WorldCat Identities

Ecole Doctorale Mecanique, Energetique, Genie Civil, Acoustique (MEGA) (Villeurbanne)

Overview
Works: 1,318 works in 2,232 publications in 2 languages and 2,278 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Other, Degree grantor, 996
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Energetique, Genie Civil, Acoustique (MEGA) (Villeurbanne) Ecole Doctorale Mecanique
Contribution à la détermination des courbes des contraintes limites de formage hors axes = ontribution for the determination of the off-axes forming limit stress diagram by Thang Nguyen Nhat( Book )

2 editions published in 1994 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this work, we propose the determination of the forming limit stress diagram for off axes solicitations along different direction of an anisotropic steel sheet. The stress states at the necking occurrence are determined by means of a step to step plastic calculation along the experimental strain paths of the forming limit curve. The second part of this work deals with the theoretical determination of the off axes forming limit stress states. The MARCINIAK and KUCZYNSKI'S two zones model is developed introducing the rotation of the anisotropic and position of the"limit stress curves are studied. And then we propose a method to use these curves, as stop tests in the numerical simulation of deep drawing operations
Acquisition de connaissances et apprentissage automatique : contribution pour le développement incrémental d'un système à base de connaissances pour les situations de crise : application au domaine de l'eau = nowledge acquisition and machine learning : contribution in the incremental development of a knowledge-based system for situations of crisis- : application to the water domain by Redouane Senoune( Book )

3 editions published between 1995 and 2013 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cette thèse a pour objectif la réalisation d'un système à base de connaissances pour les situations de crise. A travers le développement de ce système deux principaux axes de recherche ont été entrepris: l'acquisition et la validation de connaissances. Pour l'étape d'acquisition de connaissances, nous avons intégré une méthodologie d'acquisition de connaissances et une technique d'apprentissage automatique. Dans un premier temps, la méthodologie d'acquisition de connaissances nous a permis de recueillir l'ensemble des connaissances descriptives et stratégiques du domaine, et de construire un langage de description des exemples d'apprentissage. Une technique d'apprentissage est ensuite utilisée pour construire incrémentalement un graphe de connaissances en utilisant des cas d'interventions sur des situations de crise fournis par les experts du domaine. Pour la phase d'exploitation du système, nous avons proposé deux procédures différentes. La première procédure consiste en l'utilisation interactive du graphe de connaissances construit et la deuxième procédure consiste en l'utilisation en déduction des connaissances contenues dans ce graphe. L'approche proposée pour la validation des connaissances s'appuie sur l'utilisation interactive du graphe de connaissances construit et sur un suivi des interventions des experts sur des cas de crise
Contribution à l'étude des coefficients de vitesse à l'aide des réseaux de neurones : application à l'écoulement de l'air dans les bâtiments pour le confort thermique en climat tropical humide = tudy of interior velocity coefficients using artificial neural networks - Application to airflow in buildings to improve indoor thermal comfort in humid tropical climate by Jefrey Ignatius Kindangen( Book )

2 editions published in 1997 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Des études bibliographiques montrent que la prise en compte des grandeurs climatiques dominantes du climat tropical humide et leurs effets sur un être humain sont primordiales dans l'évaluation du confort thermique. Nous proposons ainsi un indice de confort adapté à ce climat. Dans ce type de climat, une des stratégies pour améliorer la qualité thermique d'un bâtiment est l'utilisation de la ventilation naturelle. Une étude paramétrique sur l'influence des éléments architecturaux permettant d'améliorer la vitesse d'air intérieur, et ensuite le confort thermique des usagers, a été réalisée à l'aide d'une méthode numérique de type CFD. Cette étude paramétrique nous a permis de constituer la base de données utilisée pour la réalisation du modèle prédictif de détermination des coefficients de vitesse. L'étude porte sur 1' exploitation de modèles dits comportementaux, pour le calcul des coefficients de vitesse de l'air dans les bâtiments. La méthode d'évaluation de ces coefficients proposés utilise les réseaux de neurones. Nous insistons sur les difficultés rencontrées avec les modèles classiques de la mécanique des fluides lorsque l'on cherche à évaluer les coefficients de vitesse, en tenant compte d'un nombre significatif de paramètres architecturaux. Les exploitations présentées montrent que les modèles proposés fonctionnent bien et permettent d'obtenir des résultats fiables, compte tenu d'un apprentissage du réseau de neurones raisonnable en temps de calcul. Nous avons établi un code d'évaluation du confort thermique en climat tropical humide dans une structure d'accueil modulaire: TRNSYS. Ce code repose sur un modèle simplifié des phénomènes de transferts et l'intégration du calcul du coefficient Cv à l'aide des réseaux de neurones mis en jeux. L'influence des paramètres architecturaux sur le confort thermique a également été étudiée
Rôle des propriétés des granules pour la fabrication de pièces de poudres céramiques granulées sans défaut de compaction = he effect of single granule properties on the fabrication of parts from granulated ceramic powders without compaction flaws by Yvan Agniel( Book )

2 editions published in 1992 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The granulation of fine ceramic powders improves considerably its compaction and thus sintering properties, provided that a full destruction of the granules is obtained by the shaping of the part. Model granules were tested as single ones (uniaxial compression ) and in a packing (double-action-compaction in an instrumented pressing tool developed during this work). Both results were then compared on the basis of modified compaction models from the literature , and an empirical correlation between single granule properties and compaction behaviour of the granulated powder was found. Ceramographical and porosimetrical methods helped to conclude about the formation and development of flaws during compaction and sintering
Contribution à l'étude de la fatigue multi axiale sous sollicitations periodiques ou aléatoires = n the multiaxial fatigue under periodical or random loading by Jean-Louis Robert( )

2 editions published in 1992 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of the thesis is to give a random multiaxial fatigue life prediction method, by adapting long fatigue life criteria and Rainflow counting methods First 5 "classical" fatigue criteria for multiaxial and periodical stresses are analysed. A new criterion is proposed. It is based upon the determination of the critical plane, experiencing the maximum damage evaluated with tangential and normal stresses on this lane. The comparison between all criteria is made with 100 experimental tests collected in the literature. Our criterion gives especially good predictions when principal stresses directions are fixed. Then 4 Rainflow counting methods are examined and a new one is proposed. Two ways of comparison are developed : Rainflow cumulative are modelized by a probably densities law and theoretical fatigue life predictions are calculated with either a linear or a non-linear damage law. Uniaxial loading histories measured on lorry components are used to corn are these Rainflow counting methods. In the last art of this thesis is developed a random multiaxial fatigue life prediction method. both counting variable and criterion which are proposed are based upon the tangential octahedric stress. The validation of the criterion is made by using the experimental tests of the first chapter. The method is a lied to the loading histories of second chapter and give good satisfaction
Modélisation de l'état de sante des réseaux de distribution d'eau pour l'organisation de la maintenance : étude du patrimoine de l'agglomération de Lyon = Modeling the condition of water supply systems for maintenance programming : The case of the Lyon network by Julien Malandain( Book )

2 editions published in 1999 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of this research is to provide elements of method and models making it possible to diagnose the state and to predict the ageing of the water mains to help the managers to satisfy, with short and long-term, their objectives of performance. This study is based on a state of knowledge relating to the pipes degradation phenomena, on the analysis of the data available and usable to describe the symptomatic history, the constitution, the aggressive environment and the sensitive environment of the infrastructure, and on the study and use of tools such as Geographic: Information systems, hydraulic modeling and models of reliability, which make it possible to represent and to evaluate the functioning of the networks. The principal results of this research are : - A new formulation of the technical problematic of infrastructure management, based on the operational constraints and the current stakes of customer service and system profitability ; - The organization of information relating to the network description and of the tools used for the analysis and prediction processes, within the framework of a decision support system ; - The proposal of two new models, adapted to the data available on water supply systems, one contributing to design and simulate long term renewal strategies, the other contributing to the reactive programming of maintenance actions
Contribution à l'étude numérique de la convection naturelle thermosolutale en cavité : Application à la diffusion de polluants dans les pièces d'habitation = contribution to numerical study of thermosolutal natural convection within a cavity : Numerical modelling of pollutant diffusion within dwelling cells. by Claudine Wehrli( Book )

2 editions published in 1992 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A contribution ta numerical analysis of convection within a dwelling cell and more specifically ta turbulent transport of scalar quantities such as temperature and pollutant concentration is here presented. In the first part of our work, we describe the principles leading to the thermosolutal convection equations under the laminar regime, and the numerical tool based on the finite volume method used to solve these equations. The influence of characteristic parameters such as the solutal buoyancy term and the ratio of thermal and solutal diffusion coefficients a fluid motion is then investigated, for case of thermosolutal convection within a square cavity submitted ta horizontal temerature and concentration gradients. A turbulence model is theo developed, for prediction of turbulent air flow movement within cavities. This model is tested within the frame of the European EUROTHERM-ERCOFTAC workshop, and three ƙ-Ɛ turbulence models without wall functions are compared for the thermally driven cavity configuration. In the last part of this study, mixed convection within real scale rooms, due to combined temperature and pollutant concentration (benzene or methanol emitted by latex paint or a carpet in a new office) gradients is numerically predicted, with one of the three ƙ-Ɛ models selected
Contribution à l'étude micromécanique de l'interface et de phénomènes élémentaires d'endommagement dans des composites modèles fibre de verre/résine époxyde by Pascal Feillard( Book )

2 editions published in 1993 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A micro-mechanical study of the interface in glass fibre/epoxy resin model composites has been carried out with three micrc1mechanical tests : pull-out test, fragmentation test and micro indentation test. It appears clearly that the matrix mechanical properties change with the percentage of silane at the fibre surface. The break point of the fibre-matrix system is also shifted from the interface to the matrix in the case of a high percentage of silane. Examination of analytical load transfer models and computations of fibre failures processes observed experimentally bring out that one-dimensional load transfer models are not suited to the fragmentation test analysis with glass/epoxy systems. Bidimensional models are more satisfactory because they outline the multiaxial feature of the load transfer. In parallel, we show that some analytical load transfer models recently developed for the pull-out tests cannot be employed for a precise mechanical study. In this case, a bidimensional model has also to be used. Consequently, an extensive work must be undertaken to develop a bidimensional load transfer model for each of the three micro mechanical tests
Approche tribologique du comportement dynamique d'une extrudeuse bi-vis co-rotative = ribological study of dynamical characteristics of twin-screw co-rotating extrude by Patrick Delaine( Book )

2 editions published in 1992 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le but de cette étude est de comprendre le ou les mécanismes de perte de matière des éléments d'extrusions d'une extrudeuse bi-vis co-rotative. Après un bref historique et une présentation succincte des différents phénomènes observés. Nous présentons une démarche pour une étude phénoménologique. Cette étude se décompose en quatre points qui sont les suivants - Analyse par émission acoustique, - Analyse par visualisation des écoulements, - Analyse par des mesures d'efforts dynamiques, - Une modélisation. Après la mise en place de cette méthode, nous sommes arrivés à la conclusion que le comportement dynamique de ces machines était complexe et que l'observation à l'aide d'un modèle expérimental nous permettrait de faire ressortir les paramètres les plus influents
Contribution à l'étude du comportement rhéologique des bétons fluides = eha viour of flowing concrete : rheology and cement-admixtures interactions by Sandrine Maximilien( Book )

2 editions published in 1995 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The great potential of super-plasticizers as high range water reducing agents brings some disadvantages to job sites where concrete is placed at flowing consistency. Super-plasticizers act as dispersing agents. But the presence of a super-plasticizer does not prevent the loss of workability with time. In order to characterize the effects of sulfonated naphthalene or melamine formaldehyde condensates a specific mortar was developed such that its rheological behavior correlates that of a flowing concrete. An other kind of raw material was studied : a vinylic polymer. as well as combinations melamine - vinylic polymer and naphthalene - vinylic polymer. Mortars were elaborated with four different cements. Ali the measurements on mortars were carried out using a new "rheometer mixer". At the same time. the effects of these super-plasticizers on the hydra ti on mechanisms were investigated by means of conductimetry. isothermal calorimetry and analysis of the pore solution. Results of the rheological study showed that all the couples cement - super-plasticizer present different behaviours. except the vinylic polymer ones. With this polymer. the rheological behavior is not linked to the nature of the cement. With super-plasticizers. hydration reactions of cement arc more or less delayed. leaving more free water available. This free water gives to mortar or concrete the flowing consistency researched. Cement-admixture interactions are very complex. It is therefore difficult to control the hydration of cement with super-plasticizer in order to control the evolution of the rheological behavior of the flowing concrete with time
Elaboration et caractérisation de matériaux composites à matrice céramique renforces par des whiskers ou des plaquettes = laboration and Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composites reinforced by Whisker or Platelet by François Hue( Book )

2 editions published in 1993 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

For a few year, several studies have pointed out the interest of reinforcing alumina by silicon carbide whiskers for cutting tool and wear applications. During this work, we have developed a process to obtain Al203-SiCw by conventional sintering and hot pressing and measured the mechanical properties of our samples. This study has shown the influence of whiskers level, whiskers aspect ratio, consolidation route and sintering condition (including atmosphere, temperature and applied load) on composites final density and properties. Hot pressed materials are reaching mechanical and wear values equivalents to those which have been published in the scientific literature and significantly higher than tho se of our conventionally sintered samples. Also, from the evidence of induced micro cracking in hot pressed Al203-SiCw and Al203- Si Cp composites, we have shown the influence of the nature, the size and the reinforcements level on composites final properties. This analysis is based on the study of internal stress which develops in the material during cooling after sintering because of the difference in dilatation coefficients. It points out the prevailing effect of reinforcements size on the composite final strength
Analyse du mouvement d'accessibilité au poste de conduite d'une automobile en vue de la simulation : cas particulier des personnes âgées = alysis of the accessibility movement to a car driver seat : focus on the older driver case by Élodie Chateauroux( Book )

3 editions published in 2009 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study takes place in the context of Digital Human models used to test the ergonomics of environments such as automotives in the earliest stages of the design process. Yet, these tools do not take into account the aging of the population. The car ingress and egress motions are particularly problematic for seniors. This thesis aims at analysing car accessibly movements of elderly people in order to 1/ better understand their difficulties and 2/ simulate these motions using a digital human model. Eighteen elderly and 7 young subjects participated in the experiment. Ingress and egress motions were captured for four types of vehicle and discomfort ratings were collected by a questionnaire. As age effects differ from one person to another, the functional capacities were measured using clinical tests to draw a portrait of the abilities of each elderly subject. Results of these tests are used to define 3 groups of people: those who have a functional problem, those with “mediocre” capacities and those who have good capacities. Ingress and egress motions are analysed through the interaction between the subject and the environment in order to define the constraints linked to vehicle design. Two major strategies have been observed for the ingress and egress movements. The strategies “Sit First” and “Two Legs Out” are used by people with functional problems. The strategies “Right Leg First” and “Left Leg First” are the most observed ingress and egress strategies, regardless of functional capacities. These movements are decomposed into phases for which sub-strategies are defined. The interactions between the hands and the environmental seem to play an important role. Compensation mechanisms are observed in the movements of persons with functional problems. The discomfort questionnaires show that elderly subjects face more problems when exiting than when entering a car. Discomfort ratings are influenced by the functional abilities of subjects but the results are very heterogeneous. An explanation would be that these ratings also reflect the preferences of subjects in terms of car accessibility. An external examiner would then better assess the difficulties of elderly people. The captured movements are structured in databases in order to simulate the accessibility movements of elderly using the RPx software
Transferts couples conduction / Rayonnement : Application de la méthode flash aux milieux semi-transparents = itre traduit : sous-titre traduit by Zaqueu Ernesto Da Silva( Book )

2 editions published in 1997 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of this work is to study the combined conduction-radiation heat transfer and to estimate, eventually the thermal properties of a semi-transparent medium using the flash method. A model based on the discrete ordinate method has been developed to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) under an integral form. Geometries under study are cylindrical (2D) and rectangular (ID). There is a good agreement between predicted incident radiation and radiative and results from published in literature. Test results indicate that the method is capable of taking into account absorption, emission scattering mechanisms and is applicable to combined energy modes. This method aimed to solve the RTE is then used to calculate the radiative parameters which are present in the energy equation. The semitransparent sample is submitted to a brief thermal impulsion on its top bounding surface, and the bottom bounding surface temperature evolution is determined through the model. Several numerical simulations for a cylindrical (2D) enclosure are performed. Results indicate that the bottom bounding temperature is not sensitive to radial heat transfers provided that the aspect ratio (r/e) is greater than about 4. A sensibility study to parameters which involved in the temperature evolution was realized. The analysis of the sensibility coefficient provides information about the feasibility of the estimation of the radiative and thermal properties but also indicates which parameters may be identified in that conditions. The artificial data used as input far the numerical simulation is computed temperature profile based on theoretical radiative and thermal properties plus noise. The LEVEMBERG-MARQUARDT method is used to perform nonlinear least-squares fits. The thermal diffusivity of a silica glass and of a ZnS glass have been identified using the proposed method
Elaboration d'un cadre méthodologique pour l'aide à la décision en matière de gestion de la maintenance du réseau technique urbain d'assainissement = evelopment of a methodology bounds for the decision aid of maintenance management of the urban sewerage network by Amer Aflak( Book )

2 editions published in 1994 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La situation actuelle de la gestion des réseaux d'assainissement urbain se distingue par des conditions de plus en plus exigeantes dans des domaines différents, tels que : le respect de l'environnement naturel, la prévention contre les risques en milieu urbain, l'amélioration des performances de l'état des ouvrages fonctionnels, la concertation de cet état avec l'urbanisation, la maîtrise des charges financières et la valorisation de la qualité du travail. Pour faire face à cette situation et optimiser les actions résolutoires, les responsables de la maintenance des réseaux ont besoin d'une méthodologie globale permettant d'apporter une aide aux processus de décision dans le contexte d'une époque donnée. Notre thèse propose une méthodologie en la matière, concernant le diagnostic des performances d'assainissement et le choix des actions de maintenance de la situation d'un réseau géré
Eléments pour la prise en compte de l'impact des rejets urbains sur les milieux naturels dans la gestion des systèmes d'assainissement = rban discharge impact upon receiving waters : implementation of methodological elements by E Brelot( Book )

2 editions published in 1994 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The urban water management is actually divided in two parts : in one hand, the water management on urban catchment and, in the other hand, the receiving waters management. To make it consistent, it requires to assess the impact of urban discharges, during dry and wet weather, upon the evolution of the receiving water quality. The basic items required for the implementation of such an approach are a methodological support - to develop operating strategies - and simulation tools - Indeed, this can allow taking account of this impact as a further decision-making criterion. This study addresses the definition and development of tools to allow sewerage system operators to make decisions relating to urban discharges that can be consistent with the required overall approach to natural environment management. Our proposal consists in designing, in the first place, a model of organization of knowledge and tools, consistent with the problems to be solved and the requirements of the various actors. In the second place, we provide a decision-making procedure, using this general model, and, as much as possible, the knowledge and experience of the sewerage system operators, which is based on a pre-diagnosis, much more developed than in the actual decision-making
Vers une modélisation physique de la coupe des aciers spéciaux : intégration du comportement métallurgique et des phénomènes tribologiques et thermiques aux interfaces by Cédric Courbon( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nowadays, in a context of globalization, companies are submitted to unprecedented economic constraints. To remain competitive, they are forced to change their way of designing and innovating. Manufacturing is directly concerned with in mind to reduce the development steps necessary to define the optimal processing parameters. A need of flexible and predictive support tools is clearly rising in order to limit the experimental campaigns and make easier their exploitation. The numerical simulation appears as a relevant tool that match these criteria. This work is a contribution to an approach which aims at improving the modeling and simulation of machining operations, and on a more local scale, the modeling of metal cutting. It therefore addresses a complex and tightly coupled problem, involving mechanics, thermal sciences, metallurgy and tribology in extreme conditions. A first experimental part was thus directed towards a more sophisticated understanding of the cutting mechanisms occuring in machining of a normalized AISI 1045 and a quenched and tempered AISI 4140. It made possible to highlight, in the main intensive deformation zones, drastic grain refinements produced by the activation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Inspection of the tool-material contact areas also showed the strong heterogeneities of contact existing at the tool-chip interface, revealing the formation of a thermal contact resistance. A rheological study of these two grades was based on dynamic compression tests. Conducted at high strain, it reproduced the microstructural changes observed in cutting and enabled to understand their influence on the flow stress of both materials. Two "metallurgy based" models have been identified, leading to a better description of the material behaviour than standard phenomenological models. Special tribological tests have been conducted and analyzed to extract contact models able to reproduce local phenomena existing at the tool-material interface. The study has especially been focused on the thermal contact through heat partition models including the concept of thermal contact resistance. The proposed constitutive and contact models were finally implemented in a finite element code Abaqus© thanks to some specific developments. A modeling strategy has been developed around a 2D cutting model in order to simulate the major trends observed during the cutting of the mentioned steels. The combination of 2D and 3D continuous chip models, 2D segmented models and uncoupled thermal simulations appears as promising to model the different aspects of a machining operation
Elastic wave propagation in periodic structures through numerical and analytical homogenization techniques by Xiangkun Sun( )

2 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this work, the multi-scale homogenization method, as well as various non homogenization methods, will be presented to study the dynamic behaviour of periodic structures. The multi-scale method starts with the scale-separation, which indicates a micro-scale to describe the local behaviour and a macro-scale to describe the global behaviour. According to the homogenization theory, the long-wave assumption is used, and the unit cell length should be much smaller than the characteristic length of the structure. Thus, the valid frequency range of homogenization is limited to the first propagating zone. The traditional homogenization model makes use of material properties mean values, but the practical validity range is far less than the first Bragg band gap. This deficiency motivated the development of new enriched homogenized models. Compared to traditional homogenization model, higher order homogenized wave equations are proposed to provide more accuracy homogenized models. Two multi-scale methods are introduced: the asymptotic expansion method, and the homogenization of periodic discrete media method (HPDM). These methods will be applied sequentially in longitudinal wave cases in bi-periodic rods and flexural wave cases in bi-periodic beams. Same higher order models are obtained by the two methods in both cases. Then, the proposed models are validated by investigating the dispersion relation and the frequency response function. Analytical solutions and wave finite element method (WFEM) are used as references. Parametric studies are carried out in the infinite case while two different boundary conditions are considered in the finite case. Afterwards, the HPDM and the CWFEM are employed to study the longitudinal and transverse vibrations of framed structures in 1D case and 2D case. The valid frequency range of the HPDM is re-evaluated using the wave propagation feature identified by the CWFEM. The relative error of the wavenumber by HPDM compared to CWFEM is illustrated in the function of frequency and scale ratio. Parametric studies on the thickness of the structure is carried out through the dispersion relation. The dynamics of finite structures are also investigated using the HPDM and CWFEM
Etude des propriétés thermomécaniques de mullite zircone et de zircon by Xavier Carbonneau( Book )

2 editions published in 1997 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The high temperature mechanical properties of mullite zirconia obtained by reaction sintering, and zircon have been studied. Numerous transmission electron microscopy observations have been conducted to obtain an accurate microstructural characterization, and a better knowledge of the glassy phase composition and localization. Crack propagation is then measured at high temperature using the double torsion technique. Crack healing observed during these tests is especially studied in the case of zircon. Internal friction measurements have also been conducted to try to characterize the glassy phase. In addition, the creep behavior has been studied using bending tests. These results are completed with others obtained on previously indented specimens to better understand the fracture behavior. A threshold has been observed in the crack propagation in zircon. These results are close to those obtained with the double torsion technique
Contribution à l'étude du comportement thermoaéraulique des bâtiments en climat tropical humide : Prise en compte de la ventilation naturelle dans l'évaluation du confort = ontribution to the studies on thermal and airflow behaviour in the buildings at hot and humid countries : Taking place the natural ventilation in the thermal comfort evaluation by Sangkertadi( Book )

2 editions published in 1994 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Des études bibliographiques sur l'architecture et le confort thermique en climat tropical humide montrent le rôle primordial de la ventilation naturelle pour augmenter le niveau de confort des occupants, en particulier l'augmentation du module de la vitesse d'air favorisent les échanges convectif et évaporatif. Dans ce cadre, à partir des analyses bibliographiques sur le confort thermique, nous proposons une corrélation permettant d'évaluer le niveau de confort en climat tropical humide. Une expérimentation numérique sur le comportement aéraulique à l'intérieur des bâtiments a été réalisée à l'aide d'un code CFD. Une première phase a permis de valider cette méthode par comparaison avec des résultats expérimentaux. Cette méthode apparaît donc comme un outil fiable et intéressant pour la recherche dans ce domaine. Puis nous avons réalisé une étude spécifique pour une maison indonésienne standard. Plusieurs configurations correspondant à des direction de vent différentes ont été réalisées. On met en évidence l'évolution des vitesses intérieures en fonction du vent incident. Comme résultats nous proposons quatre corrélations de coefficient de vitesse moyenne. Nous avons construit un code d'évaluation thermo-aéraulique pour des bâtiments multi zones dans une structure d'accueil modulaire: TRNSYS. Ce code est basé sur une modélisation simplifiée des phénomènes de transfert mis enjeux. Les comparaisons avec d'autres codes et des mesures ont permis de valider notre code. En utilisant ce code une étude de la qualité thermo-aéraulique d'une maison indonésienne standard a été réalisée. Cette étude montre que l'usage de la climatisation artificielle (conditionnement d'air) peut être évité
Incidence des dynamiques d'acteurs sur le service de gestion des déchets ménagers en France et en Corée du sud = takeholder's dynamics incidence on the household waste management service in France and in South Korea by Jong-Hwan Kim( Book )

2 editions published in 2002 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'observation des services de gestion des ordures ménagères en France et en Corée du sud montre une évolution rapide et profonde depuis le début des années 1990. Cette évolution conduit à un changement de la nature de ce service public. Le système qui sous-tend ces services dans les deux pays peut apparaître de même nature notamment à travers le système technique. Toutefois, l'étude comparative présentée dans le mémoire fait apparaître des différences remarquables notamment en ce qui concerne l'organisation du service et le rôle des acteurs. La dynamique des acteurs est analysée dans chaque contexte économique, politique et social, au plan national et au plan local à travers les cas du Grand Lyon et du canton d'Anse pour la France, et à travers le cas de la ville de Pucheon pour la Corée du sud. En France, l'évolution de l'organisation du service de gestion des ordures ménagères s'inscrit dans la problématique générale de l'évolution des services publics à vocation territoriale ; problématique du partenariat public-privé où le privé est majoritairement représenté par de grands groupes industriels. Au plan national, notre étude montre que la mise en œuvre des directives européennes en matière de gestion des déchets a été très fortement influencée par la logique industrielle, tandis que les producteurs d'ordures ménagères sont restés au second plan. Les évolutions qui découlent de ce constat à l'échelle du pays ont été analysées dans le cas du Grand Lyon, deuxième agglomération française et dans le cas d'un canton de communes rurales. La Direction de la propreté du Grand Lyon a la particularité de partager sa gestion entre un service public en régie et un service contractualisé avec des entreprises privées. Cet équilibre public-privé favorise l'innovation sous le contrôle d'une autorité publique compétente, dont le paradoxe est de tenir les usagers à l'écart. Dans le canton d'Anse, la création de syndicats intercommunaux a permis à de petites communes l'accès aux innovations industrielles, tout en laissant aux usagers proches de l'autorité communale la possibilité de participer aux décisions. En revanche, la mise en œuvre du plan départemental a tendance à fermer le marché aux petites entreprises et à réduire le dialogue local. En Corée du sud, pays en transition démocratique et en développement économique, l'industrie n'a pour l'instant accédé qu'au seul marché du traitement des ordures sous commande publique. Le cas de la ville de Pucheon montre que l'amont du processus de gestion résulte d'un compromis concerté, voire conflictuel, entre représentants de l'autorité publique, usagers et petites entreprises. Il est remarquable de noter que cette organisation a jusqu'à présent conduit au respect des engagements écologiques, à une stabilisation de la production de déchets et au rôle prépondérant du recyclage dans le traitement des déchets ménagers
 
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Alternative Names
Ecole Doctorale MEGA (Lyon)

École doctorale N°162

ED 162

ED 162. Mécanique, Energétique, Génie Civil, Acoustique ((MEGA))

ED MEGA (Lyon)

ED162

MEGA

Languages
French (40)

English (2)