WorldCat Identities

Germain, Patrick (19..-....; spécialiste en chimie)

Overview
Works: 18 works in 26 publications in 1 language and 28 library holdings
Roles: Thesis advisor, Opponent, Author, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Patrick Germain
Etude de faisabilité de l'utilisation de molécules "cage" dans la dépollution des sols : solubilisation et extraction de polluants organiques par les cyclodextrines = Feasibility study of the application of complexing agents in soil flushing decontamination : enhancement solubilization and extraction of organic pollutants by cyclodextrins by Khalil Hanna( )

2 editions published in 2004 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Soil matrices contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) abound at the sites of coke-oven gas plants, refineries, and many other major chemical industries. The problem of soil pollution has been widely recognised in recent years. The removal of PAHs from soil using pure water, via soil washing, is quite ineffective due to their low solubility and hydrophobicity. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several fold. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to solubilise and to remove PAH occurring in industrially contaminated soil. The interactions in the cyclodextrin/pollutant/soil system have been studied “step by step”. The objective was to use a CD solution for soil flushing in column test in lab and to evaluate the influencing parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35 °C. Column experiments were also carried out to study the kinetics of PAH release from an aged-contaminated soil using three types of CD. The extraction results indicate that removal capacity of HPCD and MCD was higher than that of BCD. With 10% MCD solution, an extraction of about 40% of Phenanthrene on soil was observed, whereas only 0.2% was removed when water was used as the flushing solution
Influence des procédés de la filière traitement thermique sur les caractéristiques et les évolutions bio-physico-chimiques des Mâchefers d'Incinération d'Ordures Ménagères (MIOM) = nfluence of waste input and process technology on Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator : Bottom ash bio-physico-chemical characteristics and behaviors by Eva Rendek( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The waste input and the process technology of the plant appear to have a great influence on bottom ash quality. To better understand how these parameters can affect the residues characteristics, bottom ash from 6 different plants were tested and compared in this study. Bottom ash physico-chemical characteristics were investigated by chemical analyses, and leaching tests. In order to understand their long-term behavior, accelerated ageing experiments and biodegradation tests were also performed. The whole analyses gave complementary information. It was shown that the 6 samples do have different properties. Waste input have a great influence on Cl and S content in bottom ash, as well as on the Ca/Si ratio. The importance of this ratio on carbonation process has been demonstrated. Combustion parameters have an influence on quantity and mobility of the residual organic matter. Biological and physicochemical experiments were coupled with a view to developing a new rapid assessment method of bottom ash quality. Comparative results of leaching tests and biodegradation experiments showed a positive correlation between dissolved carbon and microbial activity. However, quantities of biodegraded or leached carbon are not representative of the samples total organic carbon content. Thermal analysis have revealed the presence of two fractions of organic components, showing different thermal behaviors. One of them can be directly linked to the leachable and biodegradable organic matter fraction. Calorimetric test is then a novel analysis method that allows to provide rapid and global information concerning the characteristics of organic matter in bottom ash and its possible short and long-term evolution
Mâchefers d'incinération d'ordures ménagères : contribution à l'étude des mécanismes de stabilisation par carbonation et influence de la collecte sélective = Municipal solid waste incineration : contribution to the study of stabilization mechanisms by carbonation and selective collection impact by Sonia Kaibouchi( Book )

2 editions published in 2004 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In France, incineration is the second way of municipal solid waste treatment. It leads to a principal solid by product named municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA). BA is a reactive material. During the weathering period, carbonation reactions allow the stabilization of its pollutant potential. The increase in selective collection of MSW could evolve characteristics of the resulting MSWI BA. The research work was constructed according to a double approach: - complete knowledge on mechanisms and parameters influencing carbonation phase, - preserve throughout the work a comparison of the phenomena according to the origin of the MSWI BA after a classical collection (MSWI A) and after an improved selective collection (MSWI B). The first part of the study is devoted to a comparative characterization of the MSWI A and B to observe an eventual influence of the improved selective collection on MSWI BA properties. The second part of this work, devoted to the study of MSWI BA weathering and particularly to the understanding of the carbonation phenomenon (always under a comparative way), is split up in three under left: - natural carbonation of MSWI BA (under air) on pilot scale (3 tons), - accelerated carbonation (under pure co2) on laboratory scale (2 to 3 kg), - residual organic matter role on the MSWI BA carbonation. These experimentations allowed to quantify, for the first time, the carbon dioxide volume implied in the MSWI BA carbonation. The results make obvious influence and consequences of sorting, in particular, glass sorting, on the carbonation of the incineration residues and the stabilization of them potential pollutant regarding development
Valorisation des résidus carbonatés industriels pour le traitement de sulfure d'hydrogène dans les effluents gazeux by Marta Galera Martinez( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of this study to valorize solid wastes from the Solvay process for the production of sodium carbonate as reagents for the treatment of H2S in air at concentrations typically found in wastewater treatment plants (tens to hundreds of ppmv of H2S). Firstly, the reactivity of two residues was evaluated in a gas-liquid-solid reactor at laboratory scale (250 ml). This reactor operates semi-continuously (continuous passage of gas through a fixed volume of slurry). The influence of operating parameters including the solid content of the suspension, the concentration of H2S, the stirring speed and the volume of suspension was discussed. The kinetics, physicochemical processes as well as mechanism involved have been identified despite the complex reaction medium. Secondly, the H2S treatment was investigated at pilot scale using a bubble column with trays (170 L) which also operates in semi-continuous mode. The results of the parametric study obtained at laboratory scale were checked at pilot scale. Finally, the column was evaluated with a real gaseous effluent from a wastewater plant in Graulhet (Tarn, France) which contains up to 200 ppmv of H2S. In the presence of other gases as methane (0.4% vol.) and carbon dioxide (2.5% vol.), the system has proven to be effective for the selective elimination of H2S. A near total abatement (100%) was maintained for at least two weeks with only one batch of suspension. Stable and non-volatile sulfur compounds (sulfates, sulfites, thiosulfates) were formed as products of the process. This study demonstrates the competitiveness of the process in terms of cost-effectiveness for the treatment of H2S in ambient conditions. The results obtained also demonstrate the possibility of scaling-up the method to an industrial scale
Energétique des interactions moléculaires eau/cyclodextrines (alpha, béta, gamma) = Energetic of molecular interactions water / cyclodextrins (alpha, beta, gamma CDs) by Marie-Pierre Merlin( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The thermal behaviour of anhydrous and hydrated cyclodextrins (alpha-, beta and gamma-CD) has been studied in the temperature range 0 K to 500 K. We suggest a model based on the thermodynamic data we obtained to explain the anhydrous macro-cycles behaviours. Comparison of the behaviour of anhydrous and hydrated form of each solid cyclodextrin between 10 and 300 K allows us to clarify the particular behaviour of water molecules from a configurationnal point of view. Energetical data concerning dehydration of solid compounds have been calculated. These results have been confirmed by the conclusion of a therrnodynamic study of cyclodextrins in aqueous solution. The results allowed a better understanding of water / cyclodextrins interactions and of cyclodextrins behaviours in aqueous solution. Moreover, this work can be used as a model to a larger study of interactions between water and bio-molecules
Contribution à l'étude physico-chimique des matériaux vitreux : cas du trimétaphosphate de sodium by Lakhdar Azzouz( Book )

2 editions published in 1990 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le présent travail a pour objet principal l'étude physicochimique du verre de trimétaphosphate de sodium. Sa recristallisation a été examinée. L'étude quantitative de la relaxation à différents couple" temps, températures (inférieures à Tg)" a été effectuée. Une attention particulière a été panée à la préparation du produit de départ, le trimétaphosphate de sodium cristallisé et anhydre (NaP03). Un protocole standard de préparation a été mis au point afin d'assurer la reproductibilité de la constitution du verre. L'influence du traitement thermique d'un verre sur ses propriétés physico-chimiques a été abordée : le verre est maintenu à températures constante ( TR) pendant une durée déterminée. Deux méthodes calorimétriques , la calorimétrie de dissolution isotherme à 298 K et l'analyse calorimétrique différentielle, nous ont permis de mettre en évidence le changement de comportement thermique induit par le traitement de recuit du verre à TR<T g· Cet effet thermique s'effectuerait dans le verre à l'état solide. Les fonctions thermodynamiques du verre ferait intervenir outre la pression Pet la température T un paramètre supplémentaire a : H = f(T,P,a). Dans le domaine de températures TR>T gnous avons pu proposer et tester, à partir des résultats de la calorimétrie de dissolution, un modèle cinétique de dévitrification du verre NaP03
Etude des propriétés épuratoires des Mâchefers d'Incinération d'Ordures Ménagères et de leur mise en oeuvre = Study of purification potential of bottom ashes : Full scale dimensioning and the validation for in situ biogas treatment by Daniela Radu Tirnoveanu( Book )

2 editions published in 2004 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'évolution de nos sociétés, et en particulier des modes de consommation associés, conduit à une augmentation constante du gisement de déchets, en particulier en provenance des ménages. Malgré une volonté politique de favoriser le tri/recyclage des ordures ménagères, une grande partie de ces dernières est éliminée au sein de deux filières : le stockage en centre d'enfouissement technique et l'incinération. Le stockage en conditions anaérobies, conduit à la formation de biogaz de décharge qui contient une proportion de méthane permettant sa valorisation énergétique, mais également des composés à l'état de traces (sulfures, composés organiques volatils) malodorants, corrosifs, agressifs, et nuisibles à l'environnement. L'incinération, quant à elle, génère des sous-produits solides, en particulier des mâchefers d'incinération d'ordures ménagères (MIOM), qu'il faut à leur tour stocker ou valoriser après traitement. Notre étude porte sur une nouvelle voie de valorisation des mâchefers : l'épuration du biogaz de décharge. Dans ce contexte, une expérimentation de taille pilote a été conçue et utilisée sur le site du centre d'enfouissement technique de Roche la Molière (département 42). Cette installation a permis de tester le potentiel épuratoire d'un mâchefer provenant de l'usine d'incinération de Lyon-Nord (département 69), sur du biogaz réel. Le suivi analytique par chromatographie en phase gazeuse a porté principalement sur les composés soufrés (sulfure d'hydrogène, mercaptans), mais également sur quelques composés organiques volatils majoritaires. Des études de désorption thermique ont par ailleurs été réalisées en laboratoire. Les résultats montrent que les mâchefers présentent des capacités épuratoires significatives, en particulier vis-à-vis des composés soufrés qui se trouvent ainsi minéralisés après réaction chimique. La quantification du potentiel épuratoire du mâchefer a permis un dimensionnement à l'échelle du terrain et a conduit à une proposition de leur utilisation au sein d'une décharge pour un traitement in situ du biogaz
Contribution à l'étude des systèmes ternaires fluorure alcalin-acide fluorhydrique-eau by Patrick Germain( Book )

1 edition published in 1979 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

MESURE DES ENTHALPIES DE DILUTION, DISSOLUTION, DENSITE, VOLUMES MOLAIRES APPARENTS
Composés organiques volatils du silicium un frein à la valorisation énergétique des biogaz : "génèse et mécanismes de formation = olatile organic silicon compounds : the most undesirable contaminants during biogases valorisation by Aurélie Ohannessian( Book )

2 editions published between 2008 and 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le principal verrou technologique au développement de la valorisation électrique des biogaz concerne les Composés Organiques Volatils du Silicium qui conduisent à des dépôts abrasifs dans les moteurs et engendrent une usure prématurée des systèmes de conversion du biogaz en électricité. Cette problématique des COVSi doit absolument être prise en compte, scientifiquement et techniquement, pour pérenniser la filière de valorisation des biogaz. Il s'agit d'une thématique très peu, voire mal connue. Les difficultés d'analyse des COVSi ainsi que leur apparition relativement récente dans les biogaz sont les principales raisons de ce manque de connaissances. La démarche de recherche de ces premiers travaux académiques sur les COVSi dans les biogaz a été construite selon trois axes : Le 1er axe est consacré à l'étude en laboratoire des mécanismes de dégradation bio-physico-chimique des silicones, qui sont à l'origine de l'apparition des COVSi dans les biogaz. Les influences du pH, des cations et du contexte biologique sur la dégradation d'huiles silicones ont été mises en évidence. Le 2ème axe est dédié à l'évaluation des teneurs en COVSi dans les biogaz d'Installation de Stockage de Déchets Non Dangereux (ISDND), ainsi que dans les boues de STations d'Epuration (STEP) et les biogaz issus de leur digestion. Une méthode d'analyse des COVSi fiable a été développée. Elle a permis de montrer que la nature des COVSi dépend du type de déchets organiques qui sont méthanisés. Enfin, le 3ième axe présente une étude macroscopique de la production et de la consommation des silicones. Elle a permis d'établir des hypothèses sur la répartition des silicones en fin de vie, selon les deux filières d'élimination
Etude des propriétés épuratoires des Mâchefers d'Incinération d'Ordures Ménagères et de leur mise en oeuvre Study of purification potential of bottom ashes : Full scale dimensioning and the validation for in situ biogas treatment by Daniela Radu Tirnoveanu( )

1 edition published in 2005 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The evolution of our societies, and specifically the associated trends in consumer consumption, have led to a continual increase in waste production, and particularly household waste. Despite a strong political will to develop source separation and recycling of household waste, the majority of this waste stream is disposed of by two main techniques : storage in engineered landfills and incineration. Storage in anaerobic conditions, leads to the formation of landfill biogas which contains sufficient methane for combustion and energy recovery, but also contains compounds (sulphides, volatile organic compounds) in trace amounts which produce olfactory nuisances and are corrosive, aggressive and hazardous to the environment. As for incineration, it produces solid wastes and in particular bottom ash which needs to be stored or reused after treatment. Our study focuses on a new way of reusing incinerator bottom ash, notably for the purification of landfill biogas. As part of this study, a pilot test unit was developed and operated at the Roche la Molière engineered landfill (department 42). The purification potential of bottom ash from the North-Lyon (department 69) incineration plant was tested on real landfill biogas using this pilot test unit. The gas phase chromatography analysis was mainly used to measure sulphur based compounds (hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans), but was also used to measure the main volatile organic compounds. Thermal desorption studies were also completed in the laboratory. The results show that the incinerator bottom ash presents significant purification potential and in particular with regards to the sulphur compounds which are mineralised by way of chemical reactions. The quantification of the purification potential of the incinerator bottom ash allowed for full scale dimensioning and the validation of their use directly within the landfill for in situ biogas treatment
Influence des procédés de la filière traitement thermique sur les caractéristiques et les évolutions bio-physico-chimiques des Mâchefers d'Incinération d'Ordures Ménagères (MIOM) nfluence of waste input and process technology on Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom ash bio-physico-chemical characteristics and behaviors by Eva Rendek( )

1 edition published in 2007 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The waste input and the process technology of the plant appear to have a great influence on bottom ash quality. To better understand how these parameters can affect the residues characteristics, bottom ash from 6 different plants were tested and compared in this study. Bottom ash physico-chemical characteristics were investigated by chemical analyses, and leaching tests. In order to understand their long-term behavior, accelerated ageing experiments and biodegradation tests were also performed. The whole analyses gave complementary information. It was shown that the 6 samples do have different properties. Waste input have a great influence on Cl and S content in bottom ash, as well as on the Ca/Si ratio. The importance of this ratio on carbonation process has been demonstrated. Combustion parameters have an influence on quantity and mobility of the residual organic matter. Biological and physicochemical experiments were coupled with a view to developing a new rapid assessment method of bottom ash quality. Comparative results of leaching tests and biodegradation experiments showed a positive correlation between dissolved carbon and microbial activity. However, quantities of biodegraded or leached carbon are not representative of the samples total organic carbon content. Thermal analysis have revealed the presence of two fractions of organic components, showing different thermal behaviors. One of them can be directly linked to the leachable and biodegradable organic matter fraction. Calorimetric test is then a novel analysis method that allows to provide rapid and global information concerning the characteristics of organic matter in bottom ash and its possible short and long-term evolution
Composés Organiques Volatils du Silicium et sulfure d'hydrogène - Analyse - Traitement - Impact sur la valorisation des biogaz by Claire Chottier( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

As a renewable source of energy, biogas is part of the European strategies of energetic diversifications. However, some biogas impurities hampered economics benefices of recovery by causing damages to industrial process. Amongst these impurities, the worst are Volatile Organic Silicon Compounds (VOSiC commonly named siloxanes) which badly impact the system, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The approach of this work is developed with the will to take into account the industrial reality: in our case, landfill industries. For that purpose, 3 axes of research have been investigated: The first part deals with the most important barrier for electricity production from landfill gas (LFG), i.e solid oxide deposits in the engines, which increase maintenance costs and frequencies. Deposits from several landfills have been analyzed: elementary analysis, X-Ray diffraction, micro-calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The study aim is to develop a reflexion on the possibilities to use physico-chemical properties of a deposit as an indicator of corresponding landfill gas quality. The second part describes a comparison between two analytical methods for VOSiC in LFG. The main focus is not only about analytical bias but also a reflexion dealing with sampling issues. The knowledge of these biases allows the evaluation of analytical results. The third part is dedicated to H2S and VOSiC removal from LFG. An efficiency comparison of several sorbents (activated charcoal) has been performed under field and controlled conditions at laboratory. A gas-liquid pilot system has been built and evaluated with real LFG on site, mainly for VOSiC removal. The overall study provides scientific discussions about the relevance of biogas quality criteria, the efficiency of analytical methods in regards to the design basis of biogas treatment processes
Vers une nouvelle solution d'épuration de biogaz par des mâchefers d'incinération de déchets non dangereux : Développement et mise en œuvre d'un procédé d'adsorption d'H2S by Marta Fontseré Obis( Book )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Le biogaz est une source d'énergie renouvelable, dont le potentiel est insuffisamment valorisé à l'heure actuelle. Avant toute valorisation énergétique, des traitements épuratoires coûteux (e.g. adsorption par des charbons actifs imprégnés, CAI) sont nécessaires, limitant la rentabilité économique. Un intérêt vers le développement de procédés de traitement « bon marché » est mis en évidence au travers d'études, la plupart à l'échelle du laboratoire, basées sur l'utilisation de déchets/sous-produits. Nous avons ainsi réalisé une étude de faisabilité d'un procédé d'élimination d'H2S, composé très corrosif et toxique, par des Mâchefers d'Incinération de Déchets Non Dangereux (MIDND). Une unité pilote a été installée sur la plateforme de valorisation de biogaz d'une installation de stockage de déchets non dangereux. Des essais à petite échelle (500 g) ont permis le screening de 6 différents MIDND et l'identification des paramètres influents sur le traitement d'H2S. Le transfert d'échelle (10 kg), ainsi que des conditions opératoires optimisées, ont permis d'obtenir une capacité d'adsorption des MIDND supérieure à 200 gH2S/kgMS, proche de celle de certains adsorbants commerciaux. Ce travail expérimental a été complété par un questionnement scientifique sur les mécanismes de rétention d'H2S. Un panel de techniques analytiques a permis de caractériser la matrice (avant et après traitement), de réaliser les bilans de soufre et d'identifier sa spéciation. Le mécanisme proposé repose majoritairement sur l'oxydation catalytique d'H2S en soufre élémentaire dans un contexte physico-chimique adéquat (humidité, pH, porosité, présence d'O2 et de métaux). L'intérêt économique de la mise en œuvre industrielle du procédé de désulfuration avec des MIDND a été démontré, avec une réduction conséquente des coûts de traitement par rapport à l'utilisation de CAI. Ce travail montre également l'intérêt environnemental d'un tel procédé qui entre parfaitement dans le cadre de l'économie circulaire
Dégradation bio-physico-chimique des élastomères silicones : Influence du catalyseur de polycondensation et impacts environnementaux by Baptiste Laubie( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dibutyltin compounds are widely used as crosslinking catalysts in silicone elastomer industry. The classification of dibutyltins by the European Union as mutagenic and reprotoxic molecules lead manufacturers of silicone materials to develop alternatives. The increase of silicone elastomers demand requires to study their impacts during waste treatment and to assess the influence of the catalyst change on their environmental behavior. This unexplored area of research requires the establishment of a specific methodology, combining physico-chemical and biological degradation experiments. Two types of simplified elastomers are targeted in this study. They are crosslinked with three polycondensation catalysts: a dibutyltin derivative using as a reference and two new molecules. The first part, devoted to the silicone matrix, demonstrates a two stages degradation pathway in the environment. Silicone elastomers end-of-life is very similar to some silicone fluids, also known as PolyDiMethylSiloxanes (PDMS). The first stage is a chemical hydrolysis of siloxane chains, giving oligosiloxanols (mainly the monomer dimethylsilanediol) and cyclic methylsiloxanes (e.g. octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane D4). The second one is a biodegradation of hydrolysis by-products, in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The second part, devoted to the polycondensation catalysts, demonstrates that these compounds play an important role in the degradation mechanisms. They mainly impact hydrolysis rates but also affect the nature of released products. In addition, they have a very distinct biological behavior: organometallic catalysts tested are assimilated as a single carbon source by microorganisms, while the organic catalyst (a derivative of guanidine) disrupts bacteria metabolism. Even if they have a limited mobility in the aqueous phase, biodegradable catalysts trapped in the silicone matrix are bioavailable and have an impact on bacterial communities. Moreover, a Fusarium fungus capable of metabolizing one of the new molecules developed is identified. The replacement of dibutyltin compounds undoubtedly reduces the toxicity of catalysts used to synthesized silicone elastomers. The methodology developed provides a lot of information about the environmental impacts of silicone elastomers and could be easily transposed to the study of other materials
Etude thermodynamique de l'encapsulation moléculaire : cas de la bêta-cyclodextrine = Thermodynamic study of molecular encapsulation : The case of the beta-cyclodextrin] by Mobarik Bilal( Book )

1 edition published in 1995 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

[The beta-cyclodextrin has been studied according two main objectives: on the one hand, to specify its physico-chemical behaviour, on the ether hand, to explicit the inclusion mechanisms and conditions. Bath crystallographic and thermodynamic approaches have not concluded in favor of a definite and stable hydrate. The determination of heats of dissolution (at 298K) of beta-cyclodextrin containing various amounts of water has led to the calculation of the enthalpy of dehydration per mole of water: + 10.5 kJ per mole de beta-cyclodextrin. Two inclusion reactions have been studied by calorimetry in bath systems, beta-cyclodextrin / citric acid/ water arid beta-cyclodextrin/ ethanol/ water. The enthalpies and the equilibrium constants have been calculated. In the case of ethanol, the number of water molecules expelled from beta-cyclodextrin cavity during the inclusion has been estimated to 4 molecules. The thermodynamic data obtained allow to specify the optimal conditions to prepare inclusion compounds depending of the temperature and the reactants concentration]
Etude de faisabilité de l'utilisation de molécules "cage" dans la dépollution des sols solubilisation et extraction de polluants organiques par les cyclodextrines = Feasibility study of the application of complexing agents in soil flushing decontamination : Enhancement solubilization and extraction of organic pollutants by cyclodextrins by Khalil Hanna( )

1 edition published in 2005 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les cyclodextrines (CD) sont reconnues pour leurs aptitudes à accroître la solubilité de nombreuses molécules organiques par formation de composés d'inclusion. Dans cette étude, nous proposons d'évaluer une méthode de traitement des sols pollués utilisant les cyclodextrines comme agents de lavage. La phase préliminaire de recherche, menée dans le cadre de cette étude, a permis d'identifier les principaux paramètres d'influence des performances de complexation de différentes cyclodextrines (nature de la CD, pH et force ionique). La solubilisation de molécules sélectionnées appartenant à deux grandes familles de polluants organiques (Chlorophénols et Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP)) a été étudiée dans des solutions aqueuses de CD (natives et modifiées). Des essais sur des sols organiques de référence en laboratoire, par la méthode dite en batch ou sur colonnes de percolation, ont permis de tester l'efficacité réelle de l'extractant. Les expériences d'extraction réalisées sur un sol réellement pollué provenant d'une ancienne usine à goudron (HAP) ont confirmé les performances extractives des CD. Le mécanisme majoritaire d'extraction des HAP dans ce sol a été identifié et semble être la dissolution de la Phase Liquide Non-Aqueuse (NAPL) vers la phase aqueuse. En présence des CD, un accroissement de l'efficacité d'extraction des HAP par rapport à l'eau d'un facteur 100 au minimum a été obtenu. Les résultats de cette étude révèlent les propriétés remarquables des CD et montrent que leur utilisation pour le traitement des sols pollués est d'un intérêt scientifique considérable
Elaboration et étude thermodynamique des pentafluorotellurates IV alcalins by Patrick Germain( )

1 edition published in 1986 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les pentafluorotellurates IV alcalins MTeF5 (M =Li, Na, K, Rb et Cs) sont synthétisés à partir de réactions en milieu acide fluorhydrique ou fluorure d'hydrogène et par voie sèche. La stabilité thermique de ces composés est précisée à partir de calculs thermodynamiques. Ces résultats contribuent à la mise au point d'un nouveau procédé d'élaboration du tétra fluorure de tellure TeF4. Les paramètres cristallins de LiTeF5 et NaTeF5 sont calculés à partir des spectres de diffraction de rayons X obtenus sur poudre. Les constantes thermodynamiques relatives à la fusion sont mesurées par analyse calorimétrique différentielle. Cette technique a permis en outre l'étude du comportement thermique de ces fluorotellurates entre 200 K et leur température de fusion. Les enthalpies standards de formation sont obtenues à partir de mesures de chaleurs de réaction en solution. Les capacités calorifiques à pression constante Cp sont déterminées par calorimétrie adiabatique à basse température (10-300 K). Ces résultats, corrélés aux données spectroscopiques ont permis la modélisation du comportement ·de ces solides ainsi que l'interprétation, au niveau microscopique, des anomalies observées
Mâchefers d'Incinération d'Ordures Ménagères contribution à l'étude des mécanismes de stabilisation par carbonation et influence de la collecte sélective = unicipal solid waste incineration : contribution to the study of the stabilization mechanisms by carbonation and selective collection impact by Sonia Kaibouchi( )

1 edition published in 2005 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In France, incineration is the second way of municipal solid waste treatment. It leads to a principal solid by product named municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA). BA is a reactive material. During the weathering period, carbonation reactions allow the stabilization of its pollutant potential. The increase in selective collection of MSW could evolve characteristics of the resulting MSWI BA. The research work was constructed according to a double approach: - complete knowledge on mechanisms and parameters influencing carbonation phase, - preserve throughout the work a comparison of the phenomena according to the origin of the MSWI BA after a classical collection (MSWI A) and after an improved selective collection (MSWI B). The first part of the study is devoted to a comparative characterization of the MSWI A and B to observe an eventual influence of the improved selective collection on MSWI BA properties. The second part of this work, devoted to the study of MSWI BA weathering and particularly to the understanding of the carbonation phenomenon (always under a comparative way), is split up in three under left: - natural carbonation of MSWI BA (under air) on pilot scale (3 tons), - accelerated carbonation (under pure co2) on laboratory scale (2 to 3 kg), - residual organic matter role on the MSWI BA carbonation. These experimentations allowed to quantify, for the first time, the carbon dioxide volume implied in the MSWI BA carbonation. The results make obvious influence and consequences of sorting, in particular, glass sorting, on the carbonation of the incineration residues and the stabilization of them potential pollutant regarding development
 
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