WorldCat Identities

EMMA - Ecole Doctorale Energie - Mécanique - Matériaux

Overview
Works: 685 works in 835 publications in 2 languages and 818 library holdings
Roles: Other, Degree grantor, 996
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by EMMA - Ecole Doctorale Energie - Mécanique - Matériaux
Contrôle de l'auto-organisation de la lumière dans un système photoréfractif à rétroaction optique by Nicolas Marsal( Book )

3 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of the present manuscript is to study the formation and the controlof transverse structures in nonlinear optical systems by using photorefractivematerials as the optical nonlinear medium. A single laser beam entering insuch a nonlinear medium can experience transverse structuring due to themechanisms of modulation instability, which may lead to beam filamentation.In another case, the interaction of two beams may lead to spatially regularpatterns, as in the case of the single-feedback configuration.In this study, we focus on the conditions for the appearance of ordered patternedstructures and describe the theoretical and experimental background forthe observation of these effects. Our challenge is to go beyond the observation,classification and understanding of the nonlinear phenomena encountered. Weare especially interested in the properties of the free-running nonlinear system,combined with different control mechanisms. Principally, on one hand, we focuson the active addressing, selection and orientation of a desired pattern bysuitably using a periodic photonic structures as the control mechanisms.On the other hand, the dynamics, the geometry, and the velocity of thedifferent patterns are strongly influenced by an imposed misalignment of themirror producing the optical feedback. Consequently, convective dynamics, sustainedby noise, are expected in the system and will be observed for the firsttime in a photorefractive experiment.Finally, a part of the manuscript is devoted to the observation of localizedstructures. Potentially useful for optical memories, these structures have beenintensively studied in different configurations, but experiments in photorefractivematerials remain scarce. Thus, we will focus
Etude des copeaux et de l'intégrité de surface en usinage à grande vitesse de l'alliage de titane TA6V by Juan David Puerta Velasquez( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'usinage grande vitesse (UGV) est un procédé de mise en forme de métaux très apprécié dans le domaine industriel pour les avantages qu'il apporte, par rapport à l'usinage traditionnel. Dans ce travail nous avons effectué des essais en coupe orthogonale sur l'alliage de titane TA6V afin d'étudier les copeaux et les surfaces usinées. La morphologie et la métallurgie des copeaux obtenus ont été caractérisées. Les observations obtenues (DRX, MEB, EBDS) ont servi à commenter la nature des bandes de cisaillement et à privilégier la théorie du cisaillement catastrophique au-dessus de la fissuration périodique, pour expliquer la formation des copeaux en UGV. Intégrité de surface est le terme utilisé pour décrire l'ensemble des paramètres liés à la caractérisation micro-géométrique et structurale d'une pièce finie. Elle permet d'estimer l'impact du procédé sur la surface usinée. L'intégrité des surfaces produites en UGV a été étudiée sous deux angles différents : dans un premier temps nous avons caractérisé la texture cristallographique et son évolution avec la vitesse de coupe. Une nouvelle stratégie de mesure et de traitement des données pour la séparation et le lissage des raies de diffraction a été développée. Dans une deuxième partie, les surfaces produites ont été caractérisées métallurgiquement. La morphologie du matériau en sous surface ainsi que l'état de contraintes résiduelles ont été déterminés. Nous avons mis en évidence la formation d'un matériau bi-couche par l'action de l'UGV. Enfin, les contraintes résiduelles et la texture cristallographique des surfaces usinées ont été corrélées aux observations microstructurales des surfaces usinées et des copeaux obtenus
Diode laser 1.5 micron de puissance et faible bruit pour l'optique hyperfréquence. by Mickael Faugeron( Book )

3 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work focuses on the design, realization and characterization of high power, low noise 1.5 µm diode lasers for microwave applications and more particularly for high dynamic optical analog link for radar systems. The first part of this study deals with modeling and design of low internal losses DFB laser structures. These specific structures are called slab-coupled optical waveguide lasers, and are composed of a thick layer between the active layer and the substrate. The aim of this waveguide is to enlarge the optical eigenmode and to move the optical mode away from p-doped layers. The main difficulty was to find the good trade-off between laser static performances (optical power, efficiency) and dynamic performances (RIN and modulation bandwidth). We have succeeded in developing high efficiency (0.4 W/A), low noise (RIN ≈ 160 dB/Hz) DFB lasers with more than 150 mW and a 3 dB modulation bandwidth up to 7.5 GHz. We have then characterized our components on wide band and narrow band analog links. We have demonstrated state of the art gain links, dynamic and 1 dB compression power. In the L band (1-2 GHz) for example, we have obtained an optical link with a gain of 0.5 dB, a compression power of 21 dBm and a dynamic (SFDR) of 122 dB.Hz2/3.Finally we have applied the methodology and the design of slab-coupled optical waveguide structures to develop high power mode-locked lasers for ultra-short pulses generation and for optical and electrical comb generation. We have demonstrated narrow RF linewidth (550 Hz) lasers with very high power (continuous power > 400 mW and peak power > 18 W)
Etude de cavités optiques formées de miroirs de Bragg à réseaux à pas variable : application aux filtres et lasers. by Xunqi Wu( Book )

3 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this thesis is focused on the study of an extended cavity laser or/and optical filter, whose external mirror is the linearly chirped Bragg grating. As for the gain medium in the resonant, SOA (Semiconductor Optical Amplifier) can act as optical gain device. It can offer all of the classic and typical characteristics and advantages like large spectral passband of 50 nm, low power consumption, high-speed electro-optical commutation and so on. Therefore, this type of laser or/and optical filter have many interesting applications in the field of optical telecommunications.In this research, the first works are the design of passive continuum resonant cavity using linearly chirped Bragg grating. Inside this so-called continuum cavity, formed between mirror and chirped grating, all of the Bragg wavelengths oscillate at the same time, so the round-trip phase of each oscillated wavelength should keep constant. Then there is a passband spectrum at the transmission side. The bandwidth of transmission could be varied in C band (from 1525 nm to 1565 nm) to satisfy the needs of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems. This project is separated by two cases, one is about the external cavity applying chirped fiber Bragg grating as an external mirror, and the other is about the integrated cavity on InP chip, where the Bragg grating is already lithographed. Anyway, the first works of the thesis consist of numerical modeling, computational simulations and experimental manipulations.During the second works, the first step we add SOA as gain medium between two chirped fiber Bragg gratings for the purpose of generating laser. There are reflectors and active part in the passive cavity, so there is lasing far and away. It emits the typical F-P multimode light at the intersection of SOA gain band and reflection band of chirped grating. Then the second step is that a seed laser, whose frequency is nearby one of the longitudinal modes, is injected into the cavity in order to lock this mode. So there is only one emitted laser mode because of injection locking. This lasing resonant cavity could also be formed between mirror and linearly chirped Bragg grating
Conception de miroirs à réseau sub-longueur d'onde pour application VCSEL dans le moyen infrarouge. by Christ-Yves Chevallier( Book )

3 editions published in 2013 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les lasers à cavité verticale émettant par la surface (VCSEL) à base d'antimoniures dans le moyen infrarouge permettent le développement et l'amélioration d'applications telles que la détection de gaz polluants. De nouveaux miroirs à réseaux à haut contraste d'indice (HCG) ont montré un pouvoir réflecteur comparable voire supérieur aux miroirs de Bragg conventionnels avec un gain d'épaisseur d'un facteur 10 tout en offrant un effet polarisant. L'insertion de ce nouveau type de miroir au sein d'une structure VCSEL présente ainsi des avantages prometteurs pour améliorer les propriétés de ces composants pour une émission dans le moyen infrarouge. Le travail présenté dans ce manuscrit de thèse concerne la conception de miroirs HCG qui répondent aux exigences d'une intégration VCSEL en prenant en compte les contraintes technologiques et la tolérance aux erreurs de fabrication. Pour cela, dans un premier temps, un algorithme d'optimisation global a été combiné à une méthode de simulation numérique de réseaux (RCWA) afin d'automatiser la conception de miroirs. L'étude précise des tolérances des paramètres géométriques du réseau a été menée pour pouvoir ensuite développer un algorithme d'optimisation robuste. Cet algorithme permet ainsi d'obtenir non seulement un miroir répondant aux exigences de réflectivités définies par l'utilisateur mais également de conserver ces performances pour de larges gammes de tolérances. Enfin, dans une dernière partie, l'intégration du miroir à réseau dans un VCSEL a été simulée par une méthode aux différences finies (FDTD) pour étudier le fonctionnement d'un composant complet
Chaos and high-frequency self-pulsations in a laser diode with phase-conjugate feedback. by Andreas Karsaklian dal Bosco( )

3 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis is a theoretical and experimental study of the dynamics of an edge-emitting laser diode (850 nm) with phase-conjugate feedback. The experimental device is designed to see the dynamical range of the laser through the temporal and spectral properties while the feedback rate varies. Phase-conjugate feedback is performed through four-wave mixing in a photorefractive crystal. The propagation time of the laser beam in the external cavity is termed external time delay. Under the effect of the feedback, the system shows a wide dynamical range including chaos and self-pulsing states which characteristic properties are determined by the length of the external cavity. For the first time self-pulsing states at frequencies multiples of the fundamental frequency of the external cavity are evidenced. Simulations carried out based on the commonly-used Lang-Kobayashi laser rate equations provide theoretical confirmations to the experimental observations. The main topics tackled here are chaos crisis and bistability of pulsing solutions, self-pulsing regimes (through their stabilization and destabilization) and the transitions between them, characterization of extreme events of two kinds along with their statistical distribution and delay-induced deterministic coherence resonance of low frequency fluctuations. Beyond the fundamental interest of these results and the many comparisons that can be made with other laser systems, applications in the field of all-optical signal generation and control of chaos are direct consequences of this study
Étude numérique et expérimentale des jonctions tubulaires soudées "des plateformes offshore" soumises à des sollicitations complexes : analyse par contrôle non destructif by Mohamad Fathi Ghanameh( Book )

3 editions published in 2007 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In building offshore platforms, tubular members are used because of their good structural and mechanical properties. Tubular members are connected to one another by special welded joints, which represent structural discontinuities causing significant stress concentrations in the vicinity of the weld. For some joints, the stress concentration can produce a maximum stress at the intersection as high as thirty times the nominal stress acting in the members. Under repead loading, fatigue failures always initiate at the areas, which referred to as "hot-spot" where there are high-level stress concentrations, which called "hot spot stress (HSS)". For this reason, accurate computation of stress concentration is very important in tubular joints design. The first part of this study was devoted to the determination of the stress distributions in the cicinity of joint intersection and to the localization of the zones of stress concentration. With this intention, a modeling by finite elements of twelve types of welded joints commoly employed in offshore industry was established. The loading undergone in service leads to platform displacements in all directions, which takes change of wind direction into account, for this reason combined loading was investigated in addition to the three simple loading types (axial(AX), In Plane Bending(IPB) and Out of Plane Bending (OPB). This combined loading is composed of an axial loading (tension or compression) combined with a continuation of combined bending (rotational bending loading). In second part of this work, the fatigue behaviour of T-joint subjected to a rotational bending loading was investigated. Prior to fatigue testing, tow specimens were instrumented with strain gauges to allow for the measurment of hot spot stress in both the brace and the chord, and results obtained were compared with a detailed numerical study of T-joint to validate the numerical modelling results
Plasticité cristalline des matériaux hexagonaux sous cisaillement : application au magnésium by Benoît Beausir( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The properties of materials with hexagonal crystalline structure are currently of interest for technical applications and for academic research. This work is articulated around the case of magnesium used in particular in aeronautics for its lightness. However, because of the restricted number of symmetries of the hexagonal crystal structure, these materials can present certain “difficulties” of forming. Forming usually imposes large deformations on the material; this is why it is of primary importance to know its behavior. Large plastic deformations imply the development of a plastic anisotropy which can be particularly strong in hexagonal polycrystals. This work initially shows the bases of comprehension and a review of literature on the plasticity of hexagonal materials. Then the role of strain-rate sensitivity in the crystal plasticity of materials with hexagonal structures is discussed. The ideal orientations of texture and their characteristics of persistence of hexagonal closed-packed crystals in simple shearing are identified. Then an analysis of texture evolution in magnesium during equal angular extrusion is carried out. The texture and mechanical behavior of magnesium during free end torsion are also analyzed. Finally, a modeling of the deformation during equal channel angular extrusion by a general flow function is proposed
Erosion suite à l'impact d'un arc électrique : modélisation et campagnes expérimentales en vue du développement d'un matériau de substitution à l'alliage AgCdO by Frédéric Pons( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'AgCdO est l'un des matériaux de contact parmi les plus répandus dans le monde du fait de ses excellentes propriétés. Cependant, étant donné la présence de Cadmium dans celui-ci, il sera bientôt totalement interdit par des directives européennes d'ordre environnementales. Trouver un matériau ne contenant pas de Cadmium et ayant au moins d'aussi bonnes propriétés est donc la clé du projet. Le phénomène d'érosion du matériau de contact suite à l'impact d'un arc électrique joue un rôle de premier ordre dans la fiabilité et la durée de vie des dispositifs de commutation de puissance. Celui-ci influe en effet sur les propriétés du matériau et affecte ainsi le fonctionnement du dispositif de commutation de puissance. Dans ce contexte, nos axes de recherche ont été les suivants. Avant tout, et ce afin de mieux comprendre le comportement à l'érosion suite à l'impact d'un arc électrique de l'AgCdO (matériau de contact utilisé actuellement dans l'industrie aérospatiale) et celui de l'AgSnO2 (candidat potentiel au remplacement de l'AgCdO), des essais ont été réalisés en soumettant les dispositifs de commutation de puissance à différents nombres de décharges. Ensuite, un modèle macroscopique permettant de prédire l'érosion d'un matériau suite à l'impact d'un arc électrique, valable pour faibles et forts courants, a été développé. Ce modèle décrit le processus complet de coupure et donne la quantité totale de matériau érodé suite à une opération de commutation. En parallèle, des essais ont été réalisés sur des dispositifs de commutation de puissance AgCdO à forts courants (0 -> 1000 A) afin de valider ce modèle d'érosion. Les propriétés matériau les plus influentes sur le processus d'érosion ont ensuite été déterminées à l'aide de ce modèle. Enfin, une étude ab initio portant sur les effets d'un changement de composition locale du matériau sur ses propriétés identifiées comme influentes sur le processus d'érosion a été réalisée. Ainsi, l'ensemble de ces travaux permettront de conclure sur des directives dans l'élaboration du matériau de contact qui remplacera l'AgCdO, objectif principal de ces travaux de recherche
Analyse de l'efficacité de la ventilation par oscillation haute fréquence (VOHF) by Kossi Edem Novinyo( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) consists of insufflation at high frequency of current volumes lower than anatomical dead space, in order to purify carbon dioxide, which are residues of the cellular activities.This work consists in proving the effectiveness of the HFOV. Indeed, treatment of patients using HFOV allows satisfactory care of them, but with empirical adjustments of parameters involved in its use. Moreover, because of, the inhomogeneity of the patients, in one hand, and the impossibility of making clinical tests on people suffering from HMD (Hyaline Membrane Disease) or ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome), etc..., in the other hand, the use of the HFOV become increasingly complex for hospital staff.To analyze these difficulties, we, first, identified the influence of the amplitude of pressure and that of the frequency on the purification of two simple models of analogues. The results of these models prove that these parameters support the increase in alveoli's volume according to their elasticity. Other results of these models are the basis for the development of future work in a numerical model of HFOV. Then, because of the limitation of the control range of certain parameters of the HFOV's machine, we designed and conducted series of tests with two types of analogues, the first one having rigid closures in the last generation of branches and the second having flexible closures in the same generation of branches. Thus, with this new device, we carried out the analysis of the influence of each one of these factors over the time of purification of the two models according to 12 sets of parameters of the Taguchi's table L12 (23x31). With the introduction of the elasticity of flexible membranes, we noted not only, the significant reduction in the purification time, but also that the existence of an optimal frequency, function of the length of respiratory airways of the patients (age), which increases this efficiency. According to this study, the forced diffusion remains the principal mechanism, responsible for the efficiency of the HFOV. The analysis of influence of the parameters setting- entry velocity of oxygen, amplitude of pressure, oscillatory frequency and gravity- has been made in this work.Then, we simulated numerically the two experimental models of the tests, in order to confirm the experimental trends of these factors. Indeed, these two models were implemented in the software CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamic) Fluent. The results from these numerical models are agreed with those of the experimental models.Furthermore, we set up a model of Spontaneous Ventilation (SV) by using a more complex analogue with all the 23 generations of branches that has a human lung. Indeed, the movement of the 300 millions and the rib cage were modeled by that of 2,097,152 pistons. The results of this model confirm those of existing work on the SV.The future goal would be to conduct a comparative study between two numerical models, the SV and the HFOV by taking into account of alveolar diffusion mechanism
Synthesis of chirped Bragg mirrors for spectral widening of optical cavities by Grigore-adrian Iordachescu( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis proposes a new method for the generation of continuous spectra with possible applications in optical WDM access networks. This new method would allow the development of a continuum laser type structure with better performances in terms of cost and simplicity compared to the current supercontinuum sources. For this purpose, we have analyzed the possibility of extending the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot cavity acting only on the design of one of the cavity mirrors. The design of the mirror is generated with a genetic algorithm targeting a desired reflectivity spectrum. An active medium is then added inside the cavity formed with the synthesized mirror and the cavity's emission is simulated below the lasing threshold. The spectra thus obtained are continuous on an interval of 5 to 15 nm
Croissance et caractérisation de fibres monocristallines de nouveaux matériaux pour microlasers bleus et UV by Nader Kozhaya( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Blue and UV lasers are currently used for many applications as data storage, medicine, micromachining, etc. The frequency conversion by means of non-linear crystals appears as a good solution to obtain coherent light sources from usual solid lasers emitting in the IR, no UV laser effect can be produced in any crystal. In this frame, we studied three materials (K3Li2-xNb5+xO15+2x (KLN), Ca5(BO3)3F (CBF) and Bi2ZnB2O7 (BZBO)) which possess promising non-linear optical properties. In this work, we studied two phase diagrams: K2O-Li2O-Nb2O5 and CaO-B2O3-CaF2 in order to determine and optimize the growth conditions of the corresponding crystals.We showed that µ-PD is a good technique for growing non congruently melting crystals (CBF) and crystals originating from a solid solution (KLN). The obtained single crystal fibres were transparent, homogeneous in composition and had a good crystalline quality. The study of the growth of KLN fibers showed that it is very difficult to obtain crystals oriented along the a axis with the used technique. With regard to CBF, the viscosity of the liquid requires to determine the most appropriate couple pulling rate/capillary diameter to obtain transparent crystals. For BZBO, the yellow-red colour of the obtained fibres is probably a consequence of the presence of another phase richer in bismuth
Identification des sources de vibration en usinage : étude expérimentale et numérique by Luis Ricardo Castro Martinez( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The main objective of this project is furnishing information to clarify the vibrations physics in machining from orthogonal cutting. First chapter contains the machining process characterisation by means of cutting forces. We evaluate the piezoelectric dynamometers in frequency domain and the influence of assembly components. These evaluations reveal the dynamic measurements problems. At the end of this part, we propose a correction method of piezoelectric dynamometer measurements to frequencies higher than dynamometer bandwidth. Also, we present an application of the method. Second chapter comprises the understanding of vibration sources. We analyse specially the segmented chip formation because its excitation role is not clear in literature. Also, we consider the effects of regenerative excitations, which depend of interaction between cutting conditions and machine-tool dynamic response. Third chapter includes the experimental identification of vibration sources during machining. We have identified and characterized the segmented chip formation and the machine-tool dynamic
Étude d'ondes non linéaires hydrodynamiques : approches théorique et expérimentale by Yannick Lebranchu( Book )

2 editions published in 2008 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cette thèse est dédiée à l'étude d'ondes non linéaires dans des écoulements en rotation. Dans une première partie, je me suis intéressé aux ondes de Rossby apparaissant par instabilités de thermoconvection dans une coquille sphérique en rotation représentant un modèle simplifié de noyau planétaire tellurique, et ce pour deux types de forçage: un chauffage interne correspondant à une activité radioactive du noyau et un chauffage différentiel lié à la différence de température entre les frontières interne et externe. Selon le théorème de Proudman-Taylor, l'écoulement possède une faible dépendance en la coordonnée axiale à cause de la rotation rapide. Cela permet de simplifier les modèles 3D en des modèles quasi géostrophiques 2D reposant sur une intégration axiale. Cette thèse présente la première comparaison systématique entre modèles 2D et 3D (Simitev, U-Glasgow) concernant des ondes de Rossby faiblement non linéaires. En 2D l'équation de Landau régissant l'amplitude de l'onde critique est calculée; l'amplitude de la convection et celle des écoulements zonaux ainsi prédites se comparent assez bien aux résultats 3D. L'existence d'une bifurcation sous-critique est établie à très bas nombre d'Ekman en chauffage interne et en chauffage différentiel, à condition dans ce dernier cas que le nombre de Prandtl soit petit. La seconde partie est une étude expérimentale de l'écoulement d'eau et de ses premières instabilités dans un canal annulaire creusé dans un plateau éventuellement en rotation surmonté d'un couvercle tournant. Trois cas sont étudiés: le cisaillement pur correspondant à la rotation du couvercle seul, la corotation rapide et la contrarotation pure. Le seuil d'instabilité détecté par mesures globales (visualisations par caméra vidéo) et locales par Vélocimétrie Laser Doppler se caractérise par des ondes spiralées. Dans le cas de la contrarotation pure, des structures localisées dans l'espace-temps peuvent coexister avec les ondes. Une comparaison est effectuée avec des calculs numériques (Serre, CNRS-Marseille). Un accord relativement bon est obtenu pour l'écoulement de base (vitesse azimutale) et la première instabilité (nombre de Reynolds, nombre d'onde et fréquence angulaire critiques)
Séchage des bétons réfractaires : expérimentation, modélisation et influence d'un ajout de fibres polymère by Brice Collignon( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Castable refractories take a more and more important place in various industries: cement factory, casting, iron and steel making. They consist mainly of aggregates of high-alumina and ultra-low cement. Their permeability is very low and they contain before the first heat-up a residual water content of 4 to 6 % (dry basis). Drying during the first heat-up is a crucial step which sharply influence the refractory in-service performances. On one hand, damaging can occur, and as a consequence will reduce drastically the life time of the plants. On the other hand, particular drying conditions can lead to an explosive spalling of the refractory corresponding to an internal gas pressure steep raise linked to the water saturated vapour pressure raise with temperature. First, a complete thermomechanical characterization between ambient temperature and 500 °C of the unshaped refractory materials has been conducted. Then the mechanisms involved during their drying, on one hand, by an experiment and, on the other hand, by using a simultaneous heat and mass transfer model in porous media have been studied. And last, the impact of adding polymer fibers has been analysed both on the concrete permeability as well as their influence on drying
Etude de la nocivité d'un défaut de type éraflure sur une conduite destinée au transport de gaz naturel soumise à une pression d'hydrogène by Julien Capelle( Book )

2 editions published in 2008 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Actuellement, un effort de recherche important est orienté sur l'usage de l'hydrogène comme nouveau vecteur énergétique aussi bien en Europe qu'aux États-Unis. Une solution pragmatique pour que le transport de l'hydrogène soit économiquement viable, serait de le véhiculer mélangé avec le gaz naturel dans le réseau de gazoducs existant. Dans le cadre du projet européen NaturalHy, 39 partenaires européens ont conjugué leurs efforts pour évaluer les effets de la présence d'hydrogène sur le réseau de gaz existant. Cette étude s inscrit dans ce cadre. Elle s intéresse plus particulièrement à l impact sur les propriétés mécaniques d un acier API 5L X52 de l introduction d hydrogène sous une forme gazeuse ou électrolytique. Cet impact a été quantifiée par un nombre conséquent d essais de différentes natures (éclatement, rupture, propagation, endurance). La nocivité de l hydrogène en présence d un défaut représentatif de type éraflure simulé par une entaille, est analysée de manière déterministe en couplant le Diagramme Intégrité Rupture Modifié pour les entailles et la procédure SINTAP
Transport et stockage des dérivés pétroliers problématique d'endommagement des pipes par érosion de sable et par hydrogène by Akram Alhussein( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dans cette thèse, nous avons traité l'endommagement local des pipes en acier API 5L X52, par impact de sable et par hydrogène. L'érosion se produit par la projection du corindon (Al2O3), d'une taille moyenne de grains comprise entre 300 et 400um. Les variables sont le temps de sablage (compris entre 1 et 8 heures) et le rayon d'entaille d'éprouvette (0.25 à 1 mm). L'effet d'érosion est caractérisé par : perte de masse, volume érodé, évolution des paramètres d'entaille, analyse des contraintes résiduelles et microdureté HV. Nous avons constaté que plus le temps de sablage et le rayon d'entaille sont grands, plus l'endommagement est important. Les contraintes résiduelles introduites par sablage jouent un rôle important sur la résistance du matériau. La deuxième partie concerne l'endommagement des pipes par la présence de l'hydrogène. Des essais ont été réalisés à un potentiel constant de -1Vsce et dans une solution électrolytique standard : NS4 (Natural Soil 4). La quantité et la concentration d'hydrogène absorbée ont été évaluées. En réalisant différents essais mécaniques : Traction, Charpy et fatigue, nous avons déterminé l'influence du sablage et de l'hydrogène sur les propriétés mécaniques des pipes. Les résultats montrent que le sablage améliore l'élongation à la rupture et la durée de vie du pipe ; par contre, l'hydrogène les réduit puisque il pénètre dans l'acier et change le mécanisme de rupture. L'évolution de la microstructure du matériau et le mode de rupture ont été observé par microscope à balayage. la réduction de la taille des grains de l'acier, au fond d'entaille sablée, est le signe d'une forte déformation plastique. Les fissures dans l'acier, chargé en hydrogène, se propagent en suivant le chemin de la porosité. Enfin, la nocivité d'entaille, sous sablage et sous hydrogène, a été étudiée par le Diagramme Intégrité Rupture Modifié. Nous avons montré que l'entaille, d'une profondeur de 20% de l'épaisseur du pipe, reste sans dangerosité, mais la fragilisation par la présence de l'hydrogène diminue les facteurs de sécurité et de sûreté d'environ 7%
Contribution à l'étude des propriétés thermiques et hydrodynamiques d'un écoulement d'hélium normal (5HeI) diphasique en circulation naturelle pour le refroidissement des aimants supraconducteurs by Lahcène Benkheira( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The method of cooling based on the thermosiphon principle is of great interest because of its simplicity, its passivity and its low cost. It is adopted to cool down to 4,5 K the superconducting magnet of the CMS particles detector of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment under construction at CERN, Geneva. This work studies heat and mass transfer characteristics of two phase He I in a natural circulation loop. The experimental set-up consists of a thermosiphon single branch loop mainly composed of a phase separator, a downward tube, and a test section. The experiments were conducted with varying several parameters such as the diameter of the test section (10 mm or 14 mm) and the applied heat flux up to the appearance of the boiling crisis. These experiments have permitted to determine the laws of evolution of the various parameters characterizing the flow (circulation mass flow rate, vapour mass flow rate, vapour quality, friction coefficient, two phase heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux) as a function of the applied heat flux. On the base of the obtained results, we discuss the validity of the various existing models in the literature. We show that the homogeneous model is the best model to predict the hydrodynamical properties of this type of flow in the vapour quality range 0?x?30%. Moreover, we propose two models for the prediction of the two phase heat transfer coefficient and the density of the critical heat flux. The first one considers that the effects of the forced convection and nucleate boiling act simultaneously and contribute to heat transfer. The second one correlates the measured critical heat flux density with the ratio altitude to diameter
Étude de la pulvérisation et de l'émission de la matière sous bombardement Cs+ by Christophe Verdeil( Book )

2 editions published in 2008 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Storing Matter technique aims at optimising the sensitivity and quantitativeness of SIMS analysis. It consists in decoupling the sputtering of the specimen from the subsequent analysis step. The specimen is sputtered by means of an ion beam. The emitted particles are deposited at a sub-monolayer level on an optimised collector. The deposit is subsequently analysed in a SIMS instrument. The ionisation probability in SIMS does not depend anymore on the initial sample composition (“Matrix effect”), but on the collector surface chemistry. The collector is chosen in order to increase the sensitivity and to quantify the specimen. The efficiency of this new technique depends on the collector choice and on the collection factor ? characterising the sputter-deposition step. In this work, the sputtering and emission processes under ionic bombardment have been studied in order to optimise this factor ?. We developed an experimental set-up and an analysis protocol based on SIMS that allows us to study the angular distribution under Cs+ bombardment with an oblique incidence for different impact parameters. Four targets (Si, Ge, InP and GaAs) were studied. The results show that the angular distribution is shaped as a cosine function cosn (?-?Max) for impact energies between 2 and 10 keV and for incidence angles from 30 to 60°. Under these conditions, the exponent n is ~2 and the preferential direction of emission ?Max varies from the normal to the surface to 35° in the specular direction in function of the impact energy and the incidence angle. The results allowed to find the best settings for the Storing Matter technique to control the sputtered matter collection in function of the bombardment parameters
Propriétés mécaniques de membranes d'épaisseur nanométriques : construction et mise au point d'un essai de gonflement by Audrey Hemel( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A new mechanical testing device of free standing membranes by Bulge Test has been built at Institute Jean Lamour in order to investigate the mechanical properties of thin films of nanometric thickness. The Bulge Test measures the deflection of a free standing membrane to which a differential atmospheric pressure has been applied. (The specimens are prepared from film on substrate deposits by cutting a window within the substrate by standard microelectronic techniques.) We aim of achieve tests from room temperature to ~ 900°C. The main technical difficulty met during this work was to develop a non perturbating method of measurement of the film bulge. Two different techniques were tested: point measurement and 2D interferometry using a spherical reference. The first technique, however simple, was difficult to practice, especially in the case of buckling membranes. The second method required a detailed analysis of the whole optical system (image distorsion, calculation of interferograms) leading to a simple measurement method, suitable for integration in the acquisition and command chain of the device, followed by an off line full treatment.The operating method was used on two different sets of specimens: fragile silicon nitride and silicon membranes in order to test the reproducibility of the device. Polycrystalline gold thin films were then used to study the early stage of plastic strain
 
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Alternative Names
E.M.M.A

École doctorale 409

Ecole doctorale Energie - Mécanique - Matériaux (EMMA) (Nancy-Metz)

Ecole supérieure d'électricité (Metz - Lorraine)

ED 409

ED409

EMMA

INPL. Ecole Doctorale Energie - Mécanique - Matériaux

Institut national polytechnique de Lorraine. Ecole Doctorale Energie - Mécanique - Matériaux

Supélec (Campus de Metz)

Université Paul Verlaine de Metz. Ecole Doctorale Energie - Mécanique - Matériaux

Languages
French (41)

English (5)