WorldCat Identities

Cegarra, Julien (1977-....).

Overview
Works: 25 works in 33 publications in 1 language and 36 library holdings
Roles: Other, Thesis advisor, Opponent, Author, Publishing director
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Julien Cegarra
La gestion de la complexité dans la planification : le cas de l'ordonnancement by Julien Cegarra( Book )

3 editions published in 2004 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This research relates to cognitive planning activities. It was conducted in a multi-disciplinary field associating Cognitive Ergonomics and Operational Research. Within these activities, scheduling constitutes an interesting problem in particular due to the complexity of field problems. In order to better understand human aspects of scheduling, three studies were undertaken. The first experiment was done to identify the nature of scheduling expertise by the study of novice and experts schedulers. Results led to a second experiment investigating the effect of task demands (e.g. complexity level) on operators' strategies. Then, the influence of external representation on problems complexity was studied in a third experiment. Finally, the combination of these various studies led to the proposal of hints for interfaces design
Proposition d'indicateurs de robustesse basés sur la prise en compte des risques afin d'évaluer les tournées de transport routier de marchandises by Antoine Clément( )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The work presented in this thesis aims to answer a problem of decision support for the selection of a delivery schedule in the field of road freight transport and, particularly, for the last mile delivery. The role of the planner is crucial to ensure the respect of the customer's requirements and the success of the transport company. More than building a feasible planning, the planner must select, among several possible schedules, the one that ensures the best efficiency of the resources of the company whatever the situations to come. Indeed, tours are frequently confronted with a multitude of disturbances, whether endogenous or exogenous. The problem addressed in this thesis is: "How to help a planner to select a schedule in a risky context?". Two main contributions are presented in this thesis. Our first contribution aims to propose a mechanism for automatic identification and evaluation of the risks related to a daily delivery schedule. These mechanisms are based on the characterization of generic dangers that can be automatically instantiated on a delivery schedule activity based on contextual characteristics of this activity. Thus, when a planning activity is confronted with a danger, a risk is generated on this activity to materialize the execution deviations (delays) generated by the disruptive event. A methodology for evaluating the impact of risks on the execution of the tours and risk scenarios, based on the characteristics (probability, impacts) of each risk, is also presented. Our second contribution consists of the proposal of specific indicators (the maximum delay of a delivery, the probability of respecting constraints of hour for the customer and the minimum of satisfactions) to measure the robustness of the delivery schedules in the face of the disturbances and a methodology for exploiting these indicators. The proposed indicators measure of the capacity of the schedule to meet the customer's requirements (quantity delivered, delivery schedule). An approach to exploit these indicators in the phase of selecting a schedule as in the aid to the negotiation of flexibility with the client is proposed. The work of this thesis is part of the ANR (National Research Agency) Smart Planning project. A case study from the project partner companies illustrates the contributions
Planification socio-responsable du travail dans les chaînes de montage d'aéronefs : comment satisfaire à la fois objectifs ergonomiques et économiques by Dmitrii Arkhipov( Book )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dans cette thèse, le problème de planification des tâches dans les chaînes de montage des aéronefs est étudié. Ces lignes de production sont principalement manuelles et tactées. L'échec de la livraison dans les délais pouvant entraîner des pénalités importantes pour le fabricant, il est essentiel de respecter le calendrier de chaque poste de travail en tenant compte à la fois de critères économiques et ergonomiques. Ce problème de planification peut être considéré comme un problème généralisé de planification de projets avec contraintes de ressources (RCPSP). Dans un premier temps, nous passons en revue les méthodes ergonomiques existantes qui peuvent être utilisées pour évaluer la charge de travail physique dans les lignes de production et examinons leur applicabilité au contexte des chaînes de montage d'aéronefs avec des temps de cycle longs. Sur la base de cette évaluation, nous développons des modèles mathématiques à introduire dans les problèmes considérés du RCPSP afin de prendre en compte l'impact ergonomique sur les opérateurs. Tenant compte de ces contraintes ergonomiques, le problème industriel initial est modélisé comme un RCPSP avec des contraintes et des objectifs spéciaux intégrant à la fois des aspects économiques et ergonomiques. Plusieurs formulations avec des opérateurs polyvalents, des ressources avec des capacités dépendantes du temps, des contraintes sur les facteurs ergonomiques et des tâches multimodales ordonnées par des relations de précédence complexes sont considérées. Des modèles de programmation par contraintes et de programmation linéaire en nombres entiers ont été développés pour ces formulations. Afin d'améliorer les procédures de solution, de nouvelles techniques de propagation de contraintes sont proposées et mises en œuvre. Un nouvel algorithme pour le calcul de la borne inférieure est également développé. L'efficacité des modèles et méthodes présentés est validée par des expériences numériques
Présence d'un schème trompeur dans un atelier d'aéronautique : manifestations et remédiation : assistance aux procédés de fabrication dans les ateliers du futur by Marie Hoarau( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The evolution of technology and the shift in the role devoted to operators in industry, from simple task execution to complex system control, provoke a development of the literature concerning assistance to fabrication process. This thesis of psychology joins this literature. It aims at designing an assistant to fabrication process, called the virtual companion, which would both support performances and maintain or improve competences. In particular, the virtual companion would be addressed to operators in an aeronautical factory. The case study requires in line simulation of dynamic physical processes. Two fields of the literature were used: frameworks concerning interface design for dynamic situations and those concerning competences. A three-parts methodology was used: (1) activity analysis of the operators in the real factory, (2) conception and validation of a microworld, and (3) design and test of a virtual companion in the microworld. Results show that the operators of the factory use a misleading scheme during their activity. This misleading scheme is also used by random participants. Moreover, this misleading scheme has an effect on the performances of random participants trained in the microworld. Finally, the virtual companion, whose interface is design based on EID principles, does not eliminate the misleading scheme. However, the participants who did not use the misleading scheme performed better after using the virtual companion. This results leads to the conclusion that studying the operators' use of misleading schemes seems accurate as such schemes may impair the use of interfaces designed to support their activity
Étude de la prise de décision chez les pilotes d'aviation commerciale : relation entre le contrôle cognitif et la charge mentale by Amine Laouar-Zouyed( )

1 edition published in 2021 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis aims to study the degradation factors of pilots' decision-making in dynamic situations, with the purpose of defining the principles for a decision-making assistance in future cockpits. The analysis of aviation decision-making processes allowed to focus the problematic on the question of cognitive control. We considered the Contextual Control Model (Hollnagel, 1993), which have four cognitive control modes - strategic, tactical, opportunistic and scrambled, from the more proactive to the less - and we explored the links between these modes, the situation's mental stress (as defined by DIN EN ISO 10075-1:2017) and the operators' mental strain. This led to the hypothesis that we could determine the cognitive control mode instantiated by assessing the mental stress and measuring the strain via physiological (cardiac pace) or neurophysiological measures (prefrontal cortex oxygenation). With the help of a Cognitive Work Analysis carried on piloting activity, we built and conducted two experimentations in order to explore the aforementioned links: one in laboratory with university students confronted to the MATB-II software, the other in a flight simulator with expert pilots who faced realistic scenarios. The experimental results confirmed the links between control modes and mental stress showing a preferential adoption of the tactical mode when the mental stress is low. We also observed a link between control modes and mental strain. Indeed, the prefrontal cortex blood oxygenation rate is lower for the tactical mode than for the other modes. Finally, these two experimentations showed that the tactical mode was the most efficient, associated with lower mental strain and adequate performances. The results of this study are discussed with regards to the perspectives about the development of adaptive assistances
Une approche interdisciplinaire pour l'ordonnancement des transports by Bernat Gacias Pastor( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dans cette thèse, nous proposons d'aborder l'ordonnancement des transports par une approche interdisciplinaire. L'idée est d'intégrer les facteurs humains dans le système d'aide à la décision réalisé, de façon à ce que l'homme puisse agir sur la modélisation et la résolution du problème. Le système proposé doit offrir de la flexibilité, afin d'être capable de s'adapter aux nouvelles situations et aux changements, même si ceux-ci n'ont pas été prévus initialement par le concepteur du système. Pour atteindre l'objectif fixé, nous nous sommes notamment appuyé sur une analyse du domaine de travail (« Work Domain Analysis ») basée sur une hiérarchie d'abstraction des entités (physiques ou plus abstraites) manipulées dans ce type de problèmes. Nous avons proposé une architecture pour le système d'aide à la décision basée sur cette analyse du domaine et la programmation par contraintes. Nous avons également conçu, et intégré dans le système, des algorithmes dédiés et des méthodes de résolution basés sur le principe d'inversion de modèle. Enfin, nous avons proposé une architecture d'interfaces avec l'objectif d'assister efficacement l'opérateur humain dans la réalisation des différentes sous-tâches nécessaires à la résolution globale du problème. L'étude du sujet interdisciplinaire a été précédée d'une analyse focalisée sur la résolution de problèmes théoriques d'ordonnancement à machines parallèles avec contraintes de précédence et temps de préparation des machines entre opérations, utilisant des méthodes de recherche arborescente basée sur les divergences
Introduction de critères ergonomiques dans un système de génération automatique d'interfaces de supervision by Julien Rechard( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The ecological interface design is composed of two steps, a work domain analysis and a transcription of the information of the work domain into ecological representation (Naikar, 2010). This kind of design showed his effectiveness for the supervision of complex system (Burns, 2008). Nevertheless, Vicente (2002) highlighted two issues, the long design time and the difficulties to translate with a formal way a work domain into ecological representation. Moreover, he doesn't exist a formal tool of validation for a work domain. Several tools and works allow to be comfortable in the possibility to find some solution (Functional methodology (Liu et al, 2002), TMTA (Morineau, 2010) and Anaxagore (Bignon, 2012). We propose several answers at the issue: how formalize the design of an ecological interface in order to reduce the time and effort linked to the design? The first proposition is a tool of verification of model of work domain based on a simulation by TMTA. The second bring thanks to a second version of the Anaxagore flow, an integration of the works of Liu et al (2002) with the principle of the ecological library of ecological widget linked to a scheme of input of high level. Based on the work domain of a fresh water system in a ship, an ecological interface has been implemented and validated experimentally. This interface has been compared with a conventional interface also generated by Anaxagore. The results show that the ecological interface promotes a biggest numbers of coherent ways in the work domain. This kind of interface also promotes a better accuracy of the diagnostic for the operators using the ecological interface
Analyse de l'activité de soignants médicaux et paramédicaux sur simulateur haute-fidélité lors de simulations d'urgence, en vue de la conception d'un environnement de soins ergonomique by Cécile Bernard( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Given the growing complexity of work systems, a methodological lack is identified, particularly for the analysis of loosely coupled and intractable systems. Within these systems, where humans, machines and the environment are constantly interacting, the maintenance of the safety and performance requirements is essentially based on the operators' ability to manage of the all available degrees of freedom and to adapt, in real time, to unusual or unexpected situations. Recently, the hCWA (2019) method has been developed to meet these specific needs. In the continuity of the research carried out in the framework of the hCWA, the PhD work is driven by two methodological objectives. The first objective, called "design", applies the hCWA to different medical emergency situations and shows how the conceptual framework allows the development of assistants able to support operators in the implementation of adaptive behaviors. The second "modeling" objective provides new methodological tools that model the operators' behaviors as trajectories in a space defined by the functional constraints of the system and delineating the field of possible actions (DSM, Rasmussen 1997). These two objectives are evolving towards a common desire to contribute to the design of ergonomic, safe and efficient care environments
Le rôle des comportements informationnels dans la prise de conscience de la situation : usage dans le serious game 3D Virtual Operating Room by Gilles Devreux( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This doctoral thesis aims at investigating the mechanisms playing a role in both human information behavior and situation awareness in order to develop pedagogical levers that could guide those behaviors. The work we present is part of an industrial project for the development of a serious game named 3DVOR, this game is targeting the risk management education within the operating room. First, we filmed 6 surgical operations that did not present any complications, then we created a simulation of a complex case of surgery to observe the informational behaviors of each member of the surgical team. Last, we elaborated a scenario allowing a learner to interact with virtual partners in order to observe the impact of their actions on the learners' informational strategies. We analyzed the data in view of the literature on situation awareness and the Endsley's model. Our results show that the information behaviors vary according to the expertise of the operators and the ambiguity of the situation. Experts adapt their strategies when the situation does not seem familiar and vary their sources of information to update their mental representation of the current situation. Finally, we showed that the engagement, even of virtual partners, modify the learners' strategies of information processing while using a digital learning software
Les processus cognitifs dans les activités d'ordonnancement en environnement incertain by Koosha Khademi( )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Planning processes, especially, scheduling play a major role in work systems stability and efficiency. Scheduling is regarded as a complex problem; among complexity factors, uncertainty represent a central dimension. Although numerous automated tools or decision support systems have already been designed to help operators schedule their activities. The part played by said operators remains primordial. Paradoxically, few researches were concerned by the cognitive activity of the scheduler. This PhD thesis in human factors aims at studying those cognitive processes, with a specific interest in uncertainty management strategies.After exposing a scheduling situations typology and a method for activity analysis, we presented two scheduling situations with high uncertainty factors to study: organization of rounds in Road Freight Transports (RFT) and scheduling in Visiting Nurse Agencies (VNAs). This ecological approach allowed for a better understanding of the human aspects of scheduling and the detection of uncertainty management strategies. This work contributes to widen the debate around the optimisation of Man-Machine collaboration
Vers un modèle prédictif de la charge mentale et des performances sur postes répétitifs de fabrication dans l'industrie automobile by Lisa Jeanson( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In 2004, PSA developed PSA Excellent System, an organizational system based on the Lean Manufacturing principles to optimize vehicle production. One of the pillars of it is the follow up of a "work standard" (SoW) designed by the methods engineers. In theory, SoW allow for the balancing of shifts, i.e. the organization of tasks that operators can perform within a given period. The objective here is to maintain the operators' performance and health. Despite this approach, errors and complaints on the assembly lines still emerge. To understand these phenomena, we constructed a new approach based on the comparison between prescribed and real tasks. In fact, we found that discrepancies between SoW and workers' behaviour correspond to anticipated/collective and individual regulations. These regulations are strategies used by workers to cope with production constraints, such as mental workload, that are not taken into account during the design of workstations. Thus, regulations are a symptom of a dichotomy between the rules shaping workstations design and real production constraints. Especially, while certain constraints such as time pressure, require automatic behaviours (that are efficient and mostly unconscious), other constraints such as spatio-temporal restrictions, work variations, task complexity, high level of risk and information load, bring the need to use reflexive behaviours (that are slow and require a high level of attention). Our final results showed that, when we reduce level of constraints and allow workers to perform their task automatically, we therefore minimize the risk of errors, and the need to use regulations
Le travail collectif à travers les actions collectives, les processus de coordination et les manifestations de soutien social : le cas de binômes d'opérateurs du transport routier de marchandises by Bérangère Hittinger( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The transportation of goods is a key position in the French economy. The transport operator plans the rounds and the truck driver goes these rounds. There is a mutual interdependence in their work. These operators can be faced with several occupational risks: physical, psychosocial...Regarding their health prevention, questions are strategic. This doctoral thesis aims to consider the question of operator's health with regard to their collective activity. The objective is to understand the origins of operator's collective activity on professional and physical distance. The effects of collective activity on the health will be analysed from the social support. The proposed method consists on an ergonomic approach of activity with field observations and oral agreements. There are three studies case in which levels of professional and physical distances differ. The first study case characterized the collective activity, the coordination process and social support on operators faced with strong professional distance and small and strong physical distance. The second study case is on the same approach than the first but this time operators are faced with small professional distance. Lastly, the third study case emphasizes the connections between coordination and social support on operator's collective activity with strong professional and physical distance. The main results indicate that all forms and levels of distance affect collective activity differently. Indeed, we can note that there is a link between collective actions and physical distance on operators with a strong professional distance. However, these links on operators with a small professional distance are absent. Otherwise, social support represents mostly a resource for the operators in these three studies. Nevertheless, it appears to be a constraint on particular work situation
Évaluation et mise en évidence des effets de la charge mentale de travail sur l'adaptabilité comportementale et physiologique by Charlotte Mallat( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Face à une évolution technologique croissante centrée sur la conception et l'automatisation pour plus de performance, étudier les effets de la charge mentale de travail sur l'efficience et l'adaptabilité humaine présente un réel intérêt.L'objectif de ce manuscrit est d'évaluer la charge mentale de travail et de mettre en évidence ses effets sur l'efficience, se traduisant par une adaptabilité comportementale et physiologique de l'opérateur. Plus précisément, il s'agit de faire varier les exigences de la tâche (par exemple, la difficulté, la pression temporelle, la complexité) pour évaluer et identifier les effets engendrés sur l'adaptabilité de l'opérateur. L'adaptabilité comportementale était indexée à la performance avec la mise en place de stratégie et l'adaptabilité physiologique à la mobilisation de l'effort mental avec le score de réactivité de la période de pré-éjection. Le premier chapitre démontre un effet curvilinéaire de la charge mentale de travail sur l'adaptabilité comportementale et physiologique, comme postulé par Hancock et Szalma (2006). Le second chapitre met en évidence que la pression temporelle pouvait dans une certaine mesure favoriser l'adaptabilité comportementale, notamment la mise en place de stratégie. Le troisième chapitre montre que les tâches complexes de contrôle du trafic aérien permettent l'activation du compromis performance-effort se traduisant par une adaptabilité comportementale et physiologique de l'opérateur. Ce manuscrit met en lumière l'importance des facteurs humains dans la boucle de conception des environnements de travail, afin de les repenser et/ou de faire intervenir des outils d'aide si nécessaire, au moment le plus opportun et sous sa forme la plus probante, afin de favoriser une charge mentale optimale
Automatisation de l'information et fiabilité : effets sur le comportement humain by Eugénie Avril( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In our daily life, it is easy to notice the overwhelming increase of automated systems. Studying the consequences of reliability problems of these systems on human behavior has become a necessity for different fields and especially for the human factors. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects of imperfect automated systems on human behavior, knowing that their reliability is not perfect. More specifically, it focuses on automated systems that support the information function as presented in the model of Parasuraman, Sheridan and Wickens (2000). These effects are studied across two mains sectors: the aeronautical sector and the road freight transport sector. Using these two sectors allow to implement complementary methods. More precisely two types of support of the information function with reliability problems have been investigated. One is through an aircraft piloting simulation task and the second on a planning scenario evaluation task. These studies allowed on one hand (1) to deepen the knowledge on the reliability of automated systems according to the functions supported and (2) on another hand to bring new knowledge on the implementation of new automated systems supporting the planning activity where studies on the reliability of a system supporting information are non-existent
La gestion d'un référentiel commun en situation coopérative de prise de décision : le cas du binôme hospitalier médecin-pharmacien en réunion de révision médicamenteuse by Clément Wawrzyniak( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis has two distinct objectives. The first is to characterize the medication review process (MRev) from an ergonomics perspective to value and ease its deployment at the hospital. Although there are only rare descriptions of the MRev process in the literature, a few recent French initiatives have shown the MRev as an appropriate response to maximize the patient security. The main results consist of a detailed analysis of the MRev process at the hospital and a set of recommendations for the actors involved in its development at the operational, tactical and strategic levels. The second objective is more theoretical and consists in refining our understanding of cooperative activities within a group in a dynamic decision-making situation, and more specifically in a horizontal, integrative and debatable cooperation. This work especially raises the issue of the concept of common frame of reference. This concept is central in Ergonomics, but its definition and usage are often left up to the readers. To our knowledge, using a similar theoretical and methodological framework, our work is the first to obtain a significant rate of metacooperative activities in this context. The results also prove that the management of a common frame of reference can be defined as an activity dedicated to ensure the compatibility between the partners' cognitive contents more than their strict identity
Élaboration de méthodes de prise en compte et l'étude des représentations des opérateurs pour la conception et l'amélioration d'Interfaces Homme Système (IHS). by Théodore Letouze( )

1 edition published in 2021 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The objective of this thesis is a study of decision-making processes in complex dynamic and time-constrained environments, applied to aeronautics (civil aviation pilots).We started our approach with a broad analysis of the literature. This work allowed us to: specify the specificities linked to environmental conditions (uncertainty, risk, resilience); study the cognitive capacities brought into play in a dynamic situation (attention, memory, cognitive resources and modelling, planning); define the decision-making processes (situation awareness, mental representation, theory of mind).We have concluded that decision-making is based on an internalized mental representation of the world. This representation is based both on past experiences and their structuring in the memory in an explicit but also unconscious way.On the basis of these results, we therefore sought to implement a method that would allow us to analyse both these conscious elements of the mental representation of the situation for aircraft pilots, but also to explore its tacit aspects.The study of the literature, as well as our experience from previous or related studies, directed us towards methods derived from psychology such as self-confrontation interviews. It is on this basis that we have designed a method of mental representation analysis dedicated to the problems of human-system interaction. This method, called MERIA for Mental Representation Impact Analysis, allows us to create a chronicle of the decision-making activity giving access to the implicit aspects of decision-making.This method has been tested on a panel of 30 airline pilots and 3 types of airliner cockpit interfaces (based on the A320). These experiments were carried out in two experimental series as part of the European Horizon 2020 "Future Sky Safety - Human Performance Envelope" project and are continuing as part of the CO2TEAM (Cleansky2) project. The aim of these projects is to carry out an evaluation and modelling of the various parameters that are considered in measuring the performance of an operator in interaction with a system.Thanks to the MERIA methodology, we were able to validate that certain interfaces or interaction modalities favoured more relevant/performing mental representations with regard to the situations of use.The results presented here are based on the work carried out under the Future Sky Safety program, funded by the Horizon 2020 research and innovation program of the European Union under Grant Agreement No 640597
Méthodes d'ergonomie prospective pour l'exploration des besoins futurs : applications à l'hydrogène énergie pour l'habitat by Antoine Martin( )

1 edition published in 2021 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les technologies émergentes de l'hydrogène énergie s'intégreront dans des systèmes énergétiques futurs, qui n'existeront pas avant plusieurs années. Dans ce cas, l'analyse des situations actuelles d'usages est utile, mais aussi insuffisante, car elle ne permet pas d'identifier les besoins des utilisateurs qui seraient en rupture avec les usages actuels. L'ergonomie doit donc évoluer pour identifier prématurément les besoins futurs qui pourraient être associés à ces systèmes qui n'existent pas encore. Néanmoins, l'anticipation de besoins futurs est difficile car les utilisateurs ont une représentation pauvre du futur et des artefacts et activités futurs. De plus, les concepteurs se réfèrent à une représentation hypothétique des utilisateurs et ils se basent sur l'analyse de situations présentes pour inférer des besoins futurs. La définition d'idées d'artefacts futurs est aussi problématique car les utilisateurs n'ont pas les connaissances suffisantes et les concepteurs se focalisent sur les aspects techniques, ont des difficultés à intégrer les utilisateurs et ont tendance à se restreindre à leurs connaissances actuelles des utilisateurs et des artefacts. Cette thèse vise à identifier des méthodes qui soutiennent une idéation centrée sur les utilisateurs futurs. Pour répondre à cet objectif, cette recherche propose d'évaluer et d'appliquer à l'hydrogène énergie, une méthodologie qui repose sur (1) l'implication d'utilisateurs précurseurs dans le cadre d'entretiens d'anticipation des besoins et (2) sur le recours à la méthode du persona prospectif avec des experts du domaine. Cette thèse s'articule autour de trois études. L'étude 1 est une méta-analyse de la littérature scientifique sur l'hydrogène énergie. Cette étude a montré que l'usage d'hydrogène énergie pour l'habitat est peu étudié alors qu'il constitue une application prometteuse et que la prise en compte des utilisateurs à cet égard est insuffisante. L'étude 2 porte sur l'analyse d'entretiens d'anticipation des besoins. Les résultats indiquent que les utilisateurs précurseurs permettent d'identifier des besoins futurs qu'ils expérimentent actuellement et qu'ils ont une représentation riche du domaine qui leur permet d'imaginer de nouveaux besoins futurs. L'étude 3 s'attache à l'analyse de séances de créativité réalisées avec un persona ordinaire, un persona prospectif ou sans persona. Les résultats indiquent que le persona prospectif favorise la production d'idées nouvelles et faisables
La gestion de la charge mentale des contrôleurs aériens en-route : apports de l'eye-tracking dans le cadre du projet européen SESAR by Caroline Martin( Book )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Une approche interdisciplinaire pour l'ordonnancement des transports by Bernat Gacias Pastor( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dans cette thèse, nous proposons d'aborder l'ordonnancement des transports par une approche interdisciplinaire. L'idée est d'intégrer les facteurs humains dans le système d'aide à la décision réalisé, de façon à ce que l'homme puisse agir sur la modélisation et la résolution du problème. Le système proposé doit offrir de la flexibilité, afin d'être capable de s'adapter aux nouvelles situations et aux changements, même si ceux-ci n'ont pas été prévus initialement par le concepteur du système. Pour atteindre l'objectif fixé, nous nous sommes notamment appuyé sur une analyse du domaine de travail (« Work Domain Analysis ») basée sur une hiérarchie d'abstraction des entités (physiques ou plus abstraites) manipulées dans ce type de problèmes. Nous avons proposé une architecture pour le système d'aide à la décision basée sur cette analyse du domaine et la programmation par contraintes. Nous avons également conçu, et intégré dans le système, des algorithmes dédiés et des méthodes de résolution basés sur le principe d'inversion de modèle. Enfin, nous avons proposé une architecture d'interfaces avec l'objectif d'assister efficacement l'opérateur humain dans la réalisation des différentes sous-tâches nécessaires à la résolution globale du problème. L'étude du sujet interdisciplinaire a été précédée d'une analyse focalisée sur la résolution de problèmes théoriques d'ordonnancement à machines parallèles avec contraintes de précédence et temps de préparation des machines entre opérations, utilisant des méthodes de recherche arborescente basée sur les divergences
Évaluation multidimensionnelle et dynamique de la maitrise de la situation par l'opérateur : création d'un indicateur temps réel de charge mentale pour l'activité de supervision de drones by Alexandre Sviatoslave Kostenko( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The evolution of technology has resulted in the emergence of increasingly complex and automated systems. In dynamic situations, the activity of the operator is now more centred on supervision than on execution. These situations are characterized by complexity, uncertainty, partial control and a significant risk of losing control of the situation. The main objective of the work presented in this manuscript is to create a synthetic mental workload indicator, which will be used to trigger a reallocation of functions in real time. The ultimate goal is to enable the operator to better regulate his/her mental workload and to help him/her maintain or regain control of the situation. This work is applied to the supervision activity of a drone swarm studied on a simulation platform (the SUSIE platform). We have revisited and combined the model of Hart and Staveland (1988), which considers the mental workload as a multidimensional construct and that of Sperandio (1971), which focuses on the regulation of activity. This led us to propose a dynamic and three-dimensional model (based on the analysis of the constraints, the effects of the workload on the task and the operator, and the regulations), on which we relied to build a creative approach of a synthetic mental workload indicator. This process is divided into four stages. The first consists in carrying out an analysis of the task following the methodology of Sperandio (1988), to define and identify the descriptors of the mental workload according to the three categories of our dynamic and three-dimensional model. The second step is based on the realization of an experiment, which aims to validate or exclude the identified indicators, per their sensitivity to variations in mental workload (as defined by Cegarra et Chevalier (2008)). The results show in particular that the pupillary diameter and the observation of the regulations allow an appreciable measurement. The third step aims to create a synthetic indicator of mental load by merging the chosen indicators by using Bayesian networks and fuzzy logic. Finally, the last phase supports the design of a dynamic allocation of functions, triggered from the synthetic indicator of mental workload. A second experiment was carried out to evaluate the contribution of reallocation. It shows that the aid allows the operator to better regulate his activity; it modifies the task workload (constraint), but does not reduce the mental workload
 
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French (28)