOD, we can begin data collection. The revision of the protocol has led to significant delays in the second phase of this project
Ozone: Does It Affect Me? by Karla G Wilson( Book )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This curriculum unit on the ozone is intended for high school students and contains sections on environmental science and chemistry. It has been structured according to a learning cycle model and contains numerous activities, some of which are in a cooperative learning format. Skills emphasized include laboratory procedures, experimental design, data analysis, accessing information, critical thinking, systems modeling, and communicating results. The environmental science unit contains the following topics: location of ozone in the atmosphere; sources of ozone; effects of ozone pollution; and helping to reduce ozone pollution. The chemistry unit includes the following topics: chemical reactions that lead to ozone pollution and smog; identifying solutes and solvents in a homogeneous mixture; measurements of concentrations of very dilute solutions; absorption of ultraviolet light by stratospheric ozone; chemical reactions that lead to ozone depletion; and ways that reaction rates are influenced. The units also contain multiple choice tests, attitude surveys, and essay questions. (Jrh)
Students and the Shaping of the Curriculum by Burton M Wheeler( Book )

1 edition published in 1970 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Whenever the issue of student participation in curriculum reform is raised, the opposition can be expected to express itself in two ways: (1) the rational argument which justifies faculty control in terms of rightness; and (2) entrenchment or keeping control away from the activists. There are costs and risks, as well as potential gains in greater student participation. There are also costs and risks to denying student participation. While defending the prerogatives of the faculty with regard to curriculum planning in the fields of specialized, preprofessional training, students should be involved in working out effective ways of accomplishing the real objectives of liberal education. Reasons for student involvement include: (1) faculty often solve curriculum problems by adding courses; (2) often faculty have no skills for curriculum development; and (3) the experience and insights gained by these students who do help plan will become part of the student culture. Problems that are possible with student planning include: (1) many students feel they cannot change anything around them; (2) students become entrapped in their own organizational patterns; (3) students are anxious for adult approval; and (4) a sense of impermanence hovers over student groups. (Kj)
Psychological problems and research methods in mathematics training by Mo.) Washington University (Saint Louis( Book )

1 edition published in 1959 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A critical review of psychological literature and a research methods inventory, relating to the learning of mathematics at all academic levels, were conducted to develop a handbook or guide for use by investigators in the field of mathematics teaching. This effort took place during a 3-month period which included systematic surveys of literature and ongoing research studies, as well as a comprehensive review with various consultants in the field to obtain information on possible applications of such specialized developments as information theory and multivariate and factor analysis in mathematics training. All findings were incorporated into the final report which was divided into the following three sections--(1) "problem areas in the teaching of mathematics," (2) "proposals for research on the teaching of mathematics," and (3) "review of research on mathematical education." Problem areas covered human learning with special reference to teaching of mathematics and included measurement problems, inductive and deductive teaching methods evaluation, interest-motivation-sex role with respect to attitudes, sensory and perceptual factors, approaches to problem-solving, personality variables, and mental abilities, and experimental analysis of behavior. The section of proposals provided a collection of practical research designs for mathematics training to be performed with limited resources and within a limited amount of time. The third and final section contained a survey synopsis of psychological and educational literature centering on mathematics training during the 1948-58 time period. That part of the data which was not gathered as part of the survey was obtained from papers presented at a 2-day conference on problems and methods in mathematics training held at washington university in 1959. (jh)
The BITCH-100 A Culture-Specific Test by Robert L Williams( Book )

1 edition published in 1972 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this paper is to describe the rationale and evaluation of the Black Intelligence Scale of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH). A "culture specific" test is used to determine the taker's ability to function symbolically or to think in terms of his own culture and environment. A combination of dialect specific and culture specific tests would certainly enhance the possibility of measuring what is inside the black child's head; this is the basic rationale for the BITCH-100. Over two years, a 100-item test was developed. The purpose of the first experiment was to demonstrate that the test would discriminate black from white takers. One hundred white and 100 black high school students ranging in age from 16 to 18 years, half from low socioeconomic levels and half from middle income levels, from the city of St. Louis took the BITCH-100. The black group showed a clear superiority over the white group. The distribution of scores approximated a normal distribution in which blacks comprise the upper half, whites the lower half. Twenty-eight black Neighborhood Youth Corps high school "drop outs" were administered the BITCH and the California Achievement Test in the second experiment. The results confirm the hypothesis regarding the sensitivity of the BITCH in picking up "intellectual indicators" not commonly found in conventional tests. (Author/JM)
 
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English (51)