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Photonique, électronique et ingénierie quantiques (Grenoble)

Overview
Works: 37 works in 38 publications in 2 languages and 64 library holdings
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by électronique et ingénierie quantiques (Grenoble) Photonique
Hétérostructures GaN/Al(Ga)N pour l'optoélectronique infrarouge : orientations polaires et non-polaires by Caroline Botum Lim( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les transitions intersousbandes (ISB) sont des transitions d'énergie entre des états électroniques dans un puits quantique. Les nanostructures GaN/AlGaN sont prometteuses pour le développement de composants optoélectroniques ISB pouvant couvrir la totalité de la gamme infrarouge. Leur large décalage de bande de conduction (~1.8 eV pour les systèmes GaN/AlN) et temps de vie ISB inférieurs au picoseconde les rendent attractifs pour l'optronique ultra-rapide en régime infrarouge courte longueur d'onde (SWIR, 1-3 µm) et moyenne longueur d'onde (MWIR, 3-8 µm). De plus, la grande énergie de phonon longitudinal-optique du GaN (92 meV, 13 µm) offre la possibilité de développer des composants ISB couvrant la bande 5-10 THz, interdite au GaAs, et opérant à température ambiante.Le travail décrit dans ce manuscrit a eu pour objectif d'améliorer les performances des technologies ISB GaN/AlGaN et de contribuer à une meilleure compréhension des problématiques posées par leur extension à la gamme des THz. D'une part, la photodétection ISB nécessite le dopage n des nanostructures. Dans ce travail de thèse, on étudie le Si et le Ge en tant que dopants de type n potentiels pour le GaN. D'autre part, la présence de champs électriques internes dans la direction de confinement des hétérostructures plan c constitue l'un des principaux défis de la technologie GaN ISB. C'est pourquoi on étudie la possibilité d'utiliser des orientations cristalline non-polaires a ou m alternatives pour obtenir des systèmes opérant sans l'influence de ces champs électriques.Concernant l'étude du Ge et du Si comme dopants potentiels, on montre que l'incorporation de Ge dans des couches mince de GaN n'affecte pas leur morphologie, mosaïcité ni photoluminescence. Les propriétés bande-à-bande des nanostructures GaN/AlGaN plan c étudiées sont indifférentes à la nature du dopant, mais les structures à grand désaccord de maille voient leur qualité structurale améliorée par le dopage Ge. Concernant l'alternative non-polaire, on compare des structures à multi-puits quantiques GaN/AlN plan a et plan m. Les meilleurs résultats en termes de performances structurales et optiques (bande-à-bande et ISB) sont obtenues pour les structures plan m. Elles montrent de l'absorption ISB à température ambiante couvrant la fenêtre SWIR, avec des performances comparables aux structures plan c, mais avec une qualité structurale trop faible pour envisager la fabrication de composants. En incorporant du Ga dans les barrières d'AlN, on réduit de désaccord de maille et donc la densité de fissures. Ces structures plan m montrent de l'absorption ISB à température ambiante dans la gamme MWIR 4.0-4.8 µm, mais présentent toujours des défauts de structure. Finalement, on a étendu l'étude à la gamme lointain infrarouge, en utilisant des barrières d'AlGaN avec une composition bien plus basse en Al. Les structures plan m étudiées présentent une excellente qualité cristalline, sans défauts de structures, et présentent de l'absorption intersousbande à basse température entre 6.3 et 37.4 meV (1.5 et 9 THz). Ce résultat constitue une démonstration expérimentale de la faisabilité de composants GaN opérant dans la bande 5-10 THz, interdite aux technologies GaAs
Diffusion quantique au-delà des systèmes quasi-unidimensionnels by Mathieu Istas( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Simulations in the field of quantum nanoelectronics are often restricted to a quasi one-dimensional geometries where the device is connected to the macroscopic world with one-dimensional electrodes. This thesis presents novel numerical methods that lift many of these restrictions, in particular rendering realistic simulations of three-dimensional systems possible.The first part introduces a robust and efficient algorithm for computing bound states of infinite tight-binding systems that are made up of a scattering region connected to semi-infinite leads. The method is formulated in close nalogy to the wave-matching approach used to compute the scattering matrix. It also allows one to calculate edge or surface states, e.g. the so-called Fermi arcs.The second part is dedicated to a new numerical method, based on the Green's function formalism, that allows to efficiently simulate systems that are infinite in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions and mostly invariant by translation. Compared to established approaches whose computational costs grow with system size and that are therefore plagued by finite size effects, the new method allows one to directly reach the thermodynamic limit. It provides a practical route for simulating 3D setups that have so far remained elusive.Both methods are illustrated by applications to several quantum systems(a disordered two-dimensional electron gas, a graphene device...) and topological materials (Majorana states in 1D superconducting nanowires, Fermi arcs in 3D Weyl semimetals...). The last application (resilience of Fermi arcs to disorder) combines all the algorithms that were introduced in this thesis
Hétérostructures de silicium-germanium à dimensionnalité réduite pour la spintronique quantique by Raisei Mizokuchi( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Aiming towards largely integrated quantum bits (qubits) requires thedevelopment of solid-state, two-level quantum systems, such as spins inquantum dots or Majorana fermions in one-dimensional wires. Holes confinedin low-dimensional, germanium-based heterostructures are good candidatesfor such qubits because they offer i) large spin-orbit interaction(SOI), leading to conveniently large g factors, ii) reduced hyperfine coupling,which is important for long spin coherence, and iii) relatively loweffective masses, favoring quantum confinement. In this thesis, I have investigatedhole transport in one- and two-dimensional systems made fromcompressively strained Ge/Si_0.2Ge_0.8 heterostructures. An important partof my research work has been devoted to developing the recipes for devicefabrication. I have started from the fabrication of gated Hall bardevices from nominally undoped Ge/SiGe heterostructures. I have studiedtwo types of the heterostructures embedding a strained Ge quantumwell: one where the Ge well is at the surface, hence easily accessible tometal contacts, and one where it is buried 70 nm below the surface, aconfiguration resulting in higher hole mobility. The electronic propertiesof the two-dimensional hole gas confined to the Ge well were studied bymeans of magneto-transport measurements down to 0.3 K. My measurementsrevealed a dominant heavy-hole character, which is expected fromthe presence of a compressive strain in combination with two-dimensionalconfinement. The surface-Ge devices showed diffusive transport and a weakanti-localization effect, which is due to SOI in combination with quantuminterference. The fact that the Ge quantum well is located at the surfaceallows for relatively large perpendicular electric fields and hence enhancedRashba-type SOI. I was able to estimate a spin splitting of around 1 meV.For the realization of quantum nano-devices, I used the heterostructure witha buried Ge well where the hole mobility approaches 2×105 cm2/Vs. Usinge-beam lithography, sub-micron metal gates were defined on sample surfacein order to create one-dimensional constrictions in the two-dimensional holegas. I succeeded in observing conductance quantization in hole quantum wires with a length up to ~ 600 nm. In these wires I investigated the Zeemansplitting of the one-dimensional subbands, finding large perpendicularg-factors as opposed to small in-plane g-factors. This strong anisotropyindicates a prevailing heavy-hole character, which is expected in the caseof a dominant confinement in the perpendicular direction. The large g factorsand the ballistic one-dimensional character are favorable properties forthe realization of Majorana fermions. Finally, I have begun to explore thepotential of Ge-based heterostructures for the realization of quantum-dotdevices, having in mind applications in spin-based quantum computing.During the last months, I was able to observe clear evidence of single-holetransport, laying the ground for more in-depth studies of hole quantumdots
Algorithme Monte-Carlo pour les systèmes quantiques à fortes interactions et hors d'équilibre en nanoélectronique by Corentin Bertrand( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Non-equilibrium quantum many-body problems are attracting increasingly more attention in condensed matter physics. For instance, systems of interacting electrons submitted to an external (constant or varying) electric field are studied in nanoelectronics, and more recently in materials, for the search of novel non-equilibrium states of matter. In this thesis, we developed a new numerical generic method for these problems, and apply it to the Anderson impurity model. This model is a good representation of a quantum dot coupled to one or several leads, and gives rise at equilibrium to the Kondo effect -- a manifestation of Coulomb interactions within the dot. We apply our method to compute the collapse of the Kondo effect when the quantum dot is driven out of equilibrium by a voltage bias. Our method is based on a diagrammatic Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithm. The QMC is an optimized version of the algorithm of Profumo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 245154 (2015)], which computes time-dependent observables or correlation functions as perturbation series in the interaction strength U. To address the problem of diverging series at large U, we constructed a robust resummation scheme which analyses the analytical structure of the series in the U complex plane, for proposing a tailor-made regularization method using a conformal transform of the complex plane. As a post-treatment, a Bayesian technique allows to introduce non-perturbative information to tame the exacerbation of error bars caused by the resummation. We emphasize the potential application to study non-equilibrium materials through "quantum embedding" schemes, such as the Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT), which allow to study lattice models through solving a self-consistent impurity model
Unconventional superconductivity in the ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe by Beilun Wu( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis mainly discuss the upper critical field of the ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe.Thermal conductivity and other experimental methods have been used to confirm the numerous particularbehaviors of Hc2 in UCoGe, previously observed in resistivity studies. These features, including the stronganisotropy and the anomalous curvatures, cannot be interpreted in terms of classical theories for Hc2.Instead, a phenomenon specific to the ferromagnetic superconductors - the field dependence of the pairinginteraction, needs to be considered. We show that this effect can be consistently analyzed with normalphase properties, and is quantitatively compared with existing theory. This leads to a net clarificationfor the case of H//c in UCoGe, and at the same timeexplains the different behavior of Hc2 in UCoGe and URhGe. These resultsstrongly support the magnetic origin of superconductivity in these systems. For H//b, we showconvergent experimental observations that suggest a possible change of the superconducting state inducedby the transverse magnetic field in UCoGe. Independent from the rest of the study, the last chapter presents someexperimental results on the normal phase of UCoGe and on the other heavy-fermion system UBe13
Photonique Josephson : génération & amplification micro-ondes en régime quantique by Florian Blanchet( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recent field of Josephson photonics is about the interplay between circuit quantum electrodynamic and dynamical Coulomb blockade. It explains and studies the ability of a Cooper pair to inelasticity tunnel through a DC-biased Josephson junction by dissipating the Cooper pair energy in the electromagnetic environment of the junction in the form of photons.This thesis focuses on two aspects of the Josephson photonics:• Control over the statistics of the emitted photons with focus on Generation of non-classical photons;• Stimulated emission of photons leading to Amplification with added noise at the quantumlimit.These devices are powered with a simple DC voltage used to biased the Josephson junction. Such devices can be a new solution in a frequencies range where only few simple alternative solutions are now available.We have studied our devices with two theories, P-theory and input output theory, to derive working characteristics of our devices : Photon rate, gain, noise, bandwidth, compression point. The measured samples are made of niobium nitride and the electromagnetic environment of the junction is engineered to fulfil our needs. The possibility to select the photonic processes at will by engineering the electromagnetic environment permits to imagine further devices: other types of sources, wideband amplifiers, photon detectors
Quasi-ordre à longue distance et défauts topologiques dans le graphène sur rhénium étudié par microscopie à effet tunnel by Alexandre Artaud( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La découverte du graphène en 2004 constitue une double avancée en physique de la matière condensée. D'une part, ses propriétés électroniques sont celles d'un gaz de fermions de Dirac sans masse. D'autre part, sa structure fournit le tout premier exemple d'un matériau ordonné à deux dimensions.Cette seconde caractéristique est étudiée dans cette thèse par microscopie à effet tunnel (STM), dans le cas du graphène synthétisé en ultra-haut vide sur la face (0001) du rhénium. A deux dimensions, l'ordre cristallin est en effet impossible, et il est prédit qu'un quasi-ordre à longue distance s'y substitue, où la phase du paramètre d'ordre fluctue. Le substrat de rhénium intervient alors comme une influence extérieure qui peut restaurer l'ordre cristallin, en forçant la structure du graphène à épouser une relation d'épitaxie avec le rhénium.L'étude proposée de la structure du graphène démontre qu'elle est en fait tributaire de contraintes cinétiques héritées de sa croissance. Plusieurs nanostructures caractéristiques ont ainsi été identifiées à l'échelle atomique, permettant de remonter au mécanisme de croissance. Deux chemins réactionnels y entrent ainsi en compétition. Le premier aboutit à une famille d'agrégats de carbone métastables, de structures bien définies, en épitaxie sur le rhénium. Le second mène à la croissance d'îlots de graphène qui s'étendent sur quelques nanomètres. La coalescence de ces îlots et l'incorporation des agrégats en leur sein conduit à des défauts structurels dont la structure atomique est détaillée pour la première fois. Cette étude exhaustive révèle la diversité des chemins réactionnels lors de la croissance de graphène sur rhénium, qui sont autant de compromis entre cinétique et thermodynamique.Au terme de cette croissance, le graphène obtenu n'est pas uniforme, mais constitué de domaines s'étendant sur des distances de l'ordre de 10 nm. Chaque domaine présente une relation d'épitaxie entre le graphène et le rhénium qui lui est propre, où le graphène s'avère à la fois tourné et cisaillé par rapport à son substrat, comme le montre une méthode d'analyse d'images STM développée à cet effet. L'élaboration d'une classification universelle de ces relations d'épitaxie montre leur grande diversité. Deux interprétations se confrontent alors. Les parois entre domaines de graphène peuvent en effet être interprétées comme des défauts topologiques dans l'ordre cristallin imposé au graphène par le substrat de rhénium. Alternativement, ce sont des modes de fluctuations dont la dynamique est gelée par l'interaction avec le substrat. Ces résultats remettent donc en question la notion d'ordre cristallin imposé par son substrat à un matériau bidimensionnel. Ils montrent qu'au lieu de forcer une relation d'épitaxie particulière, l'interaction du graphène avec son substrat donne lieu à une phase dite chaotique
Vers une source de photons uniques opérationnelle à base de nanofils semiconducteurs by Thibault Cremel( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recent development of the quantum information theory focuses the interest of the scientific community on single-photon sources. Indeed, these sources can be used for instance for optical quantum computing or quantum cryptography to improve the quantum key distribution performances and avoid eavesdropping. Consequently, it is necessary to have reliable single-photon sources and for realistic applications, the challenge is to get a single-photon source operating up to room temperature.Our group recently demonstrated that by inserting a quantum dot of CdSe in a nanowire of ZnSe, single-photon emission could be obtained up to room temperature. Still, these nanowires had a low quantum yield and were not vertically oriented on the as-grown sample since they were grown along the (001) crystallographic orientation. The interest of vertically oriented nanowires is that they can be coupled to photonic structures to increase their photons collection and their growth is favored on (111)-oriented substrates.In this context, the aim of this PhD work is to develop the growth of vertically oriented ZnSe-CdSe nanowire quantum dots along the (111) crystallographic orientation by molecular beam epitaxy, to study their luminescence up to room temperature for single-photon sources applications, and to couple these nano-objects to photonic structures to increase the photons collection. To reach this goal, we divided this project in three steps.The first step focuses on the development of vertically oriented ZnSe nanowires, passivated with a semiconductor shell of ZnMgSe to enhance their luminescence. In a second step, we demonstrate the possibility to insert CdSe quantum dots in these ZnSe nanowires, using different growth conditions for the quantum dot. The influence of these growth conditions is studied with structural and composition analysis of these nano-objects. Optical studies as a function of the temperature show that these nanowires emit up to room temperature. Moreover, decay-time studies on single nanowire quantum dots reveal that these nanowires are robust and insensitive to non-radiative recombination channels up to 200 K. The third step of this work concerns the enhancement of the light collection from these nano-objects. First, we show that by changing the dielectric environment of the quantum dot, its decay-rate can be increased. Then, we show the possibility to create photonic wires by covering these nanowire quantum dots with a thick dielectric shell. In the light of microphotoluminescence experiments - which show that these photonic wires efficiently increase the photons collection - and simulations, we discuss the interest of the dipole orientation (parallel or perpendicular to the nanowire growth axis) in these structures
Multiplication de photons dans le domaine du micro-onde grâce au tunneling inélastique de paires de Cooper by Romain Albert( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During the last 15 years, many quantum optics experiments were reproduced with microwave photons using superconducting circuits by building on the strong interaction of electromagnetic fields with Josephson junctions.This thesis focuses on the demonstration of a process where one microwave photon is converted to several photons at a different frequency. Contrary to phase-insensitive amplification, this multiplication can, in principle, be performed without added noise, thereby providing a building block for a simple single photon detector which is still missing for microwave photons.In order to attain efficient photo-multiplication, strong nonlinear coupling is required. We have designed high-impedance resonators coupled to voltage-biased Josephson junctions in order to provide the necessary non-linearity. The high-impedance resonators are designed using planar coils and are fabricated together with SIS Josephson junctions in a niobium trilayer process providing low capacitance junctions.Experimentally, we demonstrate the conversion from one to two photons with 90% efficiency and observe conversion from one to three photons, in agreement with theory. Cascading of at least two such multiplication stages should allow for discriminating an incoming one photon state from vacuum using a subsequent quantum limited amplifier, which can be realized using similar physics. Such a chain would then implement a number-resolving microwave single photon detector without deadtime
Lien entre structure et propriétés électroniques des moirés de graphène étudié par microscopie à effet tunnel by Loïc Huder( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional crystalline layers, called 2D materials. Examples include the well-known graphene, insulating hexagonal boron nitride and superconducting niobium diselenide. The stacking of these 2D materials can be controlled to achieve desirable electronic properties under the form of van der Waals heterostructures. One of the simplest van der Waals heterostructures is the misaligned stacking of two graphene layers. Twisted graphene layers show a moiré pattern which can be viewed as a superperiodic potential that depends on the twist angle. The electronic properties of the twisted graphene layers are strongly linked to this moiré pattern.The subject of the present thesis is the experimental study of the link between the structural and the electronic properties of twisted graphene layers by means of low-temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy (STM/STS).While the effect of the twist angle has already been studied in great details, the modulation of the electronic properties by the deformation of the layers has been explored only recently. In the first part of this experimental work, a strain-driven modification of the electronic properties is probed in graphene layers with a twist angle of 1.26° grown on silicon carbide. The determined strain is found to be different in the two layers leading to a clear signature in the local electronic density of states of the moiré even at low strain magnitudes. Contrary to a strain applied in the two layers, this difference of strain between the layers (relative strain) modifies strongly the electronic band structure even at low strain magnitudes. While this relative strain is natively present, the second part of the work explores the effect of an applied strain in the layers. This is realized by approaching the STM tip to the graphene surface to trigger an interaction between the two. The resulting active modification of the density of states is shown to depend on the position on the moiré, leading to periodic instabilities at very low tip-sample distances.In the third part of the work, another type of modification of the electronic properties is studied when superconductivity was induced in the graphene layers. This is done by growing graphene on superconducting tantalum carbide in a single-step annealing. The results show the formation of a high-quality tantalum carbide layer on which graphene layers form moiré patterns. The low-temperature density of states of these moirés show evidence of a superconducting proximity effect induced by the tantalum carbide
Etude de l'injection et détection de spin dans le silicium et germanium : d'une mesure locale de l'accumulation à la détection non locale du courant de spin by Fabien Rortais( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance in 1988 by the group of Albert Fert (Nobel Prize in 2007), the field of spintronics has been growing very fast due to its potential applications in micro-electronics.For almost 20 years, it has been proposed to introduce the spin degree of freedom directly in the semiconducting materials. Spintronics aims at using not only the charge of carriers (electrons and holes) but also their intrinsic spin degree of freedom. In that case, spins might be manipulated with electric fields. By using both charge and spin, one might add new functionalities to traditional micro-electronic devices.Indeed, the first challenge of semiconductor spintronics is to create and detect a spin polarized carrier population in traditional semiconductors like Si and Ge to further manipulate them.For this purpose, we have used hybrid ferromagnetic metal/insulator/semiconductor devices which allow us to perform electrical spin injection and detection. The first part of this thesis deals with 3 terminal devices grown on different substrates and in which a single ferromagnetic electrode is used to inject and detect spin polarized electrons using the Hanle effect. A spin signal amplification is measured experimentally as compared to the value from the theoretical diffusive model, this raised a controversy concerning 3 terminal measurements. We demonstrate that localized defects in the tunnel barrier cannot be at the origin of the measured MR signal and spin signal amplification. Instead, we show that the presence of interface states is the origin of the spin signal amplification in all the substrates. By using a proper surface preparation and the MBE growth of the magnetic tunnel junctions, we reduce the density of interface states and show a significant modification of the spin signals.In a second part, we present the transition from 3 terminal measurements to lateral spin valves on semiconductors. In the last configuration by using two ferromagnetic electrodes, charge and spin currents are decoupled in order to avoid any spurious magnetoresistance artefacts. Using epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions we can prove the spin injection in silicon and germanium. Especially, we are able to measure non local spin signals in germanium up to room temperature.Finally, we study the spin Hall effect in gallium arsenide and germanium substrates. For this propose we induce spin accumulation using the spin Hall effect (i.e spin-orbit coupling) and probe it using muon spectroscopy. We demonstrate, at low temperature the presence of spin accumulation by the coupling between nuclear spins and the electron spin accumulation
Croissance, structure et propriétés électroniques du graphène épitaxié sur rhénium, vers une plateforme bidimensionnelle et supraconductrice by Estelle Mazaleyrat( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The realization of graphene-based hybrid structures, where graphene is associated with other materials, offers a promising avenue for testing a variety of phenomena. In particular, one can induce properties in graphene by proximity effects. Here, the targeted graphene-based system consists of a quasi free-standing graphene platform with induced superconducting character and in close vicinity to magnetic impurities. According to recent theoretical articles, such a sample could exhibit unconventional Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states.Although the targeted graphene-based system was not fabricated yet, we have addressed, with the help of surface science tools, all three ingredients required for its realization (quasi-free standing graphene, induced superconducting character and proximity to magnetic impurities).As previously demonstrated, graphene can be rendered superconducting by growing it directly on top of a superconducting material such as rhenium. Structural aspects related to graphene grown on Re(0001) were investigated. In particular, we showed that increasing the number of annealing cycles positively contributes to growing high-quality extended graphene domains. The structure of a surface rhenium carbide, which constitutes a usually ill-characterized object, was studied as well.Additionnally, a defect appearing as a depression in the nanorippled structure of graphene on strongly interacting metals such as Re(0001) and Ru(0001) was investigated and ascribed to stacking faults either in graphene or in the metal substrate.Using superconducting graphene grown on Re(0001) as a starting point for the fabrication of the targeted graphene-based system, we recovered the quasi free-standing character of graphene (lost due to its strong interaction with the rhenium substrate) via intercalation of sub-monolayer to few layers of gold atoms. A high density of defects observed in gold-intercalated graphene on Re(0001) was attributed to the intercalation process itself. Besides, we demonstrated that the rhenium-induced superconducting character in graphene was not affected by gold intercalation. At this point, two of the three requirements for realizing the targeted graphene-based system were fulfilled.Provided that we bring magnetic impurities in close proximity to such a sample, few-nanometers extended YSR states could be observed. Preliminary results involving two original magnetic verdazyl compounds were presented, one of which was deposited on a model system, namely Cu(111). Before turning to quasi-free standing superconducting graphene as a hosting material for these magnetic compounds, further investigations on model systems are needed. Indeed, we could not resolve the precise structure of the molecular assemblies covering the Cu(111) surface yet, and the thermal stability of the compounds was discussed
Transport mono-électronique et détection de dopants uniques dans des transistors silicium by Mathieu Pierre( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We present low temperature electronic transport measurements in silicon-on-insulator nano-MOSFETs. Their electrical properties depend in particular on the junctions between the reservoirs and the transistor channel, determined during fabrication by the spacers deposited on both sides of the gate. The behaviour differences are emphasized at low temperature. In ultra-scaled transistors, with a typical gate length of 30 nm, dopants diffusion during activation annealing can result in a single dopant well coupled to the reservoirs located in the middle of the channel, below the gate. It is revealed at low temperature below the transistor threshold by resonant tunnelling through its energy levels. An estimation of its ionization energy gives an enhanced value as compared to the bulk value, attributed to the dielectric confinement of the donor. On the contrary, electrons can be confined in the transistor channel by high enough access resistances. Thus samples turn at low temperature into single electron transistors, with the island located below the gate. It is extended to coupled dots systems, by depositing several gates between source and drain. Their behaviour depends on the distance between gates and on spacers length. These systems are used to transfer a single electron
Growth and characterization of GaN/lnGaN nanowire heterostructures by Xin Zhang( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les nanostructures de nitrures d'éléments III sont considérées comme des candidats prometteurs visant à la réalisation de divers dispositifs innovants. Depuis quelques années, l'intérêt croissant des nano-LEDs basés sur l'InGaN a été relevé dans le domaine de l'éclairage et de l'affichage. Ce travail de thèse porte sur la croissance par épitaxie par jets moléculaires assistée plasma (PA-MBE) et sur la caractérisation d'hétérostructures InGaN/GaN à base de nanofils.Tout d'abord, un modèle de croissance cinétique de nanofils de nitrures d'éléments III a été établi, en vue d'une analyse en profondeur et d'un meilleur contrôle des processus cinétiques atomiques impliqués dans la croissance MBE. Ce travail de modélisation construit la base théorique et guide l'interprétation expérimentale dans cette thèse.Ensuite, les propriétés morphologiques, structurelles, compositionnelles et optiques des hétérostructures de nanofils GaN/InGaN/GaN axiaux ont été étudiées à nano-échelle par une combinaison de microscopie électronique (SEM / STEM / TEM), photoluminescence (PL), nano-cathodoluminescence (nano-CL), spectroscopie de rayons-X à énergie dispersive (EDX). Sur la base des résultats expérimentaux, nous avons obtenu une description statistique du paysage morphologique pour tous les NWs InGaN/GaN sous différentes conditions thermodynamiques et de flux atomiques. De plus, la corrélation entre les caractéristiques morphologiques & compositionnelles et les propriétés électroniques & optiques des NWs InGaN/GaN a été établie.En outre, divers types de superstructures InGaN à base de nanofils ont été étudiés. On constate que tant le taux de croissance axiale que la composition réelle d'Indium vont diminuer dans le cas de l'excès d'Indium, en raison de l'effet surfactant de l'Indium et d'un flux effectif d'azote réduit. En même temps, un élargissement spectaculaire des sections de l'InGaN a été observé sous des conditions riches en azote, suggérant que la condition riche en métal n'est pas nécessaire pour l'élargissement de l'InGaN. En conséquence, nous proposons le mécanisme de la croissance d'InGaN, pour lequel la croissance axiale est un processus cinétique déterminé par le flux et l'élargissement latéral est principalement induit par la contrainte.Enfin, nous avons étudié l'influence du processus de recuit pour l'efficacité de la luminescence et proposé nos recettes de croissance de plaques LEDs, visant à aborder la fabrication de plaques LED développées par MBE
Interplay between magnetic quantum criticality, Fermi surface and unconventional superconductivity in UCoGe, URhGe and URu2Si2 by Gaël Bastien( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cette thèse montre de nouveaux résultats sur les supraconducteurs ferromagnétiques UCoGe et URhGe et sur l'ordre caché dans URu2Si2. Le diagramme de phase pression température d'UCoGe a été étudié jusqu'à 10.5 GPa. L'ordre ferromagnétique subsiste jusqu'à la pression critique pc≈1 GPa et la supraconductivité non conventionnelle jusqu'à p = 4 GPa. Les fluctuations magnétiques responsables de la supraconductivité peuvent être réduites par l'application d'un champ magnétique. Les surfaces de Fermi d'UCoGe et d'URhGe ont été mesurées grace aux oscillations quantiques. Quatre poches ont été détectées dans UCoGe, elles subissent une succession de transition de Lifshitz de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnétique. Les poches détectés évoluent continument avec la pression jusqu'à 2.5 GPa, sans montrer de reconstruction de la surface de Fermi à la pression critique pc. Dans URhGe, trois poches lourdes de la surface de Fermi ont aussi été découvertes. Enfin dans la phase d'ordre caché d'URu2Si2, les oscillations quantiques ont révélé une forte anisotropie du facteur gyromagnétique g pour deux poches de la surface de Fermi, qui est comparable à l'anisotropie macroscopique. Cette dernière a été étudiée à partir du champcritique supérieur de la supraconductivité
Supraconductivité et localisation dans des nanofils unidimensionnels d'InSb et d'InAs by Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In my thesis, I studied low-temperature electronic transport in semiconductor nanowires coupled to superconductors, with the goal of understanding the requirements to observe Majorana bound states. Unexpectedly, I found dramatic examples of the pervasiveness of spatial localization of electrons even in seemingly ballistic one-dimensional (1D) nanowires. Localization could replicate signatures of one-dimensionality, helicity and Majorana bound states, casting a shadow of doubt on their interpretation.1D nanowires are expected to show plateaus of quantized conductance. Curiously, transport through an InAs nanowire hosting a single-level quantum dot showed that it could mimic the first two spin-resolved plateaus. A measurement of the Josephson supercurrent under magnetic field revealed the ground-state transitions of an electron occupying this level, confirming its localized nature.In the helical regime, a conductance dip is predicted to appear in each of the conductance plateaus. Surprisingly, InSb nanowire devices hosting a quantum dot conducting in parallel with a 1D channel reproduced this signature.The presence of Majorana bound states, in turn, should be revealed by a zero-bias peak (ZBP) in tunnel spectroscopy. In one of the two-path devices mentioned above, when the 1D path was closed, a zero-bias peak emerged inside the superconducting gap under a magnetic field parallel to the nanowire. This ZBP was related to trivial Andreev bound states from the quantum dot in parallel to the 1D channel. In a different experiment done in an InAs nanowire Josephson junction device hosting a quantum dot, a ZBP related to a Josephson supercurrent appeared inside of the superconducting gap as a result of a transition of the ground-state of the dot from a singlet to a doublet.In spite of localization, it was possible to extract some meaningful information about the 1D regime. The role of the gates was major in determining the degeneracy of the subbands in an InSb nanowire with two 1D conduction paths in parallel under magnetic field. Through a direct influence on their threshold voltages, orbital effects, and g-factors, the gate voltage could shift the energies of the subbands and lock them together. Via this mechanism, it was possible to observe a 2e^2/h plateau lasting until very large field without the appearance of a 1e^2/h plateau. The possible existence of two quantum wires in a single nanowire opens the door for novel helical and Majorana bound states of fractional nature.Altogether, these results point to the need of a better understanding of the physics of simpler few-gates short-channel InAs and InSb nanowire superconducting and normal-state devices, before committing to the utterly complex devices that should be fabricated to study and manipulate Majorana bound states, in which signatures of localization could be better hidden. These original results will be published in the coming months in four different articles
Hole quantum spintronics in strained germanium heterostructures by Patrick Torresani( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le travail exposé dans cette thèse de doctorat présente des expériences à basse température dans le domaine de la spintronique quantique sur des hétérostructures à base de germanium. Tout d'abord, les avantages attendus du germaniumpour la spintronique quantique sont exposés, en particulier la faible interaction hyperfine et le fort couplage spin-orbite théoriquement prédits dans le Ge. Dans un second chapitre, la théorie des boites quantiques et systèmes à double boite sont détaillés, en se focalisant sur les concepts nécessaires à la compréhension des expériences décrites plus tard, c'est-à-dire les effets de charge dans les boites quantiques et double boites, ainsi que le blocage de spin de Pauli. Le troisième chapitre s'intéresse à l'interaction spin-orbite. Son origine ainsi que ses effets sur les diagrammes d'énergie de bande sont discutés. Ce chapitre se concentre ensuite sur les conséquences de l'interaction spin-orbite spécifiques aux gaz bidimensionnels de trous dans des hétérostructures de germanium, c'est-à-dire l'interaction spin-orbite Rashba, le mécanisme de relaxation de spin D'Yakonov-Perel ainsi que l'antilocalisation faible.Le chapitre quatre présente des mesures effectuées sur des nanofils coeur coquillede Ge/Si. Dans ces nanofils une boite quantique se forme naturellement et celui-ci est étudié. Un système à double boite quantiques est ensuite formé par utilisation de grilles électrostatiques, révélant ainsi du blocage de spin de Pauli.Dans le cinquième chapitre sont détaillés des mesures demagneto-conductance de gas de trous bidimensionnels dans des hétérostructures de Ge/SiGe contraints dont le puit quantique se situe à la surface. Ces mesuresmontrent de l'antilocalisation faible. Les temps de transport caractéristiques sont extraits ainsi que l'énergie de séparation des trous 2D par ajustement de courbe de la correction à la conductivité due à l'antilocalisation. De plus, les mesures montrent une suppression de l'antilocalisation par un champ magnétique parallèle au puit quantique. Cet effet est attribué à la rugosité de surface ainsi qu'à l'occupation virtuelle de sous-bandes inoccupées.Finalement, le chapitre six présente des mesures de quantisation de la conductancedans des hétérostructures de Ge/SiGe contraints dont le puit quantique est enterré. Tout d'abord, l'hétérostructure est caractérisée grâce à des mesures de magneto-conductance dans une barre de Hall. Ensuite, un second échantillon dessiné spécialement pour la réalisation de points de contact quantiques est mesuré. Celui-ci montre des marches de conductance. La dépendance en champ magnétique de ces marches est mesurée, permettant ainsi une extraction du facteur gyromagnétique de trous lourds dans du germanium
Croissance confinée de nanofils/nanotubes métalliques : élaboration et intégration dans les cathodes des PEMFC by Olivier Marconot( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The two main drawbacks of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are the low electrode durability and the high platinum loading (electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction). Currently, PEMFC electrodes, named as Pt/C, are made of platinum nanoparticles supported by carbon nanoparticles. The aim of this PhD work is to propose, elaborate and test in complete fuel cell new electrode nanostructure consists in self-supported platinum nanotubes. We target a reduction in the platinum loading and an increase in the electrode durability. In order to control nanostructure geometries, a porous alumina mold is used. This template is obtained by electrochemical anodization and vertically aligned nanopores are obtained. Platinum is subsequently deposited onto pore walls by e-beam evaporation or electrochemical deposition processes. After the hot pressing of the Nafion® proton exchange membrane, the porous alumina mold is etched and platinum nanotubes are stuck and self-supported onto the membrane. A part of this work is dedicated to the quantification of performances losses of Pt/C electrodes and nanostructured electrodes in complete fuel cell test operating conditions. Nanostructured electrodes exhibit high durability and easy oxygen access on catalyst surface compared to Pt/C electrodes. However, some losses kinetics remains due to the low catalyst specific area
The inelastic Cooper pair tunneling amplifier (ICTA) by Salha Jebari( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les amplificateurs paramétriques Josephson (JPA) se sont révélés être un outil indispensablepour l'étude expérimentale de dispositifs quantiques dans le régime micro-onde ; car ilsrajoutent uniquement le minimum de bruit imposé par la mécanique quantique[1]. Cependant,ces amplificateurs sont beaucoup plus difficiles à utiliser et optimiser que leurs homologuesclassiques. Récemment, plusieurs expériences réalisées avec des circuits supraconducteurs,composés d'une jonction Josephson polarisée en tension en série avec un résonateur microonde,ont montré qu'une paire de Cooper peut traverser la barrière de la jonction par effettunnel en émettant un ou plusieurs photons avec une énergie totale de 2e fois la tensionappliquée. Dans cette thèse, nous montrerons qu'un tel circuit permet de mettre en place unamplificateur micro-onde préservant la phase que nous appelons « Amplificateur basé sur letunneling inélastique de paires de Cooper » (ICTA). Il est alimenté par une tension continueet peut fonctionner avec un bruit très proche de la limite quantique.Nous commencerons en présentant le principe du fonctionnement de l'ICTA. Par analogieavec la théorie quantique des JPAs[2], nous avons étudié les performances de cet amplificateurcomme le gain, la bande passante et le bruit. Ensuite, nous présenterons la premièrepreuve expérimentale d'une amplification proche de la limite quantique sans utilisation d'unepompe micro-onde externe, mais simplement d'une tension continue dans une configurationextrêmement simple. Ces mesures ont été faites sur des échantillons avec des jonctionsen aluminium, dénommés ICTA de première génération. Selon nos résultats théoriques etexpérimentaux, nous avons conçu des circuits hyperfréquences où l'impédance présentéeà la jonction dépend de fréquences spécifiques afin d'optimiser les performances de notreamplificateur. Ces échantillons, dénommés ICTA de seconde génération, ont été fabriquésavec du nitrure de niobium. Une amélioration significative du gain et du bruit a été prouvée.Un tel amplificateur, alimenté par une simple tension continue, pourrait rendre la mesurede signaux micro-ondes au niveau du photon unique beaucoup plus faciles et permettred'intégrer plusieurs amplificateurs sur une seule puce. Il pourrait donc être un élémentimportant pour la lecture de qubit dans les processeurs quantiques à grande échelle
Croissance par épitaxie par jets moléculaires et caractérisation optique d'hétérostructures de nanofils GaN/AlGaN émettant dans l'ultraviolet by Matthias Belloeil( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using specific growth conditions, AlGaN nanowire (NW) sections can be grown in epitaxy on top of GaN NW templates. Such NW growth, performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy in the present case, allows the subsequent characterization of very small volume of material free of extended defects commonly observed in planar structures. This absence of defects makes these NWs very promising for optoelectronic devices operating in the ultraviolet. However, achieving such devices requires a better understanding of the NW fundamental properties.The issue of alloy inhomogeneity at nanoscale has notably remained obscure so far. In order to make it clearer, the latter has been first investigated in the present work, especially through optical characterization. For our experiments, non-intentionally doped (NID) AlGaN NWs have been grown in various conditions in order to potentially tune the compositional fluctuations within the AlGaN alloy and therefore possibly probe for carrier localization centers of different size and Al composition. It has been firstly observed through structural characterization that the length of Al-rich sections preferentially nucleating on top of GaN NWs can be tuned by varying the growth kinetical parameters, emphasizing a growth mechanism governed by kinetics. Optical studies have then evidenced that compositional fluctuations induce carrier localization and exhibit a quantum dot-like behavior. The latter has been observed whatever the growth conditions explored in this work. Our results are consistent with the spontaneous formation during growth of tiny Ga-richer regions shown to share similar micro-optical features over a given emission wavelength range for all investigated growth conditions. Such regions exhibiting the single-photon emission character are present at very small scale, as signs of their existence have been also evidenced in thin NID AlGaN quantum disks.In addition, doping in Al(Ga)N NW, especially p-type, is far from being fully comprehended. In particular, the issue of dopant incorporation as well as optical and electrical activation in such NWs remains unclear. The latter has been examined in Al(Ga)N NW pn junctions doped with Mg and Si atoms. First, signatures specific to dopant incorporation in NWs have been highlighted through structural characterization, before evidencing AlGaN pn junctions electrically. Moreover, optical analysis have exhibited optically active both dopant types. Nonetheless, Mg dopants are but partially active electrically due to passivation by hydrogen emphasized by the observation of Mg-H complexes. To cope with the latter issue, post-growth annealing experiments have been attempted. Concomitantly, AlN NW pn junctions have been also preliminarily investigated and present interesting morphological features. Indeed, deep hollows have been observed in NWs and associated with Mg doping carried out at low growth temperature. The NW morphology can be tuned by varying growth kinetical parameters and by using the surfactant effect of Mg atoms. When increasing growth temperature, these hollows disappear, while the NW top shape has been observed to switch from hexagonal to star-like, emphasizing growth conditions very far from thermodynamical equilibrium. Electrical activation of dopants has not been evidenced so far in AlN NW pn junctions
 
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CEA-G/INAC/PHELIQS

PHELIQS

UMR_E 9002

Unité Mixte de Recherche CEA 9002

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