WorldCat Identities

Chauvin, Christine Blottiaux (19..-....).

Overview
Works: 23 works in 29 publications in 2 languages and 37 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses  Periodicals 
Roles: Other, Thesis advisor, Author, Publishing director, Opponent, Contributor
Classifications: B845, 620.82
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by Christine Blottiaux Chauvin
Décision et risques en santé = cision and health risks( Book )

2 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'anticollision à bord de navires transbordeurs analyse et modélisation de l'activité des officiers de quart by Christine Chauvin( )

6 editions published between 1996 and 1998 in French and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pour détecter les risques de collision et pour y pallier, les officiers utilisent l'aide apportée par le radar. Cet instrument délivre des informations utiles mais il ne fournit pas toutes les données nécessaires à la réalisation d'un diagnostic pertinent. Pour pouvoir concevoir de nouveaux systèmes d'aide, il semble souhaitable d'analyser les raisonnements menés par les officiers dans le cadre de ce diagnostic. L'analyse repose sur le traitement de données recueillies en situation réelle de travail à bord de deux car- ferries effectuant des rotations France-Angleterre. Le traitement a porté sur trois types de données : les caractéristiques des manœuvres, les actions effectuées sur le radar, les verbalisations des officiers et, plus précisément, les formes verbales choisies. Les formes verbales sont considérées comme étant les indices des opérations effectuées par les officiers pour élaborer et modifier leurs représentations mentales. L'analyse met en évidence les modes opératoires des officiers et la structure de l'activité d'anticollision. Cette activité se déroule selon une trame générale qui consiste à évaluer le conflit, à choisir la direction de la manœuvre puis à planifier son amplitude. En fonction des caractéristiques du conflit, d'autres raisonnements peuvent intervenir. Ils consistent à produire des inférences, à anticiper certains faits, a en évaluer d'autres. Des hypothèses sont posées concernant les connaissances et les informations utilisées. Ces résultats ont été traduits sous la forme d'un modèle "objet". Les propriétés du formalisme objet facilitent la représentation d'aspects tels que l'organisation des connaissances ou tels que le caractère dynamique du processus de construction de la représentation. Ce modèle fournit trois vues de l'activité. Une vue statique met en évidence la structure hiérarchique des objets. Le modèle dynamique traduit l'enchainement des buts poursuivis par les officiers. Le modèle fonctionnel représente les raisonnements relatifs aux différents buts poursuivis. Le modèle a été soumis à une validation
Concevoir un dispositif de retour d'expérience intégrant l'activité réflexive collective : un enjeu de sécurité dans les tunnels routiers by Christelle Casse( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Operating experience feedback, mainly through accident analysis is a method of choice for safety management in high risk organizations. The present research takes place in the field of road tunnel safety, proposing an integrated approach of experience feedback from the daily management of safety by tunnel monitoring staff through collective spaces for discussion and experience building.Our hypothesis is that safety in such dynamic environments as road tunnels depends on the capacity of operating teams to face the unexpected events, disturbances and accidents. This capacity is built through discussions between operating staff and with the management about the difficulties encountered during work. The return on operating experience should allow the debate on work activity in order to reach a better safety management, foster individual development and a better organization. However, there are organizational conditions for the debate to be possible and sustainable.A research and intervention protocol was set up with a road tunnel operator to test and improve a scheme for the return on operating experience based on individual and collective activity. Analyses were conducted to help operational staff link the way events are treated in day to day security management with the processing in the operational experience feedback scheme. An analysis of the current scheme showed that it is focussed on major traffic events, comprising of a set of procedures and formal rules, while the operational events, felt as critical by operators do not have a framework for discussion. Further, work activity analysis shows that operational staff develops informal spaces of collective exchanges to organize work, anticipate hazards and analyse events.Organizational simulations including operating staff, managers and the research partners were set up to transform the feedback scheme. The simulation led to an enlarged framework for feedback, defining the events to be analysed and participants to be included. The new scheme roots in the existing professional processes, develops inter-professional as well as inter-organization discussion spaces. The new scheme facilitates the sharing of experience among operating staff and structures the informal organizational practices we observed.Inter-professional discussion spaces, conducted by the team managers, were set up based on the analysis of simulated events. These structured discussion spaces proved to be effective in the confrontation of work practices, events and roles representations as well as conducive for knowledge transmission. The discussion space allows setting transverse operational rules and highlights the need for formal rules to be set by the management. The inter-professional discussion spaces are operant in improving the formal organisation as well as developing the activity of operational staff. This methodology favoured the building of experience from event analysis.This research-intervention was an opportunity to review the official classification of road tunnel events. The conditions for an integrated operating experience feedback scheme are set and discussed, as well as the implementation of simulation-based discussion spaces.From our results, we re-consider the design of interventions in organizational design, as well as the role of the intervening ergonomist
Étude de la prise de décision chez les pilotes d'aviation commerciale : relation entre le contrôle cognitif et la charge mentale by Amine Laouar-Zouyed( )

1 edition published in 2021 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cette thèse vise à étudier les facteurs de dégradation dans la prise de décision des pilotes d'avion dans des situations dynamiques, en vue de définir les principes d'une assistance à la prise de décision dans les futurs cockpits d'avion. L'analyse des processus de prise de décision dans le domaine aéronautique a permis de centrer la problématique sur la question du contrôle cognitif. Nous avons considéré le Modèle de Contrôle Contextuel (Hollnagel, 1993), qui présente quatre modes de contrôle cognitif - stratégique, tactique, opportuniste et brouillé, du plus au moins proactif - et nous avons exploré les liens entre ces modes, la contrainte de la situation, et l'astreinte des opérateurs. Cela a abouti à l'hypothèse que l'on pouvait déterminer le mode de contrôle cognitif instancié à partir de la connaissance de la contrainte et de la mesure de l'astreinte, via des mesures physiologiques (rythme cardiaque) ou neurophysiologiques (oxygénation du cortex préfrontal). À l'aide d'une Analyse Cognitive du Travail réalisée sur l'activité de pilotage, nous avons construit et mené deux expérimentations afin d'explorer les liens évoqués ci-dessus : l'une en laboratoire avec des étudiants confrontés au logiciel MATB-II, l'autre en simulateur de vol avec des pilotes experts confrontés à des scénarios réalistes. Les résultats expérimentaux ont confirmé les liens entre les modes de contrôle et la contrainte, montrant une adoption préférentielle du mode tactique lorsque la contrainte est faible. Nous avons également observé un lien entre modes de contrôle et astreinte. En effet, le taux d'oxygénation sanguine du cortex préfrontal est plus bas pour le mode tactique que pour les autres modes. Enfin, ces deux expérimentations ont montré que le mode tactique est le plus efficient, puisqu'il est associé au plus faible niveau d'astreinte et à des performances correctes. Les apports de cette étude sont discutés au regard des perspectives concernant le développement d'assistances adaptatives
La gestion du risque d'abordage dans le domaine du transport maritime : proposition d'un modèle générique tridimensionnel de la sécurité by Benoît Langard( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis belongs in the general theoretical area of the safety of complex systems. Its field of application is the merchant navy. Its object is twofold: 1. To investigate the management of collision risks by a systemic approach which takes into account both factors leading to failure and those leading to success; and, 2. To explore the links between three concepts of safety : Safety culture, Safety Management Systems and Resilience. Safety culture is a subset of the overall organizational culture. It consists of a set of values, beliefs, attitudes, norms and practices concerning safety. Shared by members of an organization, this directly influences behaviour at work. The first step in the research was to study the marine transportation system and collisions between merchant vessels listed by the United Kingdom's Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB), focussing on two areas: the safety barriers system and the main failures leading to accidents. Qualitative and quantitative methods were then applied to gain an understanding of the safety culture of a shipping company with a good safety record. Analysis of this company's management system showed it to be effective: it was built on a strong reporting system and seemed to be participatory. A survey of the safety climate was conducted with several crews, using a questionnaire inspired by Håvold's questionnaire. This showed that a large majority of the company's personnel had a positive safety culture, although the scores were significantly influenced by the duty and the hierarchical level of individual respondents. Finally, the activities of bridge watchkeeping officers were studied to identify diachronic and synchronic mechanisms implemented to manage the collision risk. The results of these studies enable a discussion of the relationship between Safety Culture, Resilience and Safety Management System. A proposal for a generic three-dimensional safety model shows that Safety Culture seems to act as the mediator of the other two concepts. Safety Culture would also allow the system to maintain a significant portion of “managed safety”, complementing a strong element of “prescribed safety” flowing from regulation
Analysis of submarine steering: effects of cognitive and perceptual-motor requirements on the mental workload and performance of helmsmen by Rauffet Philippe( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La gestion d'un référentiel commun en situation coopérative de prise de décision : le cas du binôme hospitalier médecin-pharmacien en réunion de révision médicamenteuse by Clément Wawrzyniak( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis has two distinct objectives. The first is to characterize the medication review process (MRev) from an ergonomics perspective to value and ease its deployment at the hospital. Although there are only rare descriptions of the MRev process in the literature, a few recent French initiatives have shown the MRev as an appropriate response to maximize the patient security. The main results consist of a detailed analysis of the MRev process at the hospital and a set of recommendations for the actors involved in its development at the operational, tactical and strategic levels. The second objective is more theoretical and consists in refining our understanding of cooperative activities within a group in a dynamic decision-making situation, and more specifically in a horizontal, integrative and debatable cooperation. This work especially raises the issue of the concept of common frame of reference. This concept is central in Ergonomics, but its definition and usage are often left up to the readers. To our knowledge, using a similar theoretical and methodological framework, our work is the first to obtain a significant rate of metacooperative activities in this context. The results also prove that the management of a common frame of reference can be defined as an activity dedicated to ensure the compatibility between the partners' cognitive contents more than their strict identity
Allocation des fonctions entre l'homme et la machine dans les sytèmes sociotechniques complexes. Application au pilotage de sous-marins. by Samantha Judas( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis comes within the scope of sociotechnical systems design. It is applied to thesubmarine rudder control system. It focuses, in particular, on the stage of functions allocation between helmsman and machine.The objective of the first experiments was to test an "ecological" interface automating the function of information analysis. Two experiments evaluated its effects on performance, workload and situation awareness of helmsmen performing steering tasks.A second phase consisted in defining different proposals of dynamic allocations of functions between helmsman and machine. An experiment was carried out, in order to evaluate a solution of adaptive automation.The results of these studies lead to propose an approach for designing a socio--technical system, which relies on and enhances the CWA (Cognitive Work Analysis) framework. They lead also to discuss place and formalisation of the functions allocation's stage into the process of sociotechnical systems' design
Vers un modèle prédictif de la charge mentale et des performances sur postes répétitifs de fabrication dans l'industrie automobile by Lisa Jeanson( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

En 2004, le Groupe PSA a développé le PSA Excellent System, un mode d'organisation basé sur les principes du Lean Manufacturing ayant pour objectif d'optimiser leur production. Un des piliers de ce système est les « standards de travail » (SoW) conçu par les ingénieurs méthodes. En théorie, les SoW permettent l'équilibrage des postes de travail, c.-à-d. l'organisation des tâches que les opérateurs peuvent réaliser dans une période donnée. L'objectif est de maintenir la performance et la santé des opérateurs. Malgré, cette approche, des erreurs des plaints émergent toujours des lignes d'assemblage. Pour comprendre ces phénomènes, nous avons construit une nouvelle approche basée sur la comparaison entre les tâches réelles et prescrites. Nous avons démontré que les différences entre les SoW et le comportement des opérateurs correspondaient à des régulations individuelles ou anticipées/collectives. Ces régulations sont des stratégies utilisées par les opérateurs pour faire face à des contraintes de production, dont la charge mentale, qui ne sont pas prises en compte dans la conception des postes de travail. En d'autres termes, les régulations sont le symptôme d'une dichotomie entre les règles de conception des postes de travail et les contraintes réelles de production. En particulier, alors que certaines contraintes comme la pression temporelle nécessitent la mise en place d'automatismes (des comportements efficients et en grande partie inconscients), d'autres contraintes comme les contraintes spatio-temporelles, les variations dans l'activité, la complexité de la tâche, un niveau de risque élevé ou encore une charge informationnelle élevée, requièrent des comportements réflexifs (qui sont lents et nécessitent un haut niveau d'attention). Nos résultats finaux démontrent que, lorsque nous réduisons le niveau de certaines de ces contraintes et permettant aux opérateurs de mettre en place des automatismes dans leurs tâches, nous minimisons du même coup le risque d'erreur et le besoin de recourir à des stratégies en dehors du SoW
Évaluation d'un système de résolution de conflits, ERASMUS : apport de l'oculométrie comme mesure de la charge mentale chez les contrôleurs aériens en-route by Pierre-Vincent Paubel( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Air Traffic Control has to handle the strong and constant increase in air traffic density. In this context, mental workload experienced by air traffic controllers is a key research concept to maintain the actual safety level. ERASMUS is an automated aid system designed to reduce air traffic controllers' workload. The purpose of ERASMUS is to compensate the effects of the air traffic growth by reducing the increased mental workload associated with a greater number of potential conflicts. Prior experiments designed to validate the ERASMUS system showed a reduction in ratings of mental workload, but only subjectives measures were used. In the present thesis, the first goal is to complete these first results by providing, for the first time, a real time objective measure of controllers' mental workload. In this purpose, we had to develop a new non-intrusive eye-tracking platform in a fully realistic simulation environment. The eye movements of seven controllers, placed in a high-fidelity simulation, were recorded. Traffic sequences were manipulated (with vs. without ERASMUS). Consistent with a reduced workload hypothesis, results showed medium to large effects of ERASMUS on the amplitude of saccades, on the time spent gazing aircraft, and on the distribution of attention over the visual scene. Moreover, without ERASMUS, growth in the traffic density significantly increased pupil diameters. In contrast, when ERASMUS was activated, traffic density growth did not impact significantly pupil diameters. Finally, we discuss the impact of ERASMUS on mental workload and the use of pupillometric measures in an ecological air traffic control environment
Évaluation multidimensionnelle et dynamique de la maitrise de la situation par l'opérateur : création d'un indicateur temps réel de charge mentale pour l'activité de supervision de drones by Alexandre Sviatoslave Kostenko( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The evolution of technology has resulted in the emergence of increasingly complex and automated systems. In dynamic situations, the activity of the operator is now more centred on supervision than on execution. These situations are characterized by complexity, uncertainty, partial control and a significant risk of losing control of the situation. The main objective of the work presented in this manuscript is to create a synthetic mental workload indicator, which will be used to trigger a reallocation of functions in real time. The ultimate goal is to enable the operator to better regulate his/her mental workload and to help him/her maintain or regain control of the situation. This work is applied to the supervision activity of a drone swarm studied on a simulation platform (the SUSIE platform). We have revisited and combined the model of Hart and Staveland (1988), which considers the mental workload as a multidimensional construct and that of Sperandio (1971), which focuses on the regulation of activity. This led us to propose a dynamic and three-dimensional model (based on the analysis of the constraints, the effects of the workload on the task and the operator, and the regulations), on which we relied to build a creative approach of a synthetic mental workload indicator. This process is divided into four stages. The first consists in carrying out an analysis of the task following the methodology of Sperandio (1988), to define and identify the descriptors of the mental workload according to the three categories of our dynamic and three-dimensional model. The second step is based on the realization of an experiment, which aims to validate or exclude the identified indicators, per their sensitivity to variations in mental workload (as defined by Cegarra et Chevalier (2008)). The results show in particular that the pupillary diameter and the observation of the regulations allow an appreciable measurement. The third step aims to create a synthetic indicator of mental load by merging the chosen indicators by using Bayesian networks and fuzzy logic. Finally, the last phase supports the design of a dynamic allocation of functions, triggered from the synthetic indicator of mental workload. A second experiment was carried out to evaluate the contribution of reallocation. It shows that the aid allows the operator to better regulate his activity; it modifies the task workload (constraint), but does not reduce the mental workload
Fiabilisation des décisions de conduite en salle de commande d'une centrale nucléaire : le rôle de l'argumentation dans la résolution collective de problèmes by Johanna Mérand( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This work examines the team problem solving during the supervision of a dynamic and high risk process (nuclear power plant) in simulated degraded mode operation. In the studied situations, operating crews must develop complex diagnoses, adjust the requirements to the specifics of the situation and solve issues associated with the technical system's behavior. The defended position is that argumentation developed during the problem solving and involvement of crew members contribute to the reliability of the decision process. The organizational arrangements and the level of the process-specific knowledge held by each crew member would affect the argumentative process. Four studies have been conducted on a full scale simulator of a controlroom of a future nuclear reactor where operating crews of 4 or 5 members are training on emergency operation simulations. These studies are based on open and systematic observations of the activity, on a thorough analysis of verbal communication between crew members and on a multidisciplinary assessment of diagnoses and decisions. Results show a more evenly distributed communication in crews of 5 members, where operators responsible for operating actions provide more critical feedback on the situation. If the argumentation does not seem to influence the performance of the team in observed situations, the results allow characterizing the argumentative activity of the crews. This is performed using a theoretical model developed to articulate argumentation and supervision in dynamic situations models
Gestion de contraintes et expertise dans les stratégies d'ordonnancement by Clément Guérin( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Only a few research works in psychology are devoted to scheduling, for example about planning tasks, workers and machines occupation in the shop. In the literature, schedulers are mainly described from the procedural viewpoint. For describing scheduling activity, we adopted the complementary representational viewpoints in terms of constraints management. Two scheduling situations have been studied: timetabling and industrial scheduling. By comparing novices and experts, we observed that the latter used constraints visible on the timetable or on the Gantt chart, to solve the scheduling problem. Moreover, experts used a higher level of abstraction than novices in the control of processing. Finally, we highlighted the similarities and differences between industrial scheduling and timetabling. In addition, we conducted a multidisciplinary study from a previous work in the field of operational research by evaluating a scheduling tool. We investigated the effect of the mutual control modality on human scheduling decisions, and the management of breakdowns risks in a shop by schedulers
Mécanismes cognitifs et rôle du collectif dans la persévération : gestion d'événements imprévus dans l'activité de pilotage militaire by Léonore Bourgeon( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cette recherche porte sur les mécanismes cognitifs à l'origine de la persévération lors de la conduite de systèmes dynamiques à risques. La thèse défendue est que la persévération dans l'application d'un plan d'actions inadapté résulte d'un compromis cognitif orienté vers un « mode de pensée automatique », amenant à une représentation incorrecte de la situation et à une sous-estimation des ressources nécessaires à sa gestion. L'activation d'un « mode de pensée contrôlé », essentielle à l'adaptation à une nouvelle situation, serait favorisée par la discussion argumentée d'avis divergents au sein de l'équipe.Afin de le vérifier, trois études sont menées dans le cadre du pilotage militaire. Elles portent sur les analyses : de rapports d'accident, des processus de décision en simulation de vol statique et des interactions verbales en simulation dynamique.Elles montrent que la persévération est liée à l'implication d'un mode de pensée automatique intervenant à trois niveaux du processus de décision : le défaut de détection des informations, l'interprétation incorrecte de la situation et le recours aux procédures. Le faible niveau de ressources disponibles, induit par une charge de travail élevée, joue un rôle important dans la survenue de la persévération tandis que l'argumentation de ses points de vue favorise la flexibilité. Ainsi, lorsque la gestion d'événements imprévus requiert un coût cognitif élevé, la gestion des ressources est un élément clé de la persévération. Des pistes de recherche relatives aux communications verbales sont proposées afin d'améliorer l'exploitation des ressources du collectif et ainsi favoriser la récupération des comportements de persévération
Le rôle de l'utilisateur dans les systèmes de traitements automatiques by Sylvain Fleury( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Actuellement, l'interprétation automatique de symboles peut être appliquée à de nombreux types de documents techniques (partitions musicales, plans électriques, etc). L'automatisation de ce type de tâche peut permettre un gain de temps pour des professionnels (Lu, Tai, Su, & Cai, 2005), mais elle peut aussi générer une perte de conscience de la situation par les opérateurs (Endsley, 1995). De plus, ces traitements impliquent un risque d'erreurs d'interprétation des symboles (Orbay & Kara, 2011). Il est donc crucial qu'un humain intervienne pour corriger ces erreurs. L'objectif de cette thèse était d'améliorer la compréhension des interactions homme-machine prenant place dans ce type de tâche afin de déterminer comment améliorer la performance du système. Plusieurs études ont ainsi été réalisées dans le cadre d'une démarche de conception centrée-utilisateur (ISO 9241-210, 2010) d'un logiciel d'interprétation automatique de plans d'architecture. Ces études se sont appuyées sur un cadre théorique varié, puisant à la fois dans la psychologie cognitive, les interactions homme-machine et l'ergonomie des documents multimédias. Elles ont mis en évidence des résultats débouchant sur des préconisations pour la conception de systèmes de reconnaissance. Ainsi, l'affichage de l'interprétation superposée au document interprété facilite la coréférenciation des informations à contrôler. De plus, permettre à l'utilisateur d'assister en temps réel à l'analyse et d'intervenir au fur et à mesure améliore les performances. Enfin, le signalement par la machine des risques d'erreurs est bénéfique, mais cela peut générer une réduction de la vigilance due à un phénomène de sur-confiance
Services technologiques intégrés dans l'habitat des personnes âgées : examen des déterminants individuels, sociaux et organisationnels de leur acceptabilité by Juliette Reerink-Boulanger( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Le présent travail de recherche se situe dans le cadre du développement et de l"évaluation du concept de résidences-services développé par l"association MEDeTIC. L"objectif de cette association est de répondre au souhait de nombreuses personnes âgées de vieillir chez elles ou comme chez elles grâce à une offre de services intégrant des technologies au sein d"un habitat adapté aux besoins évolutifs des personnes âgées. Notre travail a pour ambition d"accompagner cette association dans une démarche de diagnostic psychosocial des besoins de la personne âgée en matière d"habitat, de technologies et de services. En conservant pour cadre d"analyse ces trois sources d"innovation intégrées au sein des résidences-services, cette thèse vise à mobiliser les outils de la psychologie sociale et ergonomique en vue d"identifier les freins et les leviers de leur déploiement (études 1A, 1B et 1C). Sous l"égide d"une approche traitant de l"acceptabilité, nous examinons d"une part la compatibilité entre les fonctionnalités offertes des services et les limitations rencontrées par les personnes âgées (étude B1) et d"autre part l"influence de la familiarité aux technologies (étude B2). Puis, pour comprendre les processus cognitifs et sociaux sous tendant l"usage, les expérimentations C1 et C2 se focalisent sur les modèles prédictifs ainsi que sur l"influence des déterminants individuels (i.e. âge, expérience), sociaux (i.e. opinions des aidants) et organisationnels (i.e. caractère volontaire de l"accès aux services). Sur la base des résultats obtenus, des recommandations pratiques sont adressées à l"association MEDeTIC afin qu"elle poursuive son évolution
Activité et influence des préventeurs au sein d'une organisation à risque : le cas d'un site de production dans le secteur de la chimie pharmaceutique by Fanny Guennoc( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

OHS specialists are central agents for risk management in companies. However, little knowledge about their real activities is available, in particular in the area of high-risk industries. The objective of this research is to understand how OHS specialists, through their activities and their interactions with the other employees, contribute to building safety in the context of a site classified as Seveso III “upper tier”. The research was organized around three axes. First of all, an ergonomic approach was conducted to describe the determinants, the aims and the characteristics of the activities of two OHS specialists in charge of tasks related to industrial safety. The results illustrate the great diversity of subjects they deal with as well as the importance of the relational dimension and the fragmented nature of their activity. Then, the second axis addressed the question of OHS specialists' influence by using sociology of organizations framework. It aims at describing their roles and the sources of power they have. It appears that OHS specialists play the roles of expert, controller and coordinator with the various stakeholders of industrial safety, as the top management, the engineers, the operators, the human resources, the public authorities, etc. Finally, the third axe focused on the relationships between OHS specialists and the operators by addressing the issue of the definition and the application of rules for the manufacturing activities. This PhD work has illustrated the various forms of influence of OHS specialists on industrial safety and has stressed the importance of analyzing them in the specific context of the company
Nature des compétences non techniques du leader médical à la prise en charge d'afflux massif de victimes : une étude à partir du point de vue des formateurs by Renaud Delmas( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The high-risk dynamic environments management (transports, nuclear industry, medicine etc.) increases every day in our societies. A good management of these environments requires the reliability of technical and organization systems. It also requires the training of operators in non-technical skills. This thesis is focused on this last point. In the literature, the non-technical skills concept stays unclear.This works examines this concept, based on the training situations of medical leaders from the Army Health Service to wounded people massive influx in theatre operation. We adopt the point of view from trainers when they are analyzing activity of leaders.In a first part (Chap. I, II & III), we describe the training of the French army physicians and the current stakes and tools of the wounded people massive influx management training. This part also describes current non-technical skills training and trainer roles. The theoretical part describes works around non-technical skills, from its origins to its diffusion in various areas (Chap. IV & V). We describe the current NTS taxonomies which are mainly based on a divided into seven NTS categories: leadership, teamworking, communication, situation awareness, decision making, coping with fatigue and managing stress. Then, we characterize the activity of medical leader (Chap. VI). This theoretical part lead us to consider non-technical skills as technical or non-technical abilities (Chap. VII) and is conclude with the formulation of our research questions (Chap. VIII).The empirical part of this thesis starts with the elaboration of a corpus (Chap. IX) listing all the abilities linked to the leader performance. The construction of this corpus is based on twenty individual alloconfrontation interviews conducted with physician-trainers. Ten of them classified the abilities into three classes: technical (T), non-technical (NT), technical and non-technical (T-NT).The first study (Chap. X) analyses trainer classification. It shows the importance of NT class and identify the existence of five “representational styles” among trainers. The second study (Chap. XI) examines the meaning assigned by each participant to ability and highlight gaps between trainer representations. Then we identified five ability families with a two main families: slightly-divergent (45%) and NT (41%). We notice that there is a core of thirty abilities which are unanimously classified as non-technical only.The following studies (Chap. XII and XIII) are based on the classification of the 30 NT-only abilities by CRM trainers and MED trainers. The third study highlight that all trainers associate more than once NTS category to each ability. That shows NTS categories are not exclusive. In a descendant order leadership, communication, teamworking and situation awareness are the most used by trainers without difference between groups. The CRM group used more the leadership category. The MED group used more stress managing and coping with fatigue. The fourth study examines if it possible to gather, even to merge, some NTS categories based on the classification of NT-ONLY abilities. Our results show the proximities between the categories of leadership, teamwork and communication, then between situation awareness and decision making, and finally between managing stress and coping with stress. The last part of this thesis (Chap. XIV) discuss about the methodology used, results and questions they raise
Les facteurs humains au coeur de la sécurité maritime : la gestion des ressources en passerelle de navire by Jean-Pierre Clostermann( Book )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In recent years, spectacular maritime accidents have highlighted shortcomings in the management of normal operations, both at the local and at the organizational level. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) implements nowadays a policy of human factors (HF) training to try and reduce the number and cost of accidents. This PhD focuses on the management of all the available on the bridge of a merchant ship. The first section reviews the literature on the main HF models both at the level of individual and team cognition. It focuses on CRM training (Crew Resource Management) in several industries, including shipping, and compares them to the air transport standard. The second part describes three studies on the theme of human factors in handling the ship. A) An analysis of 27 collisions using a tool derived from Reason's Swiss Cheese model: the HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System) highlights the dominance of decision errors and the existence of a specific class of accidents in which teamwork failures are central. B) An experiment conducted merchant ship. On a simulator shows the differences between experts and novices in the process of decision making, and provides methods to improve training. C) The third study, also conducted on a simulator, covers teamwork and communications aiming to build and maintain a shared situation awareness. It highlights shortcomings in the process of communication, significantly associated with poor performance. This work is a learning oriented coherent set of actions aimed at understanding and improving individual and team cognition during the handling of merchant ship
L'analyse de l'activité comme préalable à la conception d'un environnement virtuel de formation : le cas d'une formation à la gestion d'incendies en milieu urbain chez les sapeurs-pompiers by Yohann Cardin( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis is part of a project to design a learning platform funded by STDI, a company specialized in the development of digital applications for teaching purposes. This project took place at the CERV (European Center for Virtual Reality) with the aim of relying on technologies related to virtual reality.In continuity with several works previously carried out at the CERV, our scientific approach has focused on introducing the analysis of human activity into a real training situation in the design loops of a collaborative training platform. This work of analysis was carried out in collaboration with the SDIS 56 in the framework of the practical training of chiefs in a fire brigade. This work was based on three research subjects, each of which raised specific scientific issues : studying the complexity of the decision-making activity of the operators in the situation of intervention ; the coordination of the crew in intervention ; and the activity of trainers in situations of risk training.By making methodological choices inspired by the naturalistic approach, our different levels of analysis have revealed several results. The individual analysis emphasizes the decision-making alternation between analysis of the situation and implementation of the intervention, as well as the importance of the anticipation and planning processes. The collective analysis reveals the articulation during the intervention of the individual sense-making activities according to the personal objectives and the spatial and functional configuration of the team. Finally, the analysis of the activity of trainers make it possible to specify their role as simulations managers and that of facilitators during the debriefings allowing a construction of knowledge a posteriori.Taking into account our different results, we have considered the global nature of the virtual training environment and developed some ideas for the improvement of existing teaching tools
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  General Special  
Audience level: 0.00 (from 0.00 for Décision ... to 0.00 for Décision ...)

Alternative Names
Chauvin, Christine

Christine Chauvin onderzoeker

Languages
French (25)

English (1)