WorldCat Identities

Gosset, Marielle

Overview
Works: 14 works in 22 publications in 2 languages and 26 library holdings
Roles: Thesis advisor, Opponent, Author
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Marielle Gosset
Analyse des précipitations en zone sahélienne à partir d'un radar bande X polarimétrique by Modeste Huberson Ahiba Kacou( Book )

3 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This PhD work is on Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) based on Active Remote-Sensing in Africa. As part of the Megha-Tropiques Satellite Ground Validation (MTGV) field campaigns a X-band dual-polarization Doppler radar was deployed in Sahel, West-Africa : during 2010 in Niamey, Niger and during 2012-2013, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Altogether 200 convective systems were observed jointly by the radar and by a network of rain gauges. Based on this data set, a comparative study of several rainfall estimators that use X-band polarimetric radar data is presented. In tropical convective systems as encountered in Sahel, microwave attenuation by rain is significant and QPE at X-band is a challenge. Here, four algorithms based on the combined use of reflectivity, differential reflectivity and differential phase shift are evaluated against rain gauges. The comparisons are carried out for a range of space-time scales. Several comparison methods are proposed. Classical statistical scores are used to evaluate the rainfall time series derived from the radar by comparison with the rain gauges. The spatial structure of the fields and the frequency distributions of the rain rates are also compared. These are important parameters to consider when the rain-fields are to be used for hydrological applications or for satellite validation. The results show that the best performances are for the estimator based on the differential phase shift (KDP); another acceptable solution is the estimation based on the specific attenuation (AH). The overall agreement between the radar derived rainfields and the gauges is high. This PhD work confirms that X-band polarimetric radar is a (relatively) cost effective and quality option for monitoring hydro-meteorological risks in the Tropics
Ground-based remote sensing of Antarctic and Alpine solid precipitation by Claudio Durán Alárcon( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Solid precipitation plays an important role in the Earth's climate system, as well as for the maintenance of ecosystems and the development of human society. The large uncertainty in precipitation estimates and the discrepancies within climate model projections make this component of the hydrological cycle important as a research topic. Remote sensing allows to monitor precipitation and clouds in regions where in-situ observations are scarce and scattered, but with limited temporal resolution and a blind zone close to the ground level for spaceborne sensors, and limited visibility in the lower atmosphere in complex terrain for ground-based radars. The objectives of this dissertation are the following: 1) to characterize cloud and precipitation in Antarctica, detecting the presence of supercooled liquid and ice particles near the ground level using a ground-based 532-nm depolarization lidar; 2) to characterize the vertical structure of the precipitation in two contrasted but important regions of the cryosphere, Antarctica and the Alps, in the low troposphere using ground-based radars.In this study, a cloud and precipitation hydrometeor detection method is proposed using lidar data, complemented with a K-band micro rain radar (MRR) to improve the detection of precipitation, both instruments deployed at the Dumont d'Urville (DDU) station in East Antarctica. A method based on lidar depolarization and attenuated backscattering coefficient and the use of k-means clustering is developed for the particle classification. The classification of cloud and precipitation particles provides the vertical distribution of supercooled liquid water, as well as planar oriented ice and randomly oriented ice particles. The comparison between ground-based and satellite-derived classifications shows consistent patterns for the vertical distribution of supercooled liquid water in clouds.The vertical structure of precipitation near the surface is analyzed using the Doppler moments derived from three MRR profiles at DDU, the Princess Elisabeth (PE) station, at the interior of East Antarctica, and at the Col de Porte (CDP) station, in the French Alps. These analyses demonstrate that local climate plays an important role in the vertical structure of the precipitation. In Antarctica, the strong katabatic winds blowing from the high plateau down to the coast decrease the radar reflectivity factor near the surface due to the sublimation of the snowfall particles. Doppler moments also provide rich information to understand precipitation processes, such as aggregation and riming, as observed at DDU and CDP.The results also show that in the interior of the Antarctic continent a significant part (47%) of the precipitation profiles completely sublimate before reaching the surface, due to the dry atmospheric conditions, while in the coast of Antarctica it corresponds to about the third part (36%). In the Alps, this percentage is reduced to 15%. The major occurrence of particle sublimation is observed below the altitude where CloudSat profiles are contaminated by ground clutter. Therefore, this phenomenon cannot be fully captured from space with the current generation of sensors.This dissertation contributes to the study of the vertical structure of snowfall in the low troposphere, useful for the evaluation of precipitation remote sensing products, which may have severe limitations in the vicinity of the surface
Impact du forçage pluviométrique sur les inondations du fleuve Niger à Niamey : Etude à partir de données satellitaires et in-situ by Claire Cassé( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the development of satellite based remote sensing in the 1970s, many missions have been dedicated to monitoring the terrestrial atmosphere and surfaces. Some of these satellites are dedicated to the Tropics with specific orbits. Megha-Tropiques (MT) is devoted to the water and energy cycle in the tropical atmosphere and provides an enhanced sampling for rainfall estimation in the tropical region. This PhD work was initiated within MT hydro-meteorological activities, with the objective of assessing the hydrological potential of satellite rainfall products in the Tropics. The world most important rivers lay in tropical areas where the in situ observation networks are deficient. Alternative information is therefore needed for water resource management and alert systems. The present work focuses on the Niger River a basin which has undergone drastic climatic variations leading to disasters such as droughts and floods. Since 1950, the Niger has been through 3 main climatic periods: a wet period (1950-1960), a long and intense drought period (1970-1980) and since 1990 a partial recovery of the rainfall. These climatic variations and the anthropic pressure, have modified the hydrological behaviour of the basin. Since 2000, the middle Niger River has been hit by an increase of floods hazards during the so-called Red flood period. In Niamey city, the highest river levels and the longest flooded period were recorded in 2003, 2010, 2012 and 2013, leading to heavy casualties and property damage. This study combines hydrological modelling and a variety of rainfall estimation products (satellite and in-situ) to meet several objectives: (i) the simulation of the Niamey Red flood and the detection of floods (during the recent period 2000-2013) (ii) the study of the propagation of satellite rainfall errors in hydrological modelling (iii) the evaluation of the role of rainfall variability, and surface conditions, in the changes of the Red flood in Niamey since the 50s. The global model ISBA-TRIP, is run with a resolution of 0.5° and 3h, and several rainfall products were used as forcing. Products derived from gauges (KRIG, CPC), pure satellite products (TAPEER, 3B42RT, CMORPH, PERSIANN) and mixed satellite products adjusted by rain gauges (3B42v7, RFE2, PERSIANN-CDR). This work confirms the hydrological potential of satellite rainfall products and proposes an original approach to overcome their biases. It highlights the need for documenting the errors associated with the rainfall products and the error structure. Finally, the hydrological modelling results since the 1950s have given a new understanding of the relative role of rainfall and surface conditions in the drastic increase of flood risk in Niamey
Contribution à l'observation des précipitations en Afrique avec un radar polarimétrique et des liens microondes commerciaux by Matías Alcoba Kait( Book )

2 editions published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le climat ouest africain est gouverné par un régime de mousson, les précipitations, souvent intenses, y sont principalement associées à des systèmes convectifs de méso-échelle. Dans un contexte de risques hydrométéorologiques, caractériser ces précipitations jusqu'aux plus fines échelles est important. Deux types d'observation des précipitations par télédétection active, au sol, dans le domaine des micro-ondes, sont explorés : un radar météorologique polarimétrique et des liens micro-ondes commerciaux. La première partie de la thèse est dédiée à la caractérisation des hydrométéores à partir d'un radar polarimétrique opérant en bande X. Le lien entre les observations et les caractéristiques des hydrométéores peut se faire à partir de modèles physiques. L'inversion de ces modèles permet de retrouver les caractéristiques des hydrométéores à partir des observations. On présente une première méthode d'inversion permettant d'obtenir la densité des hydrométéores au-dessus de la couche de fusion grâce à la modélisation simple du profil vertical de réflectivité radar. La deuxième méthode d'inversion vise à créer des cartes horizontales de la distribution de taille de gouttes de pluie à partir des mesurables radar polarimétrique. La méthode exploite toute l'information d'une radiale pour estimer la distribution de taille de gouttes tout en corrigeant de l'atténuation par la pluie. La deuxième partie est consacrée à la mesure des précipitations à partir de liens micro-ondes commerciaux, issus des réseaux de téléphonie mobile. Cette méthode prometteuse pour les régions mal couvertes par les mesures météorologiques opérationnelles exploite l'atténuation par la pluie des signaux transmis entre les antennes relais. Les principes de la méthode, les sources d'incertitudes et la validation quantitative sur un jeu de données acquis au Niger sont présentés. Enfin, on analyse différentes méthodes d'interpolation des données de liens pour créer des cartes de pluie
Towards a global database of rainfall-induced landslide inventories: first insights from past and new events by Odin Marc( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Analyse des distributions granulométriques des pluies au Bénin : caractéristiques globales, variabilité et application à la mesure radar by Sounmaïla Moumouni( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work presents the first analysis of rain Drop Size Distribution observed in Benin thanks to the African Mousoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) campaign. The study reveals strong variations in the microphysics of precipitation within and between rainy systems, and shows its consequences on precipitation retrieval by remote sensing. A parameterized analytical model is proposed for a realistic representation of African rain drop size distributions in atmospheric models or algorithms
Etude des pluies intenses dans la région Cévennes-Vivarais à l'aide du radar météorologique : régionalisation des traitements radar et analyse granulométrique des pluies au sol by Benoît Chapon( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We have studied in the present thesis the development of an automated rainfall typing procedure into convective and stratiform regions based on the use of 3D weather radar data. First, we have shown the strong influence of the radar sampling properties for two algorithms already proposed in the literature by Steiner et al. (1995) and Sanchez-Diezma et al. (2000) for the detection of convective and stratiform precipitation, respectively. This problem was partially overcome by a decision tree and a coupling of the rain typing and the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) identification. The final algorithm is shown to significantly improve the raintyping at long ranges (e.g., greater than 60 km). On the other hand, we have conducted an experiment in Alès during the autumn 2004 to document the Cévennes drop size distributions (DSD) at ground level by using an optical disdrometer. We have first implemented various methods to establish the reflectivity - rain rate relationship (Z-R relationship). Their respective merits were assessed through a self-consistency procedure based on DSD data alone. Then we have studied the seasonal, inter-storm and inner-storm variability of the Z-R relationship and shown the major influence of the inner-storm variability. Finally, we have performed a preliminary study of the link between the 3D radar data and the ground-based DSD data through a comparison of DSD-based and radar-based rain typing
Initial insights from a global database of rainfall-induced landslide inventories: the weak influence of slope and strong influence of total storm rainfall by Odin Marc( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Approche physico-statistique de la désagrégation des précipitations satellite dans les Tropiques by Clément Guilloteau( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rainfall variability involves a wide range of scales: from the millimeter-scale associated with microphysics to the synoptic scale of the global atmospheric circulation. No existing observation system is able to cover all these scales by itself. Satellite-based observation systems are currently the most efficient systems to resolve the large spatial and temporal scales: from mesoscale meteorology to the synoptic scale. This thesis is dedicated to the exploration of satellites ability to resolve spatial scales from 100km to 2km and temporal scales from 24h to 15 min (in order to resolve the diurnal cycle). The chosen approach is both physical and statistical (or deterministic and probabilistic). The idea is that the deterministic approach can resolve the large scales, but several factors limit its relevance when dealing with fine scales: -The limited resolution of the instruments. -The number of orbiting instruments that limits temporal sampling. -The dynamic nature of fine scale variability. At fines scales, most of the errors in rainfall estimation from satellite comes from not perfectly localizing the precipitating cells. The first objective of this thesis is to identify precisely the lowest limit in scale where the deterministic approach is appropriate. The implementation of the physical-statistical approach relies on an existing multisensor estimate of daily precipitation at a 1° resolution: the TAPEER algorithm developed as part of the Megha-Tropiques mission. The chosen method is a hybrid physical disaggregation and stochastic downscaling via a multiscale representation. The result is an ensemble of high-resolution probable realizations of the rain intensity field. The ensemble is constrained by a high resolution rain detection mask derived from meteosat-SG infrared images at 3km resolution (one image every 15 minutes). The uncertainty associated with the final estimation is handled through the ensemble dispersion. Every realization is generated so that its statistical properties (frequency distribution of the intensities, autocorrelation function) mimic those of the true rain field. The generated fields and the proposed technique contribute to hydrological applications for instance by improving the runoff associated to high precipitation rates in models. Using several realizations is a way to study uncertainty propagation through a model
Une méthode radar bi-longueur d'onde pour la discrimination eau-glace dans les nuages mixtes by Marielle Gosset( Book )

2 editions published in 1992 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

CE TRAVAIL PRESENTE ET ANALYSE UNE TECHNIQUE RADAR ORIGINALE, A DEUX LONGUEURS D'ONDE POUR IDENTIFIER L'EAU ET LA GLACE DANS LES NUAGES MIXTES. LA METHODE EXPLOITE LA DIFFERENCE DES PROPRIETES DIELECTRIQUES DE L'EAU ET DE LA GLACE. ON MONTRE QUE SEULE L'EAU EN PHASE LIQUIDE ATTENUE SENSIBLEMENT L'ONDE ELECTROMAGNETIQUE; EN MESURANT SIMULTANEMENT L'ATTENUATION DIFFERENTIELLE (ENTRE LES DEUX FREQUENCES) ET LA REFLECTIVITE RADAR, ON PEUT QUANTIFIER LES CONTENUS EN AIR LIQUIDE ET EN GLACE AU SEIN DU NUAGE. ON ABORDE ENSUITE LE PROBLEME INSTRUMENTAL POUR ETABLIR LES SPECIFICATIONS D'UN SYSTEME BI-FREQUENCE OPTIMAL; IL EST DEMONTRE QU'UN RADAR OPERANT AUX FREQUENCES 10 ET 35 GHZ SATISFAIT LE MIEUX AUX CRITERES DE SENSIBILITE, DE PRECISION DES MESURES ET D'ENCOMBREMENT. ON ANALYSE EGALEMENT LES DIVERS ASPECTS A CONSIDERER POUR LA MISE EN UVRE EXPERIMENTALE DE LA TECHNIQUE. ON ETUDIE LES SOURCES D'ERREURS, ON ETABLIT UN LIEN ENTRE LES CARACTERISTIQUES INSTRUMENTALES ET LA FIABILITE DES RESULTATS. EN PARTICULIER, L'EXISTENCE D'UN COMPROMIS ENTRE LA RESOLUTION SPATIO-TEMPORELLE DU RADAR ET LA PRECISION DES MESURES EST MISE EN EVIDENCE. POUR VALIDER LA METHODE, ON PRESENTE DES SIMULATIONS DE SONDAGES (10.35 GHZ) DANS DES MILIEUX MIXTES; CECI PERMET DE DETERMINER L'INFLUENCE DE LA MICROSTRUCTURE DU NUAGE SUR LA QUALITE DES RESULTATS. LES RESULTATS OBTENUS RENDENT TOUT A FAIT CREDIBLE L'UTILISATION DE LA TECHNIQUE PROPOSEE
Effect of nonuniform beam filling on the propagation of the radar signal at X-band frequencies Pt. 1, Changes in the k(Z) relationship by Marielle Gosset( )

1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Estimation des précipitations sur le plateau des Guyanes par l'apport de la télédétection satellite by Justine Ringard( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Guiana Shield is a region that is characterized by 90% of a primary rainforest and about 20% of the world's freshwater reserves. This natural territory, with its vast hydrographic network, shows annual rainfall intensities up to 4000 mm/year; making this plateau one of the most watered regions in the world. In addition, tropical rainfall is characterized by significant spatial and temporal variability. In addition to climate-related aspects, the impact of rainfall in this region of the world is significant in terms of energy supply (hydroelectric dams). It is therefore important to develop tools to estimate quantitatively and qualitatively and at high spatial and temporal resolution the precipitation in this area. However, this vast geographical area is characterized by a network of poorly developed and heterogeneous rain gauges, which results in a lack of knowledge of the precise spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and their dynamics.The work carried out in this thesis aims to improve the knowledge of precipitation on the Guiana Shield by using Satellite Precipitation Product (SPP) data that offer better spatial and temporal resolution in this area than the in situ measurements, at the cost of poor quality in terms of precision.This thesis is divided into 3 parts. The first part compares the performance of four products of satellite estimates on the study area and attempts to answer the question : what is the quality of these products in the Northern Amazon and French Guiana in spatial and time dimensions ? The second part proposes a new SPP bias correction technique that proceeds in three steps: i) using rain gauges measurements to decompose the studied area into hydro climatic areas ii) parameterizing a bias correction method called quantile mapping on each of these areas iii) apply the correction method to the satellite data for each hydro-climatic area. We then try to answer the following question : does the parameterization of the quantile mapping method on different hydro-climatic areas make it possible to correct the precipitation satellite data on the study area ? After showing the interest of taking into account the different rainfall regimes to implement the QM correction method on SPP data, the third part analyzes the impact of the temporal resolution of the precipitation data used on the quality of the correction and the spatial extent of potentially correctable SPP data (SPP data on which the correction method can be applied effectively). In summary, the objective of this section is to evaluate the ability of our method to correct on a large spatial scale the bias of the TRMM-TMPA 3B42V7 data in order to make the exploitation of this product relevant for different hydrological applications.This work made it possible to correct the daily satellite series with high spatial and temporal resolution on the Guiana Shield using a new approach that uses the definition of hydro-climatic areas. The positive results in terms of reduction of the bias and the RMSE obtained, thanks to this new approach, makes possible the generalization of this new method in sparselygauged areas
Utilisation des données radar volumiques et d'un modèle de PNT à haute résolution pour une meilleure estimation quantitative des précipitations en plaine et sur les massifs montagneux by Tony Le Bastard( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

L'exploitation des données radar météorologiques utilisées pour estimer la lame d'eau est souvent compliquée par la hauteur de la mesure. C'est tout particulièrement le cas en zone montagneuse où le faisceau est très éloigné du sol du fait que les radars sont installés en haute altitude et queles élévations les plus basses sont partiellement ou totalement masquées. La méthode classiquement utilisée en opérationnel (et notamment à Météo-France) pour extrapoler les réflectivités à hauteur du sol, ne permet pas de considérer certains processus trop complexes pour être modélisés simplement, comme l'évaporation ou le renforcement des précipitations sous le faisceau. De plus, la variabilité spatiale des profils de précipitations n'est pas prise en compte, limitant considérablement les performances de l'algorithme d'estimation de la lame d'eau en plaine comme en régions montagneuses. C'est en identifiant ces lacunes et limitations que s'est inscrite cette thèse, avec pour but le développement d'une méthode novatrice d'estimation de la lame d'eau. L'idée est de tirer partie de la capacité du modèle numérique de prévision immédiate à haute résolution de Météo-France (AROME-PI) à produire des profils de précipitations réalistes, pour établir les profils les plus probables compte tenu des observations volumiques disponibles et les utiliser pour estimer la précipitation au sol. On s'appuie sur un simulateur radar qui, à partir des variables pronostiquées par le modèle (contenus en hydrométéores, température...), simule la réflectivité, tout en respectant la géométrie du faisceau du radar. La première partie de la thèse se concentre sur la mise en place d'une méthode bayésienne de recherche des profils de réflectivitéssimulés les plus pertinents par rapport à l'observation et ensuite utilisés pour la restitution des taux de précipitations et de la lame d'eau. Deux cas d'études stratiformes complexes ont été étudiés pour tester les performances du nouveau schéma et souligner les limitations de la correction des réflectivités actuellement utilisée à Météo-France. Une étude de sensibilité sur le poids donné aux élévations les plus basses dans la méthode ainsi que sur le nombre de profils simulés utilisés a été menée. La deuxième partie de cette thèse présente des améliorations apportées à la paramétrisation de la bande brillante de ce simulateur en cohérence avec le schéma microphysique ICE3 utilisé dans AROME. Les réflectivités ainsi simulées ont été évaluées sur différents cas d'études. Les biais identifiés ont été en partie corrigés grâce au développement d'une méthode statistique adaptée, permettant l'élaboration d'un jeu de données simulées plus robuste. Enfin, le dernier volet du travail se focalise sur l'évaluation du potentiel de la méthode à mieux estimer les précipitations en zone montagneuse. Des premiers tests ont été effectués sur un cas idéalisé de plaine pour lequel on a volontairement masqué l'élévation la plus basse. On a ensuite reconstitué les réflectivité masquées pour les comparer avec les réflectivités réellement observées. La nouvelle méthode a ensuite été appliquée sur un cas convectif et un cas stratiforme en zone montagneuse. Une évaluation tri-dimensionnelle des résultats a été faite à partir des profils quasi-verticaux du radar Xport de l'IGE, des pluviomètres ainsi que des profils de référence issus des réanalyses SAFRAN, un modèle d'analyse et de prévision de grandeurs météorologiques adapté pour la montagne. Elle a permis de montrer tout le potentiel que représente cette nouvelle approche pour l'estimation de la lame d'eau en montagne
 
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Languages
French (15)

English (7)