WorldCat Identities

Dubow, Michael (19..-....).

Overview
Works: 20 works in 23 publications in 2 languages and 23 library holdings
Roles: Opponent, Thesis advisor, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Michael Dubow
Diversité bactérienne et approche de métagénomique fonctionnelle pour la recherche de nouvelles protéases à partir d'échantillons de sols de déserts by Julie Neveu( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work aims to study the microbial communities in desert soils and some of their biochemical functions. For this purpose, we have used pyrosequencing of the variable V1-V2 regions of 16S ribosomal DNA. The phylogenetic analyses performed on samples of sand from the Gobi Desert, showed a significant diversity and the likely presence of new bacterial groups. It can be noted that the composition of the microbial communities of our samples are similar to each other, and this distribution is unique compared to studies of soil environments. One feature of our samples is the presence of a large proportion of Bacillaceae, usually found in small amounts in other soil bacterial communities. We also used functional metagenomic methods to uncover biochemical functions without sequence bias. ln addition, deserts are environments characterized by large temperature variations and low availability of water. We therefore sought to isolate enzymes of protease class, as desert bacteria have not been examined for this type of enzyme. Currently, very few proteases have been extracted from functional metagenomics studies. Here we demonstrate the isolation of several new proteases and a partial biochemical characterization of two of them displaying biochemical properties, as thermostability and high pH stability
Nouvelle approche de décryptage de la diversité bactérienne environnementale par capture magnétique de populations spécifiques de bactéries au sein de microbiotes complexes by David Royet( )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les bactéries, organismes les plus abondants de notre planète, ont un rôle fondamental dans le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. En dépit de leur importance, la caractérisation des communautés bactériennes (microbiotes) demeure encore aujourd'hui très incomplète. Ceci a pour origine l'impossibilité de complètement décrypter taxonomiquement et fonctionnellement les microbiotes de ces écosystèmes et donc à appréhender la diversité bactérienne dans son ensemble que ce soit par des approches culturales (avec seulement 1% de bactéries cultivables) ou par des approches metagénomiques limitées par les biais d'extraction, de séquençage et d'analyse. Les travaux entrepris dans le cadre de cette thèse visent à développer une nouvelle voie exploratoire passant par le fractionnement des microbiotes afin d'en étudier séparément les génomes des différentes populations ou groupes de populations, leur somme devant permettre de reconstituer un metagénome complet. Cet objectif requiert le développement d'un outil pour la sélection spécifique de bactéries (sur des critères taxonomiques ou fonctionnels) et leur isolement du reste des microorganismes non ciblés. Les travaux de thèse ont porté sur le développement d'une approche de marquage magnétique des bactéries basée sur l'hybridation moléculaire (hybridation in situ) complétée par celui d'un outil de tri microfluidique. Deux méthodes ont été développées, MISH et HCR, ciblant le gène de l'ARNr 23S, chacune reposant sur la formation, lors du processus d'hybridation, d'une structure secondaire en arborescence (MISH) ou ordonnée (HCR) permettant le greffage de nanoparticules magnétiques. Les résultats obtenus illustrent le potentiel des deux approches d'abord pour le marquage spécifique de bactéries cibles (E.coli et Pseudomonas putida) en conditions de culture au laboratoire puis dans un second temps dans des échantillons de sol. Le tri microfluidique a également été optimisé par le développement d'un nouveau dispositif de tri magnétique permettant la séparation des cellules marquées sous flux continu faisant appel à l'injection d'un polymère composite magnétique pour intégrer au fond du microcanal une série de bandes parallèles magnétiques. La fonctionnalité du dispositif a été démontrée, sa simplicité de fabrication en faisant un outil de choix pour une application en routine dans les laboratoires d'écologie microbienne. En dépit de résultats prometteurs toute cette nouvelle approche d'étude de la diversité bactérienne environnementale nécessite encore de nombreuses étapes d'optimisation
Genome-wide approach to vaccine target candidates identification against otitis media causing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by Magali Leroy( Book )

2 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

While a successful capsular vaccine has been developed for encapsulated serotype b haemophilus influenzae (hi), no vaccine exists for unencapsulated hi responsible for respiratory tract infections. These include otitis media that can result in sequelae in 20% of cases and remains a primary reason for pediatrician visits in developed countries. The goal of this study was to develop a system to analyze hi genes expression genome-wide during the different stages of disease. Successful comprehensive analysis at this level would provide critical insight into the pathogenesis of nthi during the course of otitis media as well as in vivo expression of particular surface antigens and thus potential candidate vaccine targets associated with infection. An initial screen of all publicly available nthi genes was carried out and conserved sequences then referenced in a database: called the hi genomic master key database. This database allows for subsequent screening of vaccine target candidates in any nthi isolate of unknown genomic sequence. All rna procedures and protocols needed for gene expression analyses were developed and adapted to the specific experimental conditions of this study. Additionally, the novel multiple consecutive lavage sampling methodology was developed to increase the amount of ex vivo bacterial mrna available for microarray analysis. This sampling method also provided insights into nthi induced otitis media with resulting clinical implications. Finally, microarray ex vivo gene expression analyses were used here for the first time to study nthi in vivo transcriptional profile genome-wide during the course of nasopharyngeal colonization and middle ear infection
La diversité bactérienne dans les sols de surface de San Rafael Swell (Utah, USA) et le Desert de Maine (USA) by Yang Wang( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les zones arides couvrent environ un tiers de la surface terrestre de la planète. Des études visant à comprendre la dispersion microbienne dans les déserts ont été réalisées. En effet, les communautés microbiennes du sable des déserts peuvent jouer un rôle important dans la stabilité des sols. Le pyroséquençage pour les ARNr 16S à partir de l'ADN total extrait des sols des échantillons de sable peut donner des renseignements clés sur la structure des communautés bactériennes qui les composent. Dans cette étude, la diversité et la structure des communautés bactériennes de la surface du sol des déserts des l'États de l'Utah et du Maine ont été mises en évidence. Nous avons mise en œuvre une procédure permettant l'analyse des séquences de l'ADNr 16S en combinant des outils préexistants dédiés à la métagénomique. Ainsi, des corrélations entre certains facteurs environnementaux et la diversité bactérienne dans les deux déserts, ont pu être établis.Le désert du Maine situé dans le nord-est Etats-Unis est une étendue de boue glaciaire, entourée par une forêt de pins. Le sol de ce désert possède les caractéristiques d'on sable avec de très faibles capacités de rétention d'eau, d'une rétention des éléments nutritifs, ainsi qu'une valeur de pH relativement faible (pH 5,09). Les échantillons provenant de ce site présentent donc des propriétés particulièrement intéressantes à étudier en lieu avec la diversité bactérienne. Deux échantillons de sable de la surface du désert du Maine ont été obtenus, et le pyroséquençage des gènes d'ADNr 16S obtenus après amplification par PCR à partir de l'ADN total extrait a été utilisé pour évaluer la diversité bactérienne, la structure de la communauté bactérienne et l'abondance relative des principaux taxons. Nous avons observé que les échantillons de sol provenant du désert du Maine présentent une diversité bactérienne singulière, avec une prédominance de Proteobacteria et Actinobacteria. Les bactéries du genre le plus abondant, Acidiphilium, représentent 12,5% du total des séquences d'ADNr 16S. Au total, 1 394 OTU ont été comptabilisées. En comparant les résultats de notre population bactérienne avec des études portant sur des sols avec caractéristiques similaires, nous avons constaté que les échantillons du Maine contiennent une faible diversité du phylum Acidobacteria que les sols acides des certains forêts, et moins de Firmicutes ainsi que plus de Proteobacteria que les sols des déserts oligotrophes.Le Désert de l'Utah présente des caractéristiques géographiques qui ressemblent à Mars. En effet il est caractérisé par la présence de collines de couleur rouge et de sols constitués de grès. Les sites d'échantillonnage couvrent le Gobblin Valley State Park et autour, notamment sur le plateau du Colorado. Avec des approches similaires à ceux utilisés pour le désert du Maine, des corrélations entre facteurs environnementaux (paramètres physico-chimiques) et diversité de structure des communautés bactériennes obtenus, ont été étudiés. Les phylums prédominants sont les Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes et Gemmatimonadetes. Les genres les plus abondants dans nos échantillons sont Cesiribacter, Lysobacter, Adhaeribacter, Microvirga et Pontibacter. Mais de façon notable, il semble que l'abondance relative des Alphaproteobacteria et des Gemmatimonadetes est significativement corrélée aux certains facteurs environnementaux des sols, par exemple de pH et des concentration des matières organiques
Evaluation de la diversité microbienne provenant des usines de traitement d'eau potable parisiennes par des approches moléculaires by Jean-Baptiste Poitelon( Book )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Tous les organismes, présents après le traitement de l'eau potable, sont déversés dans le réseau de distribution et peuvent interagir avec les populations microbiennes présentes dans le réseau de distribution d'eau, et être impliqués dans la croissance des biofilms, la nitrification, la corrosion microbienne et la persistance d'agents pathogènes. En conséquence, la connaissance de l'écologie microbienne des usines de traitement d'eau potable représente une préoccupation majeure pour les producteurs d'eau potable. Afin d'évaluer à la fois la diversité des bactéries et des eucaryotes dans l'eau potable produite à partir des trois usines de traitement des eaux de surface parisiennes, des approches basées sur le séquençage des gènes codants pour les ARN ribosomiques ont été utilisées. Une vaste diversité bactérienne a été ainsi détectée dans chaque échantillon. Les résultats montrent également que l'eau potable traitée peut contenir un éventail de taxons eucaryotes. Afin d'assurer la qualité microbienne de l'eau potable jusqu'au robinet du consommateur, une étape de traitement de désinfection est réalisée. Les variations de la diversité bactérienne ont été étudiées, avant et après la désinfection au chlore de l'eau potable avant son entrée dans le réseau de distribution. Les résultats indiquent que l'étape de désinfection affecte la structure des communautés bactériennes présentes dans l'eau. Les résultats indiquent également que certains groupes de bactéries sont affectés après la désinfection au chlore, suggérant différents niveaux de sensibilité au traitement de désinfection. En conséquence, les données et les approches présentées dans ces études peuvent être utiles pour élucider la complexité et la dynamique des populations bactériennes dans les usines de traitement d'eau potable. Cela permettra d'améliorer notre compréhension des risques potentiels associés aux groupes microbiens présents dans les réseaux de distribution
Characterization of bacterial diversity in three oligotrophic environments using high-throughput sequencing technology by Shu An( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les milieux oligotrophes sont pauvres en éléments nutritifs. En utilisant la technologie de séquençage à haut débit, on a étudié la diversité bactérienne dans trois environnements oligotrophes différents, y compris A. sâbles du désert, B. sâbles dans les tempêtes de l'Asie et C. l'eau et biofilms dans les réseaux de distribution d'eau potable.A. Le désert représente 30% de la surface de la terre. Les conditions de vie dans ces environnements sont un réel défi pour les micro-organismes à cause de nombreux facteurs limitants : peu d'eau et/ou de carbone disponible, une variation importante de température et une forte exposition aux irradiations UV. Le but de cette recherche est donc d'étudier la diversité bactérienne à la surface du sable du désert Taklemaken et du désert de Gobi en utilisant la technologie de séquençage à haut débit. Nos résultats ont révélé une grande diversité bactérienne dans le sol du désert comparable à d'autres types de sols. En outre, nous avons observé une corrélation positive entre la richesse bactérienne et le rapport C/N du sol.B. Les tempêtes de sable d'Asie se produisent presque toujours au printemps, elles sont générées dans les régions arides d'Asie telles que le désert Taklamaken et le désert de Gobi. L'arrivée des tempêtes de sable pourrait largement modifier l'environnement de l'air dans ces régions sous l'effet du vent, surtout dans les villes asiatiques qui sont le plus souvent touchées. Nos travaux visent à étudier la modification de la composition et la diversité des bactéries associées aux particules au moment de tempête de sable en Asie par la technologie de séquençage à haut débit. Nos résultats ont démontré que les compositions des bactéries associées aux particules sont modifiées pendant les tempêtes, en particulier, la proportion des Proteobacteria qui augmentent les jours de tempête. Nous avons signalé neuf genres bactériens détectés en plus pendant les jours de tempêtes, cela nécessite des études plus approfondies.C. Après avoir analysé la population bactérienne dans les tempêtes de sable, et celles des déserts, nous poursuivons notre objectif de recherche à un environnement aquatique. Nous avons suivi le flux d'eau provenant de l'usine d'Orly (DW-A) à l'entrée du réservoir (DW-B), et à la sortie du réservoir (DW-C). Nous avons constaté une forte variation de la communauté bactérienne, dans DW-A et DW-B, les bactéries prédominantes appartiennent aux populations des Betaproteobacteria, puis nous avons observé une conversion vers la population de Alphaproteobacteria dans DW-C. Le DW-C a montré une forte similitude avec un échantillon de biofilm (BF-C), ce qui suggère l'effet important du biofilm sur la modification des communautés bactériennes dans l'eau lors de la distribution
Dynamique des interactions entre Dickeya dianthicola, Dickeya solani et leur hôte Solanum tuberosum by Pauline Blin( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In potato plant (Solanum tuberosum), blackleg and soft rot are diseases caused by bacterial populations associating one or more species of the genus Pectobacterium and Dickeya. For several decades in Europe, the involvement of the genus Dickeya has increased, notably with the recent emergence of D. solani in the 2000s. No effective control exists against these plant pathogens; only prophylactic approaches are set up by the production industry. In this work, analysis of the structure of pathogenic populations in potato fields of northern France shows that D. dianthicola and D. solani dominate populations of Pectobacterium in relative abundance, while D. dianthicola dominates D. solani when both populations coexist. In a second part, artificial populations of D. dianthicola and D. solani isolates have allowed to assessed their aggressiveness and competitiveness in a greenhouse experiment. While the D. dianthicola population confirms its strongest aggressiveness and competitiveness when whole plants of S. tuberosum are infected, D. solani population is more aggressive and competitive when infecting Hyacinthus orientalis, as well as in rich and minimal liquid mediums. The individual analysis of the isolates of the artificial populations of D. dianthicola and D. solani shows that different aggressiveness in the host S. tuberosum is a distinctive trait of these pathogenic species; which reinforces the hypothesis of a recent host transfer (bulb plants to potato plants) of D. solani. Remarkably, in infected tissues of S. tuberosum (stem and tubers), the virulence genes pelD and pelE are highly expressed and more heterogeneously among D. solani isolates than those of D. dianthicola. A comparative transcriptomic analysis confirms the variability of the expression of virulence functions between 3 isolates of D. solani. All this work reveals that D. solani is still in adaptation phase to the host S. tuberosum, with less competitiveness against D. dianthicola during co-infection but an expression of the virulence functions in maceration condition greater that D. dianthicola. Thus, under the condition of selection of favorable genetic variations to its establishment on S. tuberosum host plant and the improvement of its competitiveness against D. dianthicola, D. solani represents a medium-term major risk for potato cultivation
Etude de traitement par plasma froid de surfaces contaminés par biofilms by Zuzana Šipoldová( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In this PhD thesis, applications of lowtemperature plasmas at atmospheric pressure are discussed. In particular, bio-decontamination of planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms on flat and complex surfaces by air corona discharges and argon plasma. In this work, we characterize three plasma sources which are used for decontamination of Escherichia coli. DC corona discharges in air - positive streamer corona and negative Trichel pulses were used for decontamination of planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. In some experiments water was electrosprayed onto samples from high voltage electrode. Bio-decontamination of bacterial biofilms was carried out on glass cover slides, within 15 min plasma treatment most of the bacteria were rendered uncultivable. Part from these uncultivable bacteria remained viable only top layers of the biofilm were killed, according to confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms stained by live/dead viability kit. The secondplasma source was pulsed corona discharge propagated inside the long narrow quartz tube in which dry argon or argon with water vapor was flowing at atmospheric pressure. This type of discharge has a potential application in decontamination of inner surfaces of catheters or other long tubular devices or could able to deliver low-temperature plasma on longer distances inside the human body. Firstly, this low-temperature plasma source was characterized by its electrical parameters, then, an optical emission spectroscopy of plasma identified UV B emission form excited hydroxyl radical especially with humid argon working gas. The effect of this UV B was tested on planktonic bacteria and was found out to cause up to a substantial damage even further downstream the tube. The last plasma source has argon jet which used dry, humid or water saturated argon as a working gas. This discharge was predominantly used for biofilm decontamination, where we received similar results as with DC corona discharges
Pathogénie de Dickeya dianthicola et Dickeya solani chez Solanum tuberosum, développement et évaluation de stratégies de lutte biologique by Yannick Raoul des Essarts( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Pectobacterium and Dickeya phytopathogens are the causative agents of the blackleg and soft rot diseases on S. tuberosum, in the field or during tuber-storage. Today, no effective method permits to control these bacteria. The FN3PT / RD3PT conducts plant pathology and epidemiology researches to understand the life traits and physiology of these pathogens and propose adapted control solutions. The aim of this study was dual: to compare the virulence of two emerging pathogens D. dianthicola and D. solani, and to study biocontrol strategies directed at Pectobacterium and Dickeya. First, two strains were isolated from field samples, D. dianthicola RNS04.9 and D. solani 3337. The virulence of these strains was compared in tuber and whole plant-assays. This step required the development of appropriate pathosystems. D. dianthicola RNS04.9 appeared more virulent than D. solani 3337 on whole plant tests, while the opposite was observed on tubers tests. Genome comparisons and functional studies led to the dientifiation of some genetic traits unique to each strain such as the catabolism of arabinose and urea in D. solani 3337 and that of rhamnose in D. dianthicola RNS04.9. A screening of bacterial isolates was also performed to identify biocontrol agents capable of inhibiting the growth of Dickeya and Pectobacterium strains. Six isolates, belonging to the Pseudomonas or Bacillus genera were selected. The greenhouse trials have shown the efficacy of a combination of 3 Pseudomonas to reduce blackleg symptoms caused by D. dianthicola and its transmission to the offspring. The sequence of the genome of each biocontrol agents has been determined. With these data, the survival of biocontrol agents in the soil has been investigated by qPCR. Finally, a screening of chemical compounds was carried out on the basis of their anti-quorum sensing, i.e. their ability to quench the expression of Pectobacterium virulence factors. Two quorum-sensing inhibitors have been identified. As a conclusion to this work, opportunities to mix the various biocontrol strategies directed at pectinolytic pathogens is discussed
Etude du recrutement de la phase planctonique par le biofilm chez Bacillus cereus : approches physiologiques et moléculaires by Imène Bennaceur( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Lorsqu'un biofilm se développe dans des conditions statiques, deux populations, sessiles et planctoniques, coexistent et peuvent échanger des cellules. Cependant, l'immigration de cellules planctoniques dans un biofilm n'a, jusqu'à présent, fait l'objet que de peu d'études dans le cas d'un biofilm monoespèce. Chez B. cereus, un pathogène alimentaire, notre équipe a récemment montré que des bactéries planctoniques mobiles peuvent pénétrer en profondeur à l'intérieur d'un biofilm formé en immersion. L'objectif du présent travail était, en partant de ces données, de déterminer le rôle du recrutement dans le développement du biofilm formé en interface air-liquide, et de caractériser ce processus d'un point de vue physiologique et moléculaire. Nous avons montré que la population planctonique est massivement recrutée par le biofilm, mais que, dans nos conditions expérimentales, ce recrutement ne contribue que de façon marginale à la croissance du biofilm. Nous avons mis au point deux dispositifs expérimentaux (en interface air-liquide et en immersion) permettant de quantifier le recrutement, ce qui nous a permis de cribler une banque de mutants, obtenue par mutagenèse aléatoire, pour sélectionner des clones inaptes à être recrutés. Le criblage de 1700 clones a abouti à la sélection d'un gène: Bthur002_62720. La délétion de ce gène par échange allélique affecte fortement la capacité du mutant à être recruté, et la complémentation rétablit le phénotype sauvage. Ce gène code pour une protéine probablement localisée dans l'enveloppe bactérienne. Il est porté par un plasmide, pCT8513, et pourrait être un élément mobile dont l'acquisition augmenterait fortement la capacité de la bactérie réceptrice à être recrutée par un biofilm. Enfin, nous avons mis en évidence le rôle du locus eps dans le recrutement des cellules planctoniques par un biofilm formé en interface air-liquide. Ce locus est homologue du locus epsA-O de Bacillus subtilis, requis chez cette espèce pour la production des exopolysaccharides de la matrice du biofilm. Chez B. cereus, nous avons montré que le locus eps est impliqué dans la formation d'une gaine d'exopolysaccharides faiblement liée à la paroi bactérienne. Cette couche d'exopolysaccharides contribue, avec d'autres exopolysaccharides d'origine inconnue, à la formation de la matrice du biofilm, et joue un rôle important dans l'adhésion de la bactérie sur des surfaces inertes et vivantes. En favorisant l'adhésion de la bactérie sur des surfaces vivantes, le locus eps pourrait faciliter son intégration dans le biofilm. Il pourrait également être impliqué dans le pouvoir pathogène de la bactérie
Les endotoxines du genre Bordetella : structure, évolution et impact sur la virulence bactérienne by Sami Al Bitar Nehmé( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Bordetella genus is actually composed of nine species responsible for respiratory infections. B. pertussis, the agent of whooping cough, is the main model of this thesis along with other species such as B. holmesii and B. avium. Bacterial endotoxins are the major components of Gram-negative bacteria external membrane. From a chemical point of view, they are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) causing a high number of pathophysiological disorders ranging from low fever at weak doses, to lethal endotoxic choc at high ones. Structural analysis of the Bordetellae LPS is the major specialty of our group where the endotoxin structures of most species of the genus were described. It is well-known that lipid A, which constitutes the hydrophobic moiety of LPS, is responsible for the majority of biological activities of these molecules. Thus, any structural change of these molecules has an important impact on host-pathogen recognition, biological activities and bacterial virulence. For example, it has been demonstrated that the specific modification by grafting glucosamine on lipid A phosphate groups plays a major role in modulating the immune response. This structural peculiarity was highlighted by our team first in B. avium, B. bronchiseptica then in B. pertussis; it seems to be a unique trait of Bordetella. It should be noted that pertussis wreaks havoc in developing countries and affects newborns in several others, including France, where this infectious disease causes a significant death toll. The vaccine, which cannot be injected before the age of 2-3 months, could be improved and boosters are not regularly monitored. Experts in the domain have recognized the lack of an antigenic complement to make it more effective. In this thesis, we analyzed the structure of LPS from B. pertussis clinical isolates to study their evolution and adaptation over time along with their potential use in the design of new vaccines. In addition, regarding two strains of B. pertussis, BP338 and BP18-323, we have contributed to the identification of new genes involved in the biosynthesis of GlcN substituting the phosphate groups of the lipid moiety, which helped explaining the difference in the length of the single fatty acid differing between the two strains. The analysis of the influence of these structural elements on the activation of the receptor complex, TLR4/MD-2 sheds new light on the interactions between lipids A and this receptor. Our studies on clinical isolates of B. holmesii, an opportunistic pathogen responsible for pertussis-like illness, show great structural heterogeneity in the lipid A of these isolates. We showed the presence of a specific marker of Bordetella species, namely a fatty acid present only in the lipid A of human isolates. Our works on B. pertussis clinical isolates belonging to pre- and post-vaccine eras and coming from different countries show a loss of genetic material with a deficiency in certain major antigens. We have demonstrated, via physico-chemical methods, that these modifications did not affect the LPS of these isolates. The stability of these antigens and our ability to purify them, allow us to propose that detoxified LPS could be good candidates for improving the effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccines. Finally, all structural studies presented in this thesis have provided insight into the regulation of certain genes in response to external stress. Our compiled work on a major pathogen is an important step in deciphering the molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial virulence and adaptation
Ecologie des légionelles dans l'eau des circuits de refroidissement des centrales nucléaires en bord de Loire by Delphine Jakubek( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The cooling circuits of nuclear power plants, by their mode of operating, can select thermophilic microorganisms including the pathogenic organism Legionella pneumophila. To control the development of this species, a disinfection treatment of water cooling systems with monochloramine can be used. To participate in the management of health and environmental risks associated with the physico-chemical and microbiological modification of water collected from the river, EDF is committed to a process of increasing knowledge about the ecology of Legionella pneumophila in cooling circuits and its links with its environment (physical, chemical and microbiological) supporting or not their proliferation. Thus, diversity and dynamics of culturable Legionella pneumophila were determined in the four nuclear power plants along the Loire for a year and their links with physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were studied. This study revealed a high diversity of Legionella pneumophila subpopulations and their dynamic seems to be related to the evolution of a small number of subpopulations. Legionella subpopulations seem to maintain strain-specific relationships with biotic parameters and present different sensitivities to physico-chemical variations. The design of cooling circuits could impact the Legionella pneumophila community. The use of monochloramine severely disrupts the ecosystem but does not select biocide tolerant subpopulations
Diagénèse de l'ADN bactérien et analyses métagénomiques de pathologies bactériennes du passé by Olivier Gorgé( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The aim of this study was the identification of pathogenic bacterial DNA traces in ancient animal and human samples, and thus improve knowledge of past diseases that affect humankind over time. In parallel, we studied the DNA degradation phenomena in the soil on the buried corpses of mice after being contaminated by non-pathogenic bacteria. This study of taphonomic processes was spread over three years and has shown a rapid disappearance of simulant bacteria, replaced with the DNA of soil bacteria that colonize the body quickly after burial and degrade both the endogenous DNA (murine) that exogenous (bacteria). This quick degradation can explain the high difficulty to detect and identify bacterial pathogens in old samples, with very few exceptions. Despite the fact in our study we were not able to detect specific pathogens in the samples we have studied, we have shown the interest to analyze certain types of remnants to access preserved and informative genetic data. Dental calculus is a good indicator of the oral flora of the host and calcified cysts ensure good preservation of the endogenous DNA, less subject to contamination and digestion by bacteria from the environment. Cysts generally have an endogenous DNA content higher than all other tissues examined
Caractérisation de cycC, un nouveau gène impliqué dans le programme de réplication d'Escherichia coli by Boubekeur Saïfi( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In Escherichia coli the Dam Methyl Transferase (DamMT) is responsible for the transfer of a methyl group on the adenosine located in tetranucleotide GATC, so this is a post-replicative activity. Thus, after the passage of the replication fork, the newly synthesized DNA strand is unmethylated - DNA is called hemimethylated. DNA remains hemimethylated in a brief period - about a minute - before being reméthylé by DamMT. The hypothesis of the involvement of DNA methylation in the general control of the maintenance program of the DNA is essentially on this observation, since the hemimethylated DNA - except the origin of replication and the region dnaA gene promoter - is diagnostic of the recent passage of the replication fork. This assumption and phylogenomics screening has led to the identification of several genes whose protein are supposed to be involved in the maintenance of DNA. yjaG is one of these genes. It was renamed cycC, the cell cycle progression is deregulated with a null mutant of this gene. The study in my thesis will focus on explaining the current state of our knowledge of the cycC protein and its involvement in the process of DNA replication. Our results show that the CycC protein is involved in the processivity of replication when there is damage into the DNA. CycC specifies an activity that leads to slow replication forks to prevent abortions of replisomes. CycC overexpression blocks the initiation of replication between the open complex of the DNA at oriC and the loading of the replicative helicase. We propose that CycC interacts with the replicative complex and slows replication forks. This slowdown replication prevents new collisions when cells are under stress, causing replication stops
Étude des populations bactériennes des écosystèmes des sols oligotrophes en utilisant des technologies de séquençage à haut débit by Jorge Osman Naoum( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

“What microbes are where, and how do they live there” is now an essential question to understand life on Earth, even when comparing seemingly similar ecosystems in different locations. Soil bacterial populations are known to play important roles in biogeochemical cycles, soil maintenance, climatic effects and agriculture. I used pyrosequencing of PCR amplified 16S rDNA from total extracted DNA in order to reveal the bacterial populations living in four different unusual and oligotrophic environments: A. Saline areas are widely distributed on Earth's and are represented by both saline lakes and saline soils. We examined the bacterial composition of estuary sediments, brackish and sandy soil samples from the Camargue region (Rhône delta in southern France) sampled in two consecutive years. Members belonging to the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla were found principally in saline sediment and soil samples. We found that members from these phyla were associated principally to halophilic bacteria, sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria and coliforms, and that their varying proportions were likely affected by salinity and geographical location. B. Bacterial populations associated with the rhizosphere of plants are known to play essential roles in biogeochemical cycles, plant nutrition and disease biocontrol. We examined the bacterial populations of the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa) growing in the Camargue region in 2013 and 2014. The most abundant bacterial populations were found to be members belonging to the Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes phyla. The genera members belong these phyla were found to participate in soil biogeochemical processes such as nitrification, denitrification, oxidation, as well as act as biocontrol agents. The bacterial populations were found to significantly vary by geographical location as well by year of collection. C. We examined the surface soils from “Padza de Dapani” on the island of Mayotte off the east coast of Africa, as this region is not a true (hot) desert, but resembles one due to extensive soil erosion. In the acidic, oligotrophic and mineralized soil samples from Mayotte, members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria phyla dominated the bacterial populations. Interestingly, members of the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Burkholderia and Bacillus were found to be predominant in our samples, as is also observed in hot (Asian) deserts and may play roles in soil mineral weathering, thus helping to understand desertification processes. D. Earth's arid regions comprise >30% of the continental surface and the oligotrophic soils are subjected to harsh environmental factors such as low average annual rainfall, high UV exposure and large temperature fluctuations. We examined the bacterial populations present in the rhizosphere of pioneer plants and surface soils in the Jizan desert of Saudi Arabia. The most abundant bacterial phyla belonged to the Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla that were different between the rhizosphere of plant versus these from surface sand, with the exception of the plant “Panicum Turgidum”, which contain in its rhizosphere high proportions (70%) of members belonging to the Flavobacterium genus
Étude épidémiologique de souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa responsables d'infections et de leurs bactériophages pour une approche thérapeutique by Christiane you Essoh( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The use of viruses of bacteria commonly called bacteriophages could constitute an efficient complement to antibiotics. During my PhD, I have characterized phages infecting the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas. aeruginosa, responsible for lung infections in cystic fribrosis patients. Firstly, I investigated the efficiency of Pyophage (a cocktail of phages therapeutic Georgian) on clinical P. aeruginosa strains and recovered six lytic phages from four different genus. The Pyophage appears to be unactive on approximately 15% of clinical strains. Secondly, and using multi-phages resistant strains as enrichment bacteria, 32 phages were isolated from waste water of France and Côte d'Ivoire. All phages are tailed and distributed within ten different genus including six exclusively lytic. I identified bacterial strains which remain insensitive to all phages. I also demonstrated that the CRISPRs-cas system plays no role in the resistance of strains to lytic phages
Étude du transport et du devenir des bactériophages ARN F-spécifiques dans les eaux de la rivière de l'Alzette : influence des caractéristiques virales et hydro-climatologiques by Blandine Fauvel( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Introduced into the environment through point and diffuse sources, enteric viruses and bacteriophages can be spread in watercourses via various dissemination routes. Detected in both surface water and river sediment, these viral particles remain inert in environmental water. Their spread is governed by many interactions that they have with their direct environment. Moreover, viral contamination of water resources is closely related to hydro-climatological variations. Despite the important knowledge already reported on this subject, many grey areas remain about the variables and factors controlling the in situ behavior of viral particles in environmental water. The aim of this study was therefore to define the transport and fate of F-specific RNA bacteriophages in a river according to their intrinsic characteristics and hydro-climatological conditions. The application of innovative strategies and methodologies from the hydrological science domain, such as the use of the residence time of the river water mass or high frequency automatic sampling, allowed studying the in situ behavior of F-specific RNA bacteriophages. The influence of environmental factors, especially water temperature and flow rate, has been demonstrated to have an impact on the in situ propagation and survival of infectious viral particles in the water column. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of infectious F-specific RNA bacteriophages was underlined in sediments. The accurate characterization of sediment and the study of the attachment capacity of the four genogroups explained this specific distribution. Finally, transfers of viral particles between the water column and sediment was highlighted and appeared to be highly dependent on hydro-climatological conditions. Besides the gained knowledge of the dynamics of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, the sources and origins of viral pollution of streams during rain and flood events were elucidated. This work helps completing the jigsaw puzzle on presence and transmission of F-specific RNA bacteriophages in river systems. The novel experimental approach further enhances human health-dependent viral risk evaluation linked to water resource utilization and management
Exploration des communautés virales thermophiles dans les écosystèmes chauds des terres australes et antarctiques françaises by Kaarle Joonas Parikka( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Viruses thrive in all types of ecosystems where life is found. They represent the most abundant biological entity of our biosphere. Though several studies have been conducted on viral abundance and dynamics in mesophilic aquatic ecosystems, these aspects remain largely unexplored in extremophilic environments, such as hot springs. In this study, prokaryotic and associated viral communities of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands hot springs were explored. First, prokaryotic cells and Virus-like particles (VLP) were enumerated in several terrestrial and inshore hot springs. The results reveal an abundance of 105 - 106 particles/ml in both types of hot springs studied. The virus-to-prokaryote ratios (VPR) were generally low, confirming thus actual knowledge in these types of ecosystems. The morphological diversity of VLP was then studied in raw samples as well as in enrichment cultures containing Thermococcales and Thermotogales. Several isolates obtained from these samples were then screened for viral particles which led to the discovery and description of a temperate phage (GTV1) of a thermophilic bacterium belonging to the genus Geobacillus. The effect of NaCl and anoxic stress on the viral production was studied. The genomic characterization of the GTV1 was started and revealed a 38441 bp genome with 71 predicted ORF. Finally, microbial diversity studies led also to the discovery of a new extremely thermophilic bacterium, Calditerricola clavaformis sp.nov
Influence of the coupling between flow and bacteria on the fluid rheology and on bacterial transport by Hector Matias Lopez( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The question of transfer and spreading of living microorganisms, such as motile bacteria, is of interest in biology and ecology, but also in engineering and medicine.The way in which the background flow affects the behavior of these bacteria and how it impacts the bacterial transport through complex systems and on the macroscopic properties of the fluid remains unclear and little studied.In this thesis, I present an experimental investigation of the coupling between the local bacteria-driven motion and the fluid advection.In a first part, I investigate the rheological response of E. coli suspensions when subjected to weak flows (low shear rates). I show that, in particular conditions, the microscopic perturbations caused by the bacteria highly impact on the macroscopic viscosity of the suspension, leading to a striking viscosity decrease and eventually overcoming the dissipative effects due to viscous loss. I also identify the relevant time scales defining this viscosity decrease.In a second part, I perform experiments in a capillary channel and analyze the coupling for stronger flows (higher shear rates), at which bacteria were found not to impact on the macroscopic viscosity. Instead, by analyzing the bacterial trajectories under flow, I evidence a breakage of the symmetry of this trajectories which, characterized by a preferential migration, causes the localization of the bacteria in a layer that extends over a significant distance from the surface, and thus potentially influencing the bacterial transport in complex systems
Analysing the effect of industrial and urban polluted zones on microbial diversity in the SaiGon -DongNai river system (Vietnam) by Thi Tuyet Nga Nguyen( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The SaiGon-DongNai (SG-DN)river system is the most important major water source for all twelve Southern Vietnam cities and provinces and is now dramatically polluted by industrial and living activities, giving “a threat” to the lives of millions people sharing this water source. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Vietnam reported that the rivers received around 1.54 billion liters of waste water from 70 industrial parks per day, including 35 percent of untreated medical waste, and tests since 2006 have found pollution in this river has increased to “serious levels”, an especially high concentration of organic toxic substances. Until now, there is no data on the microbial diversity in SG-DN river system especially in the sediments, where most of the microbial biomass is generally located. The sediment samples were collected in 13 locations across the rivers representing warning polluted locations done by Mr. Nguyen Thanh Hung of the National Water Qualifying in SG-DN river system. In order to characterize the microbial populations present at our chosen sites, the total DNA from the environmental samples were extracted and amplified at the V3 to V1 regions of the 16S rDNA. The study revealed that microbial population changed from upstream to downstream at the phylum, genus and OTUs levels after running through the industrial and dense population zone. Moreover, the canals of the SG-DN river catchment are heavily polluted with high concentrations of organic compounds (PAHs) and possessed different bacterial communities compared to the samples from the rivers
 
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