WorldCat Identities

Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherche en Environnement Atmosphérique (Champs-sur-Marne, Seine-et-Marne)

Overview
Works: 34 works in 34 publications in 2 languages and 62 library holdings
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Seine-et-Marne) Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherche en Environnement Atmosphérique (Champs-sur-Marne
Modélisation d'une population d'aérosols multi-sources et recherche des contributions de chaque source à l'échelle urbaine avec le modèle de dispersion CHIMERE by Hilel Dergaoui( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of this thesis is the development and validation of a numerical size resolved and externally mixed model of the particle dynamics. In order to trace several chemical compositions for each size class, a new approach is presented in which the particle chemical composition is itself discretized according to the mass fraction of one or several of its components (e.g. soot, sulfate). This approach aims to improve the simulation of the particle population evolution at local scale and to emphasize chemical compositions which are specific to some sources. In atmosphere, particles interacts essentially between themselves and gaseous pollutants through coagulation and condensation/evaporation. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to the model development for the coagulation process, which happens to be the most complex to model with our external mixing approach. First, coagulation equations in external mixing were set up and discretized with an arbitrary number of size and chemical composition classes. Several numerical simulations were then performed with this model according to the same case 6 study, using two, three and four chemical components. We checked each time that the simulation results in external mixing agreed well with those of the case study internal mixing. The results of these simulations are useful to understand how coagulation mix particles and produces, from monocomposed ones, bicomposed and tricomposed particles. Given the growing complexity of such a model, the numerical implementation has been carried out with carefullness and algorithms have been optimized. The extension of this approach to condensation/evaporation is the next development step of this model, the theoretical basis are adressed in appendix. Size resolved particle measurements (SMPS) do exist nowadays, but truely suitable data to validate the external mixing model still lack, that is to say measurements which would quantitatively distinguish several chemical compositions per size class. That is why, in the second part of this thesis, we considered the protocol of a chamber experiment allowing to highlight the mixing by coagulation of two particle populations with distinct compositions and to bring validating data for the model developed. Two series of experiments were conducted, the first one with the CESAM large volume chamber and the second, with the small reactor of INERIS. The first serie underlined the homocoagulation of each polydispersed distribution taken separately and to a lower extent, the heterocoagulation of the two distributions of different kinds (NaBr et KBr) between themselves. The second serie showed the possibility to observe simultaneously two monodispersed distributions of particles with different compositions (CaSO4 et KBr), which was required in this case. Finally, measurement results happened to be insufficiant to produce validating data for the model, because of the great deviation of polydispersed distributions in the large volume chamber and because of the dominating wall losses in the small reactor. However, some microscope electronic analysis showed evidences of particles produced from coagulation between both kind of particles. Further to these experiments, we come back to the planed protocol and propose some improvements
Influence dynamique de l'Himalaya sur le climat en Extrême-Orient by Sylvain Mailler( )

1 edition published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mountains have an impact on the large scale circulation of the atmosphere, this impact being predominantly a consequence of the forces they exert on the atmosphere : for this reason, the part of the orography which is not resolved explicitly by the general circulation models is taken into account through parametrisations of the forces it applies to the atmosphere. This PhD thesis is focused on understanding the impact of the forces applied by the midlatitude mountains, particularly the Tibetan Plateau, on the atmosphere. For that purpose, we will consider the mountain torque applied by the mountains on the atmosphere, a global scale counterpart of the mountain forces.The major midlatitude mountain ranges can trigger massive synoptic scale cold surges on their eastern flanks. This thesis uncovers the importance of the equatorial mountain torque in triggering the cold surges over east-Asia (impact of the Tibetan Plateau), north-America (impact of the Rockie Mountains) and south-America (impact of the Andes cordillera). Using a simple dynamical model, an interpretation of the mechanism underlying the forcing of the cold surges by the equatorial mountain torque is proposed, showing that the existence of a lift force applied by the mountain on the atmosphere is sufficient for the triggering of cold surges.The dynamical impact of the Tibetan plateau on the east-asian winter monsoon, more specifically on the wintertime convection events on the South China Sea, is important. A typical sequence of events showing this dynamical impact has been identified statistically : a dynamical forcing of the atmospheric circulation by the Tibetan Plateau, materialized by a strong signal on the equatorial mountain torque on the atmosphere is followed quickly by the occurence of a cold surge and, a few days later, by an outburst of deep convection over the South China Sea. This dynamical effect of the Tibetan Plateau on the winter monsoon extends as far south as Indonesia, and westward to the Bay of Bengal. The use of the general circulation model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model, LMDz, makes it possible to extend the observational results described above. This model closes properly the budget of atmospheric angular momentum, and will be used to show that that sub-grid sale orography plays an important role in the terminal phase of the evolution of cold surges. New results are presented concerning the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum budget are presented, adressing specifically the impact of the equatorial mountain torque and that of the contribution of the Tibetan Plateau. It is shown that the equatorial mountain torque applied by the Tibetan Plateau has only a weak role in the temporal evolution of the equatorial angular momentum, but a significant role concerning its spatial repartition
Modélisation et simulation numérique de la dynamique des nanoparticules appliquée aux atmosphères libres et confinées by Marion Devilliers( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It is necessary to adapt existing models in order to simulate the number concentration, and correctly account for nanoparticles, in both free and confined atmospheres. A model of particle dynamics capable of following accurately the number as well as the mass concentration of particles, with an optimal calculation time, has been developed. The dynamics of particles depends on various processes, the most important ones being condensation/evaporation, followed by nucleation, coagulation, and deposition phenomena. These processes are well-known for fine and coarse particles, but some additional phenomena must be taken into account when applied to nanoparticles, such as the Kelvin effect for condensation/evaporation and the van der Waals forces for coagulation. This work focused first on condensation/evaporation, which is the most numerically challenging process. Particles were assumed to be of spherical shape. The Kelvin effect has been taken into account as it becomes significant for particles with diameter below 50 nm. The numerical schemes are based on a sectional approach : the particle size range is discretized in sections characterized by a representative diameter. A redistribution algorithm is used, after condensation/ evaporation occurred, in order to keep the representative diameter between the boundaries of the section. The redistribution can be conducted in terms of mass or number. The key point in such algorithms is to choose which quantity has to be redistributed over the fixed sections. We have developed a hybrid algorithm that redistributes the relevant quantity for each section. This new approach has been tested and shows significant improvements with respect to most existing models over a wide range of conditions. The process of coagulation for nanoparticles has also been solved with a sectional approach. Coagulation is monitored by the brownian motion of nanoparticles. This approach is shown to be more efficient if the coagulation rate is evaluated using the representative diameter of the section, rather than being integrated over the whole section. Simulations also reveal that the van derWaals interactions greatly enhance coagulation of nanoparticles. Nucleation has been incorporated into the newly developed model through a direct source of nanoparticles in the first size section, beginning at one nanometer. The formulation of this rate of nucleation corresponds to that of sulfuric acid but the treatment of the numerical interactions between nucleation, coagulation and condensation/evaporation is generic. Various strategies aiming to solve separately or jointly these three processes are discussed. In order to provide recommendations, several numerical splitting methods have been implemented and evaluated regarding their CPU times and their accuracy in terms of number and mass concentrations
Downscaling wind energy resource from mesoscale to local scale by nesting and data assimilation with a CFD model by Venkatesh Duraisamy Jothiprakasam( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The development of wind energy generation requires precise and well-established methods for wind resource assessment, which is the initial step in every wind farm project. During the last two decades linear flow models were widely used in the wind industry for wind resource assessment and micro-siting. But the linear models inaccuracies in predicting the wind speeds in very complex terrain are well known and led to use of CFD, capable of modeling the complex flow in details around specific geographic features. Mesoscale models (NWP) are able to predict the wind regime at resolutions of several kilometers, but are not well suited to resolve the wind speed and turbulence induced by the topography features on the scale of a few hundred meters. CFD has proven successful in capturing flow details at smaller scales, but needs an accurate specification of the inlet conditions. Thus coupling NWP and CFD models is a better modeling approach for wind energy applications. A one-year field measurement campaign carried out in a complex terrain in southern France during 2007-2008 provides a well documented data set both for input and validation data. The proposed new methodology aims to address two problems: the high spatial variation of the topography on the domain lateral boundaries, and the prediction errors of the mesoscale model. It is applied in this work using the open source CFD code Code_Saturne, coupled with the mesoscale forecast model of Météo-France (ALADIN). The improvement is obtained by combining the mesoscale data as inlet condition and field measurement data assimilation into the CFD model. Newtonian relaxation (nudging) data assimilation technique is used to incorporate the measurement data into the CFD simulations. The methodology to reconstruct long term averages uses a clustering process to group the similar meteorological conditions and to reduce the number of CFD simulations needed to reproduce 1 year of atmospheric flow over the site. The assimilation procedure is carried out with either sonic or cup anemometers measurements. First a detailed analysis of the results obtained with the mesoscale-CFD coupling and with or without data assimilation is shown for two main wind directions, including a sensitivity study to the parameters involved in the coupling and in the nudging. The last part of the work is devoted to the estimate of the wind potential using clustering. A comparison of the annual mean wind speed with measurements that do not enter the assimilation process and with the WAsP model is presented. The improvement provided by the data assimilation on the distribution of differences with measurements is shown on the wind speed and direction for different configurations
Application d'un code de CFD atmosphérique à l'estimation du productible éolien en terrain complexe by Laurent Laporte( )

1 edition published in 2008 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis is organized in two parts. The first part presents the use of the atmospheric CFD code Mercure Saturne to estimate the wind resource in complex terrain. A measurement campaign was led by EDF to obtain data for validation. A methodology was developed using meso-scale profiles as boundary conditions. Clustering of meteorological situations was used to reduce the number of simulations needed to calculate the wind resource. The validation of the code on the Askervein hill, the methodology and comparisons with measurements from the complex site are presented. The second part presents the modeling of wakes with the Mercure Saturne code. Forces, generated by the blades on the wind, are modeled by source terms, calculated by the BEM method. Two comparisons are proposed to validate the method : the first compares the numerical model with wind tunnel measurements from a small wind turbine, the second with measurements made on porous disks in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel
Modélisation des particules organiques dans l'atmosphère by Florian Couvidat( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rganic aerosol formation in the atmosphere is investigated via the developpement of a new model named H²O (Hydrohilic/Hydrophobic Organics). First, a parameterization is developped to take into account secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene oxidation. It takes into account the effect of nitrogen oxides on organic aerosol formation and the hydrophilic properties of the aerosols. This parameterization is then implemented in H²O along with some other developments and the results of the model are compaired to organic carbon measurements over Europe. Model performance is greatly improved by taking into account emissions of primary semi-volatile compounds, which can form secondary organic aerosols after oxidation or can condense when temperature decreases. If those emissions are not taken into account, a significant underestimation of organic aerosol concentrations occurs in winter. The formation of organic aerosols over an urban area was also studied by simulating organic aerosols concentration over the Paris area during the summer campaign of Megapoli (July 2009). H²O gives satisfactory results over the Paris area, although a peak of organic aerosol concentrations from traffic, which does not appear in the measurements, appears in the model simulation during rush hours. It could be due to an underestimation of the volatility of organic aerosols. It is also possible that primary and secondary organic compounds do not mix well together and that primary semi volatile compounds do not condense on an organic aerosol that is mostly secondary and highly oxidized. Finally, the impact of aqueous-phase chemistry was studied. The mechanism for the formation of secondary organic aerosol includes in-cloud oxydation of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, methacrolein and methylvinylketone, formation of methyltetrols in the aqueous phase of particles and cloud droplets, and the in-cloud aging of organic aerosols. The impact of wet deposition is also studied to better estimate the impact of clouds on organic aerosol concentrations
Caractérisation des sources de polluants atmosphériques et de leurs dépôts sur les bassins versants urbains by Nicolas Cherin( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"[L]a pollution de l'air [fait] peser une menace importante sur le plan sanitaire partout dans le monde." L'OMS estime ainsi que, pour l'année 2012 (OMS, 2014), plus de 3,7 millions de décès prématurés dans le monde seraient imputables à la seule pollution de l'air, dont près de 70% surviendraient en ville. Pourtant la connaissance du dépôt sec, particulièrement en milieu urbain, reste très parcellaire. L'object de ce travail de thèse vise à améliorer la compréhension des mécanismes de dépôts atmosphériques en milieu urbain. Historiquement, les dépôts atmosphériques ont été étudiés et modélisés sur des couverts végétaux, plan d'eau ou surface nue, et ce afin d'évaluer, notamment, l'impact sur les écosystèmes des dépôts acides, ou encore de l'eutrophisation. Or, le milieu urbain est caractérisé par une géométrie complexe, et des surfaces variées. Par conséquent, ces modèles de dépôts atmosphériques peuvent ne pas convenir pour simuler les flux de dépôts dans les zones urbaines.Le modèle développé dans cette thèse est un modèle à longueur de mélange. Ces travaux se sont attelés à prendre en compte les principaux processus qui prennent place au sein de la canopée urbaine en modifiant la longueur de mélange et en la rendant dépendante des caractéristiques morphologiques de la ville. Aussi, le profil des vitesses de vent moyen est directement impactée par ce changement de longueur de mélange. Par conséquent, ce nouveau modèle offre la possibilitéde calculer les dépôts secs en milieu urbain en fonction de quelques paramètres représentant les principales caractéristiques de la canopée urbaine (hauteur moyenne des bâtiments, largeur moyenne des rues, densité du bâti)
Multiscale data assimilation approaches and error characterisation applied to the inverse modelling ofatmospheric constituent emission fields by Mohammad Reza Koohkan( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Data assimilation in geophysical sciences aims at optimally estimating the state of the system or some parameters of the system's physical model. To do so, data assimilation needs three types of information: observations and background information, a physical/numerical model, and some statistical description that prescribes uncertainties to each componenent of the system.In my dissertation, new methodologies of data assimilation are used in atmospheric chemistry and physics: the joint use of a 4D-Var with a subgrid statistical model to consistently account for representativeness errors, accounting for multiple scale in the BLUE estimation principle, and a better estimation of prior errors using objective estimation of hyperparameters. These three approaches will be specifically applied to inverse modelling problems focussing on the emission fields of tracers or pollutants. First, in order to estimate the emission inventories of carbon monoxide over France, in-situ stations which are impacted by the representativeness errors are used. A subgrid model is introduced and coupled with a 4D-Var to reduce the representativeness error. Indeed, the results of inverse modelling showed that the 4D-Var routine was not fit to handle the representativeness issues. The coupled data assimilation system led to a much better representation of theCO concentration variability, with a significant improvement of statistical indicators, and more consistent estimation of the CO emission inventory. Second, the evaluation of the potential of the IMS (International Monitoring System) radionuclide network is performed for the inversion of an accidental source. In order to assess the performance of the global network, a multiscale adaptive grid is optimised using a criterion based on degrees of freedom for the signal (DFS). The results show that several specific regions remain poorly observed by the IMS network. Finally, the inversion of the surface fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are carried out over Western Europe using EMEP stations. The uncertainties of the background values of the emissions, as well as the covariance matrix of the observation errors, are estimated according to the maximum likelihood principle. The prior probability density function of the control parameters is chosen to be Gaussian or semi-normal distributed. Grid-size emission inventories are inverted under these two statistical assumptions. The two kinds of approaches are compared. With the Gaussian assumption, the departure between the posterior and the prior emission inventories is higher than when using the semi-normal assumption, but that method does not provide better scores than the semi-normal in a forecast experiment
Méthodes de prévision d'ensemble pour l'étude de la prévisibilité à l'échelle convective des épisodes de pluies intenses en Méditerranée by Benoît Vié( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This PhD thesis aims at quantifying the uncertainty of convection-permitting numerical weather forecasts, with a particular interest in the predictability of Mediterranean heavy precipitating events. Four uncertainty sources, which impact the predictability of these events, were investigated : the description of the synoptic-scale circulation, the representation of meso-scale atmospheric conditions (especially the low-level jet feeding the convective systems with moist and unstable air), the impact of complex physical processes such as the setting up of a cold pool, and the definition of surface conditions. To quantify the impact of these four uncertainty sources, the ensemble forecasting technique was chosen, using the AROME model. Each uncertainty source is studied separately through the definition of dedicated perturbations, and the resulting ensembles are first evaluated over heavy precipitation case studies. We then proceed to a statistical evaluation of the ensembles for 2- and 4-week long forecast periods. This evaluation, completed with the design of ensembles sampling several uncertainty sources together, allows us to draw some practical tips for the design of an operational convective scale ensemble forecasting system at Météo-France
Modélisation d'écoulements atmosphériques stratifiés par Large-Eddy Simulation à l'aide de Code_Saturne by Cédric Dall'Ozzo( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La modélisation par simulation des grandes échelles (Large-Eddy Simulation - LES) des processus physiques régissant la couche limite atmosphérique (CLA) demeure complexe de part la difficulté des modèles à capter l'évolution de la turbulence entre différentes conditions de stratification. De ce fait, l'étude LES du cycle diurne complet de la CLA comprenant des situations convectives la journée et des conditions stables la nuit est très peu documenté. La simulation de la couche limite stable où la turbulence est faible, intermittente et qui est caractérisée par des structures turbulentes de petite taille est tout particulièrement compliquée. En conséquence, la capacité de la LES à bien reproduire les conditions météorologiques de la CLA, notamment en situation stable, est étudiée à l'aide du code de mécanique des fluides développé par EDF R&D, Code_Saturne. Dans une première étude, le modèle LES est validé sur un cas de couche limite convective quasi stationnaire sur terrain homogène. L'influence des modèles sous-maille de Smagorinsky, Germano-Lilly, Wong-Lilly et WALE (Wall-Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity) ainsi que la sensibilité aux méthodes de paramétrisation sur les champs moyens, les flux et les variances est discutées. Dans une seconde étude le cycle diurne complet de la CLA pendant la campagne de mesure Wangara est modélisé. L'écart aux mesures étant faible le jour, ce travail se concentre sur les difficultés rencontrées la nuit à bien modéliser la couche limite stable. L'impact de différents modèles sous-maille ainsi que la sensibilité au coefficient de Smagorinsky ont été analysés. Par l'intermédiaire d'un couplage radiatif réalisé en LES, les répercussions du rayonnement infrarouge et solaire sur le jet de basse couche nocturne et le gradient thermique près de la surface sont exposées. De plus l'adaptation de la résolution du domaine à l'intensité de la turbulence et la forte stabilité atmosphérique durant l'expérience Wangara sont commentées. Enfin un examen des oscillations numériques inhérentes à Code_Saturne est réalisé afin d'en limiter les effets
Modélisation tridimensionnelle du rayonnement infrarouge atmosphérique utilisant l'approximation en émissivité : application à la formation du brouillard radiatif by Laurent Makke( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Atmospheric Radiation field has seen the development of more accurate and faster methods to take into account absorption. Modelling fog formation, where Infrared Radiation is involved, requires accurate methods to compute cooling rates. Radiative fog appears with clear sky condition due to a significant cooling during the night where absorption is the dominant processus. Thanks to High Performance Computing, multi-spectral approaches of Radiative Transfer Equation resolution are often used. Nevertheless, the coupling of three-dimensional radiative transfer with fluid dynamics is very computationally expensive. Radiation increases the computation time by around fifty percent over the pure Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation. To reduce the time spent in radiation calculations, a new method using the broadband emissivity has been developed to compute an equivalent absorption coefficient (spectrally integrated). Only one resolution of Radiative Transfer Equation is needed against N_{band} x N_{gauss} for an N_{band} model with N_{gauss} quadrature points on each band. A comparison with simulation data has been done and the new parameterization of Radiative properties shows the ability to handle variations of gases concentrations and liquid water. A dynamical study through the coupling between the infrared radiation model and Code_Saturne has been done to validate our parametrization. Finally the model was tested on a 3-D domain with idealized buildings to catch 3-D infrared radiative effects due to horizontally inhomogenities of the liquid water content field and buildings
Prévisions d'ensemble à l'échelle saisonnière : mise en place d'une dynamique stochastique by Lauriane Saunier-Batté( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La prévision d'ensemble à l'échelle saisonnière avec des modèles de circulation générale a connu un essor certain au cours des vingt dernières années avec la croissance exponentielle des capacités de calcul, l'amélioration de la résolution des modèles, et l'introduction progressive dans ceux-ci des différentes composantes (océan, atmosphère, surfaces continentales et glace de mer) régissant l'évolution du climat à cette échelle. Malgré ces efforts, prévoir la température et les précipitations de la saison à venir reste délicat, non seulement sur les latitudes tempérées mais aussi sur des régions sujettes à des aléas climatiques forts comme l'Afrique de l'ouest pendant la saison de mousson. L'une des clés d'une bonne prévision est la prise en compte des incertitudes liées à la formulation des modèles (résolution, paramétrisations, approximations et erreurs). Une méthode éprouvée est l'approche multi-modèle consistant à regrouper les membres de plusieurs modèles couplés en un seul ensemble de grande taille. Cette approche a été mise en œuvre notamment dans le cadre du projet européen ENSEMBLES, et nous montrons qu'elle permet généralement d'améliorer les rétro-prévisions saisonnières des précipitations sur plusieurs régions d'Afrique par rapport aux modèles pris individuellement. On se propose dans le cadre de cette thèse d'étudier une autre piste de prise en compte des incertitudes du modèle couplé CNRM-CM5, consistant à ajouter des perturbations stochastiques de la dynamique du modèle d'atmosphère ARPEGE-Climat. Cette méthode, baptisée “dynamique stochastique”, consiste à introduire des perturbations additives de température, humidité spécifique et vorticité corrigeant des estimations d'erreur de tendance initiale du modèle. Dans cette thèse, deux méthodes d'estimation des erreurs de tendance initiale ont été étudiées, basées sur la méthode de nudging (guidage) du modèle vers des données de référence. Elles donnent des résultats contrastés en termes de scores des rétro-prévisions selon les régions étudiées. Si on estime les corrections d'erreur de tendance initiale par une méthode de nudging itéré du modèle couplé vers les réanalyses ERA-Interim, on améliore significativement les scores sur l'hémisphère Nord en hiver en perturbant les prévisions saisonnières en tirant aléatoirement parmi ces corrections. Cette amélioration est accompagnée d'une nette réduction des biais de la hauteur de géopotentiel à 500 hPa. Une rétro-prévision en utilisant des perturbations dites“optimales” correspondant aux corrections d'erreurs de tendance initiale du mois en cours de prévision montre l'existence d'une information à l'échelle mensuelle qui pourrait permettre de considérablement améliorer les prévisions. La dernière partie de cette thèse explore l'idée d'un conditionnement des perturbations en fonction de l'état du modèle en cours de prévision, afin de se rapprocher si possible des améliorations obtenues avec ces perturbations optimales
Études fines des échanges énergétiques entre les bâtiments et l'atmosphère urbaine by Noëlie Daviau( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis work is about the effect of buildings on the urban atmosphere and more precisely the energetic exchanges that take place between these two systems. In order to model more finely the thermal effects of buildings on the atmospheric flows in simulations run under the CFD software Code_Saturne, we proceed to couple this tool with the building model BuildSysPro. This library is run under Dymola and can generate matrices describing the building thermal properties that can be used outside this software. In order to carry out the coupling, we use these matrices in a code that allows the building thermal calculations and the CFD to exchange their results. After a review about the physical phenomena and the existing models, we explain the interactions between the atmosphere and the urban elements, especially buildings. The latter can impact the air flows dynamically, as they act as obstacles, and thermally, through their surface temperatures. At first, we analyse the data obtained from the measurement campaign EM2PAU that we use in order to validate the coupled model. EM2PAU was carried out in Nantes in 2011 and represents a canyon street with two rows of four containers. Its distinctive feature lies in the simultaneous measurements of the air and wall temperatures as well as the wind speeds with anemometers located on a 10 m-high mast for the reference wind and on six locations in the canyon. This aims for studying the thermal influence of buildings on the air flows. Then the numerical simulations of the air flows in EM2PAU is carried out with different methods that allow us to calculate or impose the surface temperature we use, for each of the container walls. The first method consists in imposing their temperatures from the measurements. For each wall, we set the temperature to the surface temperature that was measured during the EM2PAU campaign. The second method involves imposing the outdoor air temperature that was measured at a given time to all the surfaces, reducing every heat exchange to almost zero. The third method at last is the coupled simulation of Code_Saturne and BuildSysPro where BuildSysPro calculates the wall temperature from the Code_Saturne data. . The results of these different ways of modelling the wall temperatures are then compared in order to show the thermal effects of building wall heating on the air flows. We notice that the dynamic effects are dominant and can generate vertical wind speed that can pass several meters per second. On the other hand, differences of surface temperatures higher than 15°C can influence the vertical wind speed for less than 0.5 meters per second. These thermal effects are not easily highlighted with measured data because of the other phenomena that can impact the air flows. However they can be quantified with numerical studies
Contribution à l'estimation des précipitations tropicales : préparation aux missions Megha-Tropiques et Global Precipitation Measurement by Philippe Chambon( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Precipitation results from atmospheric phenomena, which are characterized by a large space and time variability. The distribution of rainfall, in particular of strong rainy events, has various impacts in surface hydrology over the different regions in the world (e.g. floods). Any change in the Tropical climate is associated with a modification of the water and energy cycle over those regions. Therefore, in a context of climate change, it is important to develop new tools able to provide quantitative precipitation measurements, both over land and over the open oceans. The work presented hereafter deals with precipitation estimation from space. Indeed, measuring rainfall requires a high density of observations, which, over the whole tropical belt, can only be provided from space. For several decades, the availability of satellite observations has greatly increased and offers an increasing number of measurements. Thanks to newly implemented missions like the Megha-Tropiques mission and the forthcoming GPM constellation (Global Precipitation Measurement mission), measurements from space become available from a set of observing systems. Quantitative precipitation estimation were only available at the monthly scale, it is now possible to estimate rainfall from space at increasingly fine scale. In this work, we focus on the 1°/1-day scale, key scale of meteorological and hydrological studies. Various methods exist to estimate rainfall from space but they provide estimates of unequal quality. First, a meteorological benchmark is set up with ground-based observations from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) program. The analysis shows that the last generation of combined infrared-microwave products is describing the variability of rainfall similarly to ground measurements at meteorologically relevant scales. It also appeared that at these scales, rain accumulation estimations should be used taking into account their uncertainties. A novel methodology for quantitative precipitation estimation is introduced ; its name is TAPEER (Tropical Amount of Precipitation with an Estimate of ERrors) and it aims to provide 1°/1-day rain accumulations and associated errors over the whole Tropical belt. This approach is based on a combination of infrared imagery from a fleet of geostationary satellite and passive microwave derived rain rates from a constellation of low earth orbiting satellites. Modelling techniques are developed in order to associate an error with the individual rain accumulations. An investigation of the error budget of the TAPEER method shows that the two main contributions to the total error are related to sampling and systematic errors on rain rates of medium intensity. A study on the summer 2009 period reveals the importance of using error bars when analyzing the distribution of rainfall, especially for the most important rain accumulations of the tropics
Caractérisation des aérosols organiques à Beyrouth, Liban by Antoine Waked( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The chemical composition of PM2.5 includes both organic and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds, which constitute a significant fraction of the PM2.5 mass, can be emitted directly as primary aerosol from sources such as fossil-fuel combustion, biomass burning, and natural biogenic emissions, or formed in the atmosphere via chemical reactions leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. SOA, which account for 20 - 80 % of total organic aerosol, are currently a major source of uncertainty in air quality modeling. The identification and quantification of the chemical composition of the organic fraction of PM2.5 and its source apportionment are of great interest, especially in the Middle East region where data on organic aerosols are currently lacking. Lebanon, a small developing country in the Middle East region located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean basin represents a good example for characterizing organic aerosols in this region. To address this issue, the air quality in Beirut (the capital city of Lebanon) was investigated with a focus on organic aerosols. First, an air pollutant emission inventory was developed for Lebanon with a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and for Beirut with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km. The results obtained show that the road transport sector is the major contributor to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions, whereas fossil fuel-fired power plants and large industrial plants are the major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary particulate matter (PM) emissions. Then, two intensive 15-day measurement campaigns were conducted at a semi-urban site located in a Beirut suburb to characterize air pollutant concentrations. The first measurement campaign took place in July 2011 and the second in February 2012. Measurements included PM2.5, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentrations as well as a molecular characterization of organic aerosols. Using these data, a source apportionment of organic aerosols was conducted for summer and winter. In summer, biogenic precursors such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the major source of OC due to intensive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures that promote biogenic VOC emissions and photo-oxidation reactions. In winter, biomass burning was the major source of organic aerosols because of the intensive use of wood burning for heating. Finally, air pollutant concentrations in Beirut were simulated for July 2011 with the Polyphemus/Polair3D chemical-transport model (CTM). The emission inventory mentioned above was used as input to the model. Meteorological simulations were conducted with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) using different configurations and the configuration leading to the best agreement with the observations was used to drive the air quality simulations. The simulated air pollutant concentrations were compared to the measured concentrations collected during the summer measurement campaign. The results show that the model reproduces satisfactorily the concentrations of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and the major components of PM2.5. The differences obtained between the modeled and measured air pollutants concentrations are due in part to uncertainties in input data. Future studies should address the reduction of uncertainties such as those of the emission inventory. In addition, measurement campaigns involving several sites are needed to better characterize air pollution in Beirut and provide a more complete database to evaluate simulated air pollutant concentrations
Influence de l'évolution climatique sur la qualité de l'air en Europe by Eve Lecoeur( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Air pollution is the result of high emissions of pollutants (and pollutant precursors) and unfavorable meteorological conditions. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the pollutants of great concern for human health. Every year, a repeated or continuous exposure to such particles is responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the concerned populations and leads to premature deaths. Climate change is expected to impact meteorological variables (temperature, wind, precipitation,...). Those variables will influence numerous factors, which will affect air quality (emissions, precipitation scavenging, gas/particle equilibrium,...). A large body of studies have already investigated the effects of climate change on ozone, whereas only a few have addressed its effects on PM2.5 concentrations, especially over Europe. This is the subject we investigate in this thesis. Large-scale circulation is closely linked to surface meteorological variables. Therefore, it is expected that it will impact PM2.5 concentrations too. In this thesis, we develop a statistical algorithm to estimate future PM2.5 concentrations from present PM2.5 observations, selected meteorological variables and tools to represent this circulation (weather regimes and weather types). The lack of daily observations of PM2.5 and its components over Europe prevents us to used observations. Consequently, we have created a pseudo-observed PM2.5 data set, by using the Polyphemus/Polair3D air quality Chemical-Transport Model. Both operational and dynamic evaluations were conducted against EMEP measurements, to ensure that the influence of meteorological variables on PM2.5 concentrations is correctly reproduced by the model. As far as we know, this dynamic evaluation of an air quality model with respect to meteorology is the first conducted to date.Future PM2.5 concentrations display an increase over the U.K., northern France, Benelux, and in the Balkans, and a decrease over northern, eastern, and southeastern Europe, Italy, and Poland compared to the historical period. The evolution of weather type frequencies is not sufficient to explain the PM2.5 changes. The relationships between the large-scale circulation and the weather types, between the weather types and meteorological variables, and between meteorological variables and PM2.5 concentrations evolve with future meteorological conditions and also contribute to PM2.5 changes. The statistical method developed in this thesis is a new approach to estimate the impact of climate and climate change on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe. Despite some uncertainties, this approach is easily applicable to different models and scenarios, as well as other geographical regions and other pollutants. Using observations to establish the pollutant-meteorology relationship would make this approach more robust
Three-dimensional modeling of radiative and convective exchanges in the urban atmosphere by Yongfeng Qu( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In many micrometeorological studies, building resolving models usually assumea neutral atmosphere. Nevertheless, urban radiative transfers play an important role because of their influence on the energy budget. In order to take into account atmospheric radiation and the thermal effects of the buildings in simulations of atmospheric flow and pollutant dispersion in urban areas, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative scheme, in the atmospheric module of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model Code_Saturne. The radiative scheme was previously validated with idealized cases, using as a first step, a constant 3D wind field. In this work, the full coupling of the radiative and thermal schemes with the dynamical model is evaluated. The aim of the first part is to validate the full coupling with the measurements of the simple geometry from the 'Mock Urban Setting Test' (MUST) experiment. The second part discusses two different approaches to model the radiative exchanges in urban area with a comparison between Code_Saturne and SOLENE. The third part applies the full coupling scheme to show the contribution of the radiative transfer model on the airflow pattern in low wind speed conditions in a 3D urban canopy. In the last part we use the radiative-dynamics coupling to simulate a real urban environment and validate the modeling approach with field measurements from the 'Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in Toulouse Urban Layer' (CAPITOUL)
Modélisation de l'impact du trafic routier sur la pollution de l'air et des eaux de ruissellement by Masoud Fallah Shorshani( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Road traffic emissions are a major source of pollution in cities. Modeling of air and stormwater pollution due to on-road vehicles is essential to understand the processes that lead to the pollution and to provide the necessary information for the development of effective public policies to reduce pollution. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the feasibility and relevance of modeling chains to simulate the impact of road traffic on air and stormwater pollution. The first part of the thesis consisted in assessing the state of the art of modeling tools available for the different relevant phenomena (traffic, emissions, atmospheric dispersion, and stormwater quality), highlighting challenges associated with the integration of the different models to create a consistent modeling chain in terms of pollutants and spatio-temporal scales. Two examples of modeling chains have been proposed, one static with hourly time-steps, the other based on a dynamic approach for traffic and its associated pollution. In the second part of the thesis, different interface tools have been developed to link models and construct modeling chains. These modeling chains were tested with different case studies: (1) coupling traffic and emissions for the simulation of an urban street using a dynamic model of traffic with instantaneous and time-averaged emission models, (2) coupling on-road emissions and atmospheric dispersion/deposition near a freeway, (3) coupling traffic, emissions and atmospheric dispersion/chemistry near a freeway, (4) coupling emissions and atmospheric dispersion/deposition in a suburban neighborhood (5) coupling atmospheric deposition and stormwater quality for an urban catchment, and finally (6) a complete modeling chain with traffic / emissions / air and stormwater quality models for urban catchment drainage. This work allows one to identify different possibilities of model integration to calculate air and stormwater pollution due to road traffic in urban areas. Moreover, it provides a solid basis for the future development of integrated numerical models of urban pollution
Changements d'échelles en modélisation de la qualité de l'air et estimation des incertitudes associées by Irène Bourdin-Korsakissok( )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The evolution of atmospheric pollutants depends on various processes which occur at multiple characteristic scales, such as emissions, meteorology, turbulence, chemical transformation and deposition. Representing all the time and spatial scales in an air quality model is, therefore, very difficult. Chemical-transport Eulerian models, which are generally used, have a typical resolution much coarser than the finest scales.. Thus, many processes are not well described by these models, which results in subgrid-scale variability. This thesis proposes a review of subgrid-scale processes and associated uncertainty, as well as two multiscale methods aimed at reducing this uncertainty : (1) coupling an Eulerian model with a local-scale Gaussian model, and (2)using statistical downscaling methods. (1) Model coupling : one aof the main subgrid-scale processes is emissions, especially point emissions (industry) and traffic. In particular, the characteristic spatial scale of a plume emitted by a chimmey is much smaller than the typical Eulerian grid resolution. The coupling method, called plume-in-grid model, uses a Gaussian puff model to better represent point emissions at local scale, coupled to an Eulerain model. The impact of this subgrid-scale treatment of emissions is evaluated at continental scale for passive tracers (ETEX-I et Tchernobyl), as well as for photochemistry at regional scale (Paris region). Several issues are addressed, especially the uncertainty due to local-scale parameterizations and the influence of the Eulerian grid resolution. (2) Statistical downscaling : this method aims at compensating the representativity error made by the model when forecasting concentrations at particular measurement stations. The representativity scale of these stations is, indeed, typically smaller than the Eulerian cell size, and concentrations at stations depend on many subgrid-scale phenomena (micrometeorology, topography...). Thus, using statistical relationships between the larg-scale variable (model output) and local-scale variable (concentrations observed at stations) allows to significantly reduce the forecast error. In addition, using ensemble simulations allows to better take into account the model error due to physical parameterizations. With this ensemble, several downscaling methods are implemented : simple and multiple linear regression, with or without preprocessing. The preprocessing methods include a classical principal component analysis, as well as another method called “principal fitted component”. Results are presented at European scale, for ozone peaks, and analyzed for several types of stations (rural, urban or periurban)
Air quality modeling : evaluation of chemical and meteorological parameterizations by Youngseob Kim( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The influence of chemical mechanisms and meteorological parameterizations on pollutant concentrations calculated with an air quality model is studied. The influence of the differences between two gas-phase chemical mechanisms on the formation of ozone and aerosols in Europe is low on average. For ozone, the large local differences are mainly due to the uncertainty associated with the kinetics of nitrogen monoxide (NO) oxidation reactions on the one hand and the representation of different pathways for the oxidation of aromatic compounds on the other hand. The aerosol concentrations are mainly influenced by the selection of all major precursors of secondary aerosols and the explicit treatment of chemical regimes corresponding to the nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels. The influence of the meteorological parameterizations on the concentrations of aerosols and their vertical distribution is evaluated over the Paris region in France by comparison to lidar data. The influence of the parameterization of the dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer is important ; however, it is the use of an urban canopy model that improves significantly the modeling of the pollutant vertical distribution
 
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Alternative Names
Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherche en Environnement Atmosphérique

CEREA.

École des Ponts ParisTech. Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherche en Environnement Atmosphérique.

Laboratoire CEREA

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French (17)

English (3)