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École doctorale Littératures françaises et comparée (Paris)

Overview
Works: 32 works in 32 publications in 1 language and 34 library holdings
Roles: 996, Degree grantor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by École doctorale Littératures françaises et comparée (Paris)
Les derniers feux de la tragedie classique : étude du genre tragique en France sous la Restauration et la Monarchie de Juillet by Maurizio Melai( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study concerns the practice of the genre of classical tragedy in the nineteenth century, particularly during the Restoration and the July Monarchy. It focuses on the last developments of tragedy in France and documents the evolution and the progressive decline of this genre during the first half of the nineteenth century; that is until its disappearance from French theatres, which took place around 1850. By considering a corpus of eighty plays, this work aims to give a clear picture of the tragic genre and tragic authors of the Restoration and the July Monarchy, or more exactly of the forty years from 1814 to 1854. This work is conceived as the study of a literary code and is divided into two parts: in the first part, we try to define the tragic code of the post-Napoleonic era on the basis of the formal constants which characterise it, showing the evolution of the stylistic, structural and dramaturgic features of tragedy. In the second part, we look at the thematic constants of this code, studying the strategies that tragedy uses to transpose - through the historical and highly allusive subjects that it treats - the principal social and political problems of its time. Finally, by showing the continuity which exists between the declining tragic genre and the romantic drama, we try to valorise the texts in our corpus and to underline their modern features. This leads us to look for the reasons behind the persistence of a traditional genre like the classical tragedy and for the factors which revitalise it in the nineteenth century
Fénélon et le rhétorique de la direction spirituelle au XVII ème siècle by Pauline Chaduc( Book )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Fénelon fut l'un des directeurs spirituels les plus célèbres de son temps. Une large partie de son œuvre, composée de lettres et d'entretiens, est consacrée à ce ministère, en vogue au début du XVIIe siècle dans le contexte de la reconquête catholique du monde avant de connaître un déclin durable. La direction spirituelle est pour Fénelon un art de gouverner qui suppose la mise en œuvre d'une rhétorique adéquate fondée sur l'adaptation et sur une pédagogie de l'ordre. Elle est aussi un art du dialogue où les principes éthiques et spirituels s'articulent à des impératifs pragmatiques d'efficacité. Cette rhétorique poursuit une finalité : amener les hommes à voir clair en eux-mêmes afin qu'ils s'abandonnent à Dieu
Séraphîta et la Bible : sources scripturaires du mysticisme balzacien by Saori Osuga( )

1 edition published in 2010 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Séraphîta (1833-1835) est une œuvre mystique d'Honoré de Balzac, dans laquelle le romancier condense le sentiment religieux qu'il a nourri dès sa jeunesse. Dans ce récit, il introduit abondamment les citations et les images bibliques, d'une part, les pensées mystiques et théosophiques, d'autre part. Notre thèse tente de mettre en lumière diverses sources bibliques et mystiques du texte balzacien, ainsi que sa propre lecture et interprétation. La première partie est consacrée à l'étude bibliographique des Bibles lues par Balzac, par Swedenborg ainsi que par deux introducteurs des pensées swedenborgiennes en France, Daillant de La Touche et Jean-Pierre Moët, sur la base de laquelle nous analysons les phrases bibliques qui parsèment Séraphîta. Dans la seconde partie, nous envisageons les trois représentations bibliques de Séraphîta-Séraphîtüs : le Séraphin, le Christ et le Verbe. Inspiré par une statue d'ange, œuvre de Théophile Bra, le romancier a développé, au cours de sa rédaction, l'image de l'être angélique ; en même temps, la fonction du Christ est transposée de manière concrète et symbolique dans ce personnage qui, à la fin, se fait Verbe dans son ascension. Dans la troisième et dernière partie, nous examinons l'influence des auteurs mystiques lus par Balzac : Thomas a Kempis, sainte Thérèse d'Avila, Jacob Bœhme, Antoinette Bourignon, Mme Guyon, Fénelon, Saint-Martin, Eckartshausen et surtout Swedenborg. Prenant l'Écriture sainte comme base solide et puisant des idées spirituelles dans divers mystiques et théosophes, le romancier rafraîchit le mysticisme chrétien pour conduire, dans une époque de doute, ses lecteurs vers la foi et l'amour de Dieu
Les antimodernes de la littérature roumaine by Oana Soare( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The purpose of this thesis is to apply to Romanian literature Antoine Compagnon's theory upon antimodernity, as it is formulated in his study Les antimodernes. De Joseph de Maistre à Roland Barthes (Gallimard, 2005). We analyze the theory of "forms without substance", the main illustration of the modernity-antimodernity debate in the Romanian culture, as well as different profiles of Romanian authors, such as Titu Maiorescu, Vasile Alecsandri, Ion Luca Caragiale, Beniamin Fundoianu (Benjamin Fondane), Mircea Eliade, Emil Cioran. The thesis also deals with the perception of Charles Baudelaire in Romanian literature, which further reflects the issues of modernity and its denial.I would like to thank both coordinators of my thesis for the support and kindness shown during our colaboration in the last four years
Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly et les arts visuels by Catherine Taouya-Joseph( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly et les arts visuels peut sembler un sujet de thèse paradoxal, tant il est convenu de considérer Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly comme incompétent dans le domaine artistique. Catholique, à la fois romancier, diariste, épistolier et critique d'art éphémère, il demeure l'un des auteurs les plus inclassables du XIXe siècle. Si le critique d'art est généralement contesté, nous proposons ici un jugement plus nuancé. Nous montrons combien l'esthétique de son écriture profane et catholique renvoie à des évocations qui sont de véritables transpositions d'œuvres d'art, où sculpture et peinture rivalisent. Quelques couleurs spécifiques sont en effet récurrentes au point de faire l'objet d'une évidente déclinaison liturgique. Au plan matériel, son goût pour la couleur est démontré par ses manuscrits. Barbey révèle au monde une écriture picturale, mais aussi une personnalité source d'inspiration et de représentation pour de nombreux artistes. Nous nous attachons également à la réception du personnage, afin de montrer comment le dandy spectaculaire, devient lui-même œuvre d'art pour ses contemporains et un sujet d'artefacts, dont les sculpteurs Zacharie Astruc et Auguste Rodin s'emparent en lui façonnant chacun un buste de bronze. Nous montrons enfin combien Barbey est une source d'inspiration pour divers artistes, allant des illustrateurs par images fixes, jusqu'aux adaptateurs, réalisateurs cinéastes et téléastes
L'expression du corps dans l'œuvre romanesque de Sade by Faten Mahdoui( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The human body serves the a primary material in the novels of Sade. Following the reflection paths explored by the writer, the body indistinctly takes many forms and expresses different meanings. This work will first focus on the body and its various representations in Christianity. These very same representations will be inverted by our author, to desalienate this being of flesh from all religious coercion . With regard to the stranglehold of the Church on the body, Sade opposes the new philosophical assumptions derived from the new scientific discoveries of his century. In this respect, our work will deal with the materialistic philosophy that impregnated his writings, and that places reason at the center of its concerns, leading an experimental reflection using the senses. We will see that through this philosophy deeply body-centred, Sade will shape a body to become more and more free. The new biological discoveries evoked in thiswork mainly concern human reproduction and "la théorie de génération"[the theory of generation]. This theory embodies several theses from the eighteenth century. Sade chooses the one that fits his thought and the body that he is shaping. The philosopher finally tackles societies' morals and laws to divert and finally free the body from the clasps of society. Lastly, we analyze the literary processes and techniques utilized by our writer to set up this completely emancipated body. The human being and his body remain the first and last instance of Sade's work, borrowing reflection paths that ultimately lead to the birth of a body that is placed above any religious or social consideration which could enslave or degrade it
Fins tragiques : poétique et éthique du dénouement dans la tragédie pré-moderne en Italie, en France et en Espagne by Enrica Zanin( )

1 edition published in 2010 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The poetics of early modern denouement in Italian, Spanish and French tragedies implies an ethical issue. The ending of the plot is the expected climax which reveals the meaning and the moral of the story. The aim of the tragic denouement is twofold: it concludes the play and it reverses the hero's fate. In order to conclude the tragedy, the denouement restores a moral balance; in order to reverse the plot, it gives rise to a pathetic excess. Two divergent theoretical models underlie this dual requirement: the logic of exemplarity and the poetics of pathos. I propose to examine the strategies displayed by theorists and dramatists in order to bring together these two theoretical models. I therefore consider the three main features of the denouement (its direction, mode and structure) and the ethical issues to which they give rise (the sequence of causality, the tragic flaw and its atonement). The conciliation between exemplarity and pathos proves an impossibility: Italian, Spanish and French tragedy, despite their differences, denounce the logic of exemplarity as inadequate and unfit to justify, through the expression of a theoretical rule, the experience of misfortune, injustice and chaos. The tragic denouement leads the spectator to a hermeneutic deciphering that may uncover the reasons for the hero's inexplicable misfortunes
Henri Justel (1620-1693) et son rôle dans le débat Foi et Raison au sein de la République des Lettres dans la deuxième moitié du dix-septième siècle by Jean Trouchaud( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Henri Justel (Paris 1620 - Londres 1693) est un érudit français huguenot anglophile, membre éminent de la République des Lettres Il a été peu étudié en France à cause de son apport littéraire inexistant si on fait abstraction de sa riche correspondance et ce, en dépit de la brillante académie privée internationale qu'il animait à Paris, de son vaste réseau et de ses centres d'intérêt divers et variés et touchant autant les humanités que les sciences. C'est l'un deux, Foi et Raison, qui est exploré ici tant dans son contexte d'époque que dans le cercle de Justel. Ce débat entre la Science et la Foi a conduit à classer les idées philosophiques de beaucoup de grands esprits du XVIIème siècle. Pourra-t-il en être de même pour Justel?
La culture classique d'André Suarès by Antoine de Rosny( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis explores the presence of Antiquity in the work of André Suarès and questions the meaning of a literary creation which was profoundly marked by the Graeco-Roman legacy. Suarès's poetry and drama were dominated by the great figures of history and by Greek myths. In the first part of his career, he took them up compulsively, but he soon faced the deadlock of literary superactivity which is an enemy of literary creation. With maturity, he came to master antique inspiration and to invent forms which were more open to modernity. Suarès's classical culture also bloomed in his critical texts. In his portraits, Suarès celebrated the great figures of the past ; in his chronicles and essays, and in his books of fragmentary thoughts, he questioned his identity through mythological doubles, meditated on love and woman, and on the complex relationships between Antiquity and Modernity ; in his combat texts, he expressed his antigermanism through the concepts of Latinity and Romanity. Classical culture is omnipresent, many-sided and it can't be ignored. It did inspire and feed the whole work of the author. Driven on by the desire to be the universal genius of Modernity, Suarès sought the formula of the classical creator in the conciliation of the Ancient and Christian heritage. He understood that imitating the Ancients only led to the creation of dead works : life would only spring thanks to the personal and original appropriation of a heritage enriched by the Christian genius. Though he did not really manage to embody the poetical and drama greatness he dreamt of for himself, Suarès has won fame in his tireless commentary of universal creation
André Velter troubadour au long cours : vers une nouvelle oralité poétique by Sophie Nauleau( )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

It is in his "Orphée Studio", subtitled "Poésie d'aujourd'hui à voix haute", that André Velter really speaks about new poetic orality. Declaration based on the experiment, this proclamation of some layers, written as a presentation, is rare : simple, enthusiastic and speaking. So much prodigal to be it the detonator of this thesis. Four thousand two hundred signs indeed were enough to induce me : new poetic orality would be my subject. The term even of orality, too often only applied to the African griots or the oral traditions, offers a vast field of realities since it is heard, not in its modern meaning, but well in his report with modernity
Intermédialité et esthétique - Cinéma et théâtre chez Jean Cocteau by Caroline Surmann( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This dissertation investigates the work of Jean Cocteau and particularly his cinema from an intermedial perspective. The questions relevant to intermediality are addressed in relation to aesthetic considerations, thus confronting the configuration and invention of forms with the reflections on reality - its perception and knowledge - that generated them. As form itself marks the interface of reality and the subject and mediates between reality and the perceptive knowledge of it, this paper investigates the perception and filmic construction of reality, questions of illusion and representation that constitute the primordial preoccupations of Cocteau. His aesthetic conceptions are confronted with their ontological and epistemological conditions. The analysis of the six films that Cocteau has written and directed shows how the poet has put into practice his ideas and conceptions. They respond to the question how and why Cocteau integrates the other in the cinema and 'impurifies' its surface. Looking for an aesthetic of its own, the first art form cinema referred to was the theatre. It imposed its solutions where the cinema had not yet solved its own questions of representation. Should one go with the theatre? or against it? In this dissertation, theatre is understood both as artistic model (theatre) and as an aesthetic element (theatricality). Thus, on the one hand, we retrace the relations of cinema and theatre in the work of Jean Cocteau and, on the other hand, we describe a cinematographic theatricality that is no longer immediately related to theatre, but that refers to the aesthetic structures of the cinema that are in concordance with that of the theatre
Les métaphores naturelles dans le débat sur la Révolution de 1789 à 1815 by Olivier Ritz( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

En étudiant les textes du débat sur la Révolution française qui ont été publiés entre 1789 et 1815, cette thèse montre comment les métaphores naturelles ont servi à configurer des relations nouvelles entre la politique, la science et la littérature.La première partie étudie les métaphores naturelles en tant qu'instruments du débat sur la Révolution, envisageant successivement quatre fonctions rhétoriques : non seulement émouvoir et argumenter, mais aussi faire connaître et faire agir. La seconde partie étudie les relations entre les sciences de la nature et la politique. Elle porte sur les tentatives d'établir une véritable science politique à partir du modèle des sciences naturelles, sur les liens entre Révolution française et révolution scientifique ainsi que sur les stratégies discursives de promotion de la figure du savant. La troisième partie traite du débat sur la littérature qui se développe au cœur du débat sur la Révolution. Si les métaphores naturelles y sont remarquables pour leur force rhétorique et parce qu'elles mettent la littérature en tension avec la science et la politique, elles sont aussi des marqueurs littéraires : à travers elles, les écrivains légitiment leur œuvre, définissent leur rôle et s'inscrivent dans des traditions poétiques. Deux chapitres étudient spécifiquement les premières histoires de la Révolution.L'invention de la littérature comme usage fondamentalement esthétique du langage écrit est le résultat paradoxal de cette période où les liens entre la littérature, la politique et les sciences ont été particulièrement riches
L'écriture descriptive dans le roman français de la seconde moitié du dix-huitième siècle by Christof Schöch( Book )

1 edition published in 2008 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The present study's object is the descriptive writing in the French novel of the second half of the eighteenth century, more precisely between 1760 and 1800. Its aim is to give visibility to an episode of the history of description in the novel which is important although it is rarely studied. The way descriptive writing works is analyzed by taking into consideration three major issues: the very notion of description, the status of description in the novel and the modalities of its integration into the narrative context, as well as the relations which description entertains with painting. The study is based on the analysis of a corpus of thirty-two novels
L'expérience du Néant dans les oeuvres romanesques de Georges Bataille et Raymond Queneau by Guillaume Rousseau( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This PhD work is devoted to the subject of Nothingness in the fiction works by George Bataille and Raymond Queneau. A comparative reading of those two authors is far from obvious in theory because their works are so remote from each other, from a thematic point of view as well as from a stylistic point of view. However, both authors are intent upon turning the novel, and literature in general, into a thought provoking place enabling them to face the fundamental problems of Man. It is for that reason that they address the nothingness of life, a source of anguish prone to provoke vertigo. In a first part, we will reflect upon the building of that experience of nothingness, by underlining that it derives from a frame of mind as varied as heterodox, mirroring the intellectual emulation that is a key feature of the friendship between Bataille and Queneau. In a second part, we will more specifically wonder about the interest of fiction writing to deal with the subject of nothingness, in particular in relation with philosophy. The last part focuses on the question of reading which enables to turn Nothingness inscribed in the texts into a real experience. Throughout this work, we thus show the uniqueness of a literary thinking in its problematic relation with philosophy
La Stratégie de la fuite. Folie et antipsychiatrie dans le roman de 1960 à 1980 by Jeanne Weeber( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In the early sixties, the theme of madness suddenly became a prominent subject in both social sciences and litterature. Whether as discursive pratice or philosophical and social issue, there was considerable divergence in and around the anti-psychiatric mouvement. A comparative study of a body of litterature composed of nine novels by French, American, English, Dominican, New-zealander, Moroccan and Portughese writers allows a broad and contextualized comprehension of the various treatements of anti-psychiatry in contemporary litterature. Thus, Faces in the Water by Janet Frame and The Ha-Ha by Jennifer Dawson (1961), One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey (1962), The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath (1963), Le Ravissement de Lol V. Stein by Marguerite Duras and Le Locataire chimérique by Roland Topor (1964), Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys (1966), Moha le fou, Moha le sage by Tahar Ben Jelloun (1978) and Conhecimento do Inferno by Antonio Lobo Antunes (1980) are analized from the point of view of psychiatry researches (Szasz, Cooper, Laing...) sociological (Goffmann, Anderson...) and philosophical reflection (Foucault, Derrida, Baudrillard...) in order to trace the outline of what that historical moment called 'madness'. Punctual obsessions and traditional definitions converge in these works to create a poetic of runaway, moreover, an aesthetics of escape
Académiciens et lettrés analyse comparative de la théorie picturale du 18e siècle en Chine et en Europe by Frank Vigneron( Book )

1 edition published in 2008 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study considers theoretical texts written par Chinese and European painters in the 18th century. Their comparison should clarify the differences and similarities between two very developed artistic traditions that have grown very differently. The first part is dedicated to the study and contextualization of these texts within the history of painting and the history of art theory of the time. The second part is dedicated to the following comparative themes : Language : translation problems ; Regional schools and national culture ; Who writes for whom ? Themes of painting ; Literature and painting ; Corpses and monsters ; Eroticism and nude ; Landscape ; Brush ; Portrait and figures ; History and relationship with the past ; Beauty, Taste, and Sublime ; Artist and Craftsman, Parergon. The general conclusion is an attempt to clarify the epistemological circumstances that have allowed Chinese court painters in the 18th century to adopt ideas to their own episteme
Poétique du vivant et du mythe chez Marcel Moreau. La voix de l'Étrangeté : de l'organique au mythologique by Antoine Jobard( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Marcel Moreau has always stood aside from the dominant thought of his age. He is incarnated and possessed by words, what he calls his "verbal body". His work indeed shows a monstrous density: more than sixty books in fifty years. This thesis will attempt to define the poetics of the body while taking into consideration the building up of an intimate mythology that goes beyond himself, and beyond his rejection of any label. His writing directly engages the reader and integrates him in a tragic relation with his inner and outer self, sending him back into a reanimated passivity reality. A biographical approach is necessary because the Living is etymologically implied in the act of Writing. Thus, if the way he uses French is deeply embedded in his own organism, it creates a "voice of Strangeness" that dislocates the mere idea of frontiers - in literature, geography, genres, or even biology. Impulses finally express themselves through this poetical language, along with what is considered irrational. Words are living things whose strength can utterly change our cognitive structures. In Marcel Moreau's mind, one is able to open up to what he is and to the panicked complexity of the world surrounding him thanks to his perception of strangeness and otherness. The writer aims at enlightening his instincts, as they are the origin of trembling flesh and trembling thought, even though they carry a charge of cruel lucidity within them. When speech bonds with its original violence, it brings us back to the mythical structures that created our literatures, but also to the condition of the writer and to the poetical language that binds our community together with its multiplicities
Le surplomb impossible, le paysage empêché : l'œuvre de Jean-Loup Trassard lue à la lumière de Merleau-Ponty by Florent Hélesbeux( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Starting from the observation that almost all writers are interested in nature under the very specific and highly conditioned form of the landscape, this thesis attempts to situate the originality of the work of Jean-Loup Trassard in his vision, which rejects the fate of nature to become image in literature. Based on an essential, phenomenological distinction between image (Bild or Phantasie) and perception (Wahrnehmung), this thesis aims at showing that Trassard's writing lies on the side of the latter intentional modality. The consequences of this assumption are decisive, in the ways the writer has to capture space: not at a distance, but nearer, closer; not hanging over the real, but in a relationship of chiasm and encroachment ; not motionless, but involved and dynamic; not in the ecstasy of aesthetic contemplation, but in a relationship of transitivity and transformation (represented by work). Trassard is a writer of the work of nature, not a writer of nature. These characteristics of writing focussed on perception are best approached with the help of a close reading of Merleau-Ponty's works, from The Structure of Behaviour to the manuscripts of The Visible and the Invisible. The stylistic implications of this primacy of perception lead us to finally turn to the level of the writer's sentence itself. In a last part this dissertation reflects on the specific meaning of the appearance of such work in the second half of the 20th century, just when a decisive historical event is witnessed, i.e. the emergence from the Neolithic period, i.e. also the end of a certain way to relate to the earth, animals, matter, space
Élan et devenir. Sony Labou Tansi (1967-1975) : naissance d'un écrivain et d'une écriture by Céline Gahungu( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The searches on Sony Labou Tansi's works and the publications of his manuscripts testify of the wealth of his texts. A piece of it remains however unknown : the first steps of the writer. The access to its manuscripts and typescripts partially kept at the Francophone Library of Limoges - others are available for consultation in the Institute of Modern Texts and Manuscripts - open the way to renewed analyses. Written between 1967 and 1975, these texts, for the great majority unpublished in his lifetime, paint the portrait of a Congolese writer in training, dashing into the adventure of the writing. This one consists then in building his author's identity, in making a universe and in professionalizing his writing intended to invest the French edition. In a first part, this work demonstrates that by drafting his texts, Sony Labou Tansi forges his auctorial identity. He conceives himself under the features of a bomb, the manuscripts becoming bold laboratories. Becoming a writer includes an institutional dimension, in which is interested our second part. Despite the anarchistic imagination of the bomb, the creative writing is considered as a job : it is thus necessary to accept its codes and to develop a strategy of emergence to be published. Our third part analyzes the metamorphoses of this universe under construction. The refusals of publishing houses as well as the tension between the fantasy of a creation conceived as a revolt and the desire to be recognized by the literary institution do not affect his will. The key word of these years of learning is to become and so Sony Labou Tansi reinvents its universe, which is the place of ceaseless transformations. His trajectory is doubly interesting : the battle of the creation and of the publication concerns every young writer, but seems more complex for a generation of African authors confronted with a changing editorial universe
L'indétermination générique dans la prose poétique du symbolisme et du modernisme (domaines francophone et hispanophone, 1885-1914) by Emilie Yaouanq Tamby( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis seeks to examine the mechanisms of generic indetermination in the poetic prose of francophone symbolists and hispanic modernists from 1885 to 1914. Generic indetermination and hybridity tend to appear at first in representations of forms and genres, and in the discourse of writers and critics. The new definition of the poetic category leads to the perception of a continuum between different forms and genres. The narrative poetic symbolist song and the heterogeneous collections mixing different types are an example of this tendency. In this case, the genre of prose poem tends to merge with contiguous genres such as the tale. The absence of generic definition may be observed in discontinuity, immobility and repetition which allow the exploration of other modes of time representation and the play on referential ambiguity
 
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Alternative Names
École doctorale 019

École doctorale 19

ED 019

ED 19

ED019

ED19

Université Paris-Sorbonne. ED3

Languages
French (20)